Labour Act, 2007 (Act 11 of 2007)

Government Gazette no. 3971
This is the latest version of this legislation.
Coat of Arms

Labour Act, 2007

Act 11 of 2007

  • Published in Government Gazette no. 3971 on 31 December 2007

  • Assented to on 21 December 2007
  • There are multiple commencements:
  • Provisions Status

    Chapter 1 (section 1–2); Chapter 2 (section 3–7); Chapter 3 (section 8–38); Chapter 4 (section 39–47); Chapter 5 (section 48–51); Chapter 6 (section 52–73); Chapter 7 (section 74–79); Chapter 8 (section 80–91); Chapter 9 (section 92–127); Chapter 10, section 129–143

    commenced on 1 November 2008

    by Government Notice 260 of 2008.

    Chapter 10 (in part); Chapter 10, section 128

    commenced on 1 March 2009

    by Government Notice 1 of 2009.

    Chapter 10, section 128A–128C

    commenced on 1 August 2012

    by Act 2 of 2012.

  • [Up to date as at 2 July 2021]
  1. [Amended by Labour Amendment Act, 2012 (Act 2 of 2012) on 1 August 2012]


[section 128 brought into force on 1 March 2009 by GN 1/2009 (GG 4192)]ACTTo consolidate and amend the labour law; to establish a comprehensive labour law for all employers and employees; to entrench fundamental labour rights and protections; to regulate basic terms and conditions of employment; to ensure the health, safety and welfare of employees; to protect employees from unfair labour practices; to regulate the registration of trade unions and employers’ organisations; to regulate collective labour relations; to provide for the systematic prevention and resolution of labour disputes; to establish the Labour Advisory Council, the Labour Court, the Wages Commission and the labour inspectorate; to provide for the appointment of the Labour Commissioner and the Deputy Labour Commissioner; and to provide for incidental matters.
PREAMBLETo give effect to the constitutional commitment to promote and maintain the welfare of the people of Namibia in Chapter 11 of the Constitution; andTo further a policy of labour relations conducive to economic growth, stability and productivity by -promoting an orderly system of free collective bargaining;improving wages and conditions of employment;advancing individuals who have been disadvantaged by past discriminatory laws and practices;regulating the conditions of employment of all employees in Namibia without discrimination on grounds of sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, religion, creed, or social or economic status, in particular ensuring equality of opportunity and terms of employment, maternity leave and job security for women;promoting sound labour relations and fair employment practices by encouraging freedom of association, in particular, the formation of trade unions to protect workers’ rights and interests and the formation of employers’ organisations;setting minimum basic conditions of service for all employees;ensuring the health, safety and welfare of employees at work;prohibiting, preventing and eliminating the abuse of child labour;prohibiting, preventing and eliminating forced labour; andgiving effect, if possible, to the conventions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation;NOW THEREFORE BE IT ENACTED by the Parliament of the Republic of Namibia, as follows:


Chapter 1
INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS

1. Definitions and interpretation

(1)In this Act, unless the context indicates otherwise -arbitration” means arbitration proceedings conducted before an arbitration tribunal established in terms of section 85;arbitrator” means an individual appointed as such in terms of section 85;collective agreement” means a written agreement concerning the terms and conditions of employment or any other matter of mutual interest, concluded by -(a)one or more registered trade unions, on the one hand, and(b)on the other hand -(i)one or more employers;(ii)one or more registered employers’ organisations; or(iii)one or more employers and one or more registered employers’ organisations;conciliation” includes -(a)mediating a dispute;(b)conducting a fact finding-exercise; and(c)making an advisory award if -(i)it will enhance the prospects of settlement; or(ii)the parties to the dispute agree.conciliator” means an individual appointed as such in terms of section 82;Committee for Dispute Prevention and Resolution” means the Committee established in terms of section 97 (1)(a);dispute” means any disagreement between an employer or an employers’ organisation on the one hand, and an employee or a trade union on the other hand, which disagreement relates to a labour matter;dispute of interest” means any dispute concerning a proposal for new or changed conditions of employment but does not include a dispute that this Act or any other Act requires to be resolved by -(a)adjudication in the Labour Court or other court of law; or(b)arbitration;employee” means an individual, other than an independent contractor, who -(a)works for another person and who receives, or is entitled to receive, remuneration for that work; or(b)in any manner assists in carrying on or conducting the business of an employer;employer” means any person, including the State and a user enterprise referred to in section 128(1) who -(a)employs or provides work for, an individual and who remunerates or expressly or tacitly undertakes to remunerate that individual; or(b)permits an individual to assist that person in any manner in carrying or conducting that person’s business;[definition of “employer” amended by Act 2 of 2012]employers’ organisation” means any number of employers associated together for the principal purpose of regulating relations between those employers and their employees or the employees’ trade unions;essential service” means a service the interruption of which would endanger the life, personal safety or health of the whole or any part of the population of Namibia and which has been designated as such in terms of section 77;Essential Services Committee” means the Committee established in terms of section 97(1)(b);exclusive bargaining agent” means a trade union that has been recognised as such in terms of section 64 ;independent contractor” means a self-employed individual who works for or renders services to a user enterprise or customer as part of that individual’s business, undertaking or professional practice;[definition of “independent contractor” inserted by Act 2 of 2012]individual” means a natural person;Labour Commissioner” means the individual appointed as Labour Commissioner in terms of section 120;[definition of “Labour Commissioner” amended by Act 2 of 2012 to correct a typographical error]Labour Court” means the court referred to in section 115;labour inspector” means an individual appointed as a labour inspector in terms of section 124;legal practitioner” means an individual admitted to practice as a legal practitioner in terms of the Legal Practitioners Act, 1995 (Act No. 15 of 1995);lockout” means a total or partial refusal by one or more employers to allow their employees to work, if the refusal is to compel those employees or employees of any other employer to accept, modify or abandon any demand that may form the subject matter of a dispute of interest;medical practitioner” means an individual who is registered as such in terms of the Medical and Dental Professions Act, 2004 (Act No. 10 of 2004) and includes an individual who is registered as a nurse or midwife in terms of the Nursing Act, 2004 (Act No. 8 of 2004);[The Medical and Dental Professions Act 21 of 1993 has been replaced by the Medical and Dental Act 10 of 2004.]Minister” means the Minister responsible for Labour;Ministry” means the Ministry responsible for Labour;office-bearer” in relation to a trade union or employers’ organisation, means an individual, other than an official, who holds any office in that trade union or employers’ organisation and includes a member of a committee of that trade union or employers’ organisation;official” in relation to a trade union or an employers’ organisation, means a person employed as a secretary, assistant secretary or any similar capacity, whether or not in a full-time capacity;Permanent Secretary” means the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry responsible for Labour;premises” includes any building or structure, or part of it, whether above or below the surface of the land or water, or any vehicle, truck, vessel or aircraft;prescribed” means prescribed by regulation in terms of this Act;public holiday” means any public holiday referred to in or declared under the Public Holidays Act, 1990 (Act No. 26 of 1990);registered” in relation to a trade union or employers’ organisation, means a trade union or employers’ organisation registered in terms of Chapter 6;remuneration” means the total value of all payments in money or in kind made or owing to an employee arising from the employment of that employee;spouse” means a partner in a civil marriage or a customary law union or other union recognised as a marriage in terms of any religion or custom;staff member” means an individual defined as such in section 1 of the Public Service Act, 1995 (Act No. 13 of 1995);State” includes a regional council, local authority or any body created by law over which the State or Government of Namibia has some control because of shares held in or funds made available to that body by the State or Government of Namibia;strike” means a total or partial stoppage, disruption or retardation of work by employees if the stoppage, disruption or retardation is to compel their employer, any other employer or an employers’ organisation to which the employer belongs, to accept, modify or abandon any demand that may form the subject matter of a dispute of interest;this Act” includes any regulation made under it;trade union” means an association of employees whose principal purpose is to regulate relations between employees and their employers;Wages Commission” means the Commission referred to in section 105; andwage order” means a wage order made in terms of section 13;[This is the last definition in subsection (1) and so should end with a full stop rather than a semicolon.]
(2)If a word or expression is defined in this section, other parts of speech or grammatical forms of that word or expression have corresponding meanings to the word or expression that is defined.

2. Application of Act

(1)Section 5 of this Act applies to all employers and employees.
(2)Subject to subsections (3) to (5), all other sections of this Act apply to all employers and employees except to members of the -(a)Namibian Defence Force, unless the Defence Act, 2002 (Act No. 1 of 2002) provides otherwise;(b)Namibian Police Force and a municipal police service referred to in the Police Act 1990 (Act No. 19 of 1990), unless the Police Act, 1990 (Act No. 19 of 1990) provides otherwise;(c)Namibian Central Intelligence Service, unless the Namibia Central Intelligence Service Act, 1997 (Act No. 10 of 1997) provides otherwise; and(d)Prison Service, unless the Prisons Service Act, 1998 (Act No. 17 of 1998) provides otherwise.[The Prisons Act 17 of 1998 was replaced by the Correctional Service Act 9 of 2012. The Correctional Services Act amended the Labour Act 15 of 2004 (which was the predecessor to this Act but was repealed without ever being brought into force in its entirety), to change similar references to the Prison Service and the Prisons Services Act in section 2(2)(d) of Act 15 of 2004 to the Correctional Service and the Correctional Service Act. However, it made no corresponding amendment to the Labour Act 11 of 2007.]
(3)The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, declare -(a)that any provision of a law listed in subsection (5) does not apply to an employee if -(i)it relates to the employee’s remuneration, or other conditions of service; and(ii)it conflicts with this Act; or(b)that any provision of this Act applies, with such modifications as may be specified by the Minister in such notice, in relation to an employee referred to in paragraph (a).
(4)If there is a conflict between a provision of this Act and a provision of a law listed in subsection (5), in respect of which the Minister has not made a declaration contemplated in subsection (3) -(a)the provision of that other law prevails to the extent of the conflict, if it is more favourable to the employee; or(b)the provision of this Act prevails to the extent of the conflict, in any other case.
(5)The laws referred to in subsections (3) and (4) are -(a)the Apprenticeship Ordinance, 1938 (Ordinance No. 12 of 1938);[The Apprenticeship Ordinance 12 of 1938 was repealed by the National Vocational Training Act 18 of 1994, which was repealed in turn by the Vocational Education and Training Act 1 of 2008.](b)the Merchant Shipping Act, 1951 (Act No. 57 of 1951); or(c)any law on the employment of persons in the service of the State.

Chapter 2
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS

3. Prohibition and restriction of child labour

(1)A person must not employ or require or permit a child to work in any circumstances prohibited in terms of this section.
(2)A person must not employ a child under the age of 14 years.
(3)In respect of a child who is at least aged 14, but under the age of 16 years, a person -(a)must not employ that child in any circumstances contemplated in Article 15(2) of the Namibian Constitution;(b)must not employ that child in any circumstances in respect of which the Minister, in terms of subsection (5)(a), has prohibited the employment of such children;(c)must not employ that child in respect of any work between the hours of 20h00 and 07h00; or(d)except to the extent that the Minister by regulation in terms of subsection (5)(b) permits, must not employ that child, on any premises where -(i)work is done underground or in a mine;(ii)construction or demolition takes place;(iii)goods are manufactured;(iv)electricity is generated, transformed or distributed;(v)machinery is installed or dismantled; or(vi)any work-related activities take place that may place the child’s health, safety, or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development at risk.
(4)In respect of a child who is at least aged 16 but under the age of 18 years, a person may not employ that child in any of the circumstances set out in subsection (3)(c) or (d), unless the Minister has permitted such employment by regulation in terms of subsection (5)(c).
(5)The Minister may make regulations to -(a)prohibit the employment of children between the ages of 14 and 16 at any place or in respect of any work;(b)permit the employment of children between the ages of 14 and 16 in circumstances contemplated in subsection (3)(d), subject to any conditions or restrictions that may be contained in those regulations;(c)permit the employment of children between the ages of 16 and 18 in circumstances contemplated in subsections (3)(c) or (d), subject to any conditions or restrictions that may be contained in those regulations.
(6)It is an offence for any person to employ, or require or permit, a child to work in any circumstances prohibited under this section and a person who is convicted of the offence is liable to a fine not exceeding N$20 000, or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding four years, or to both the fine and imprisonment.

4. Prohibition of forced labour

(1)A person must not directly or indirectly cause, permit or require any individual to perform forced labour.
(2)Forced labour does not include any labour described in Article 9(3)(a) to (e) of the Namibian Constitution and, for the purposes of this Act, “forced labour” includes -(a)any work or service performed or rendered involuntarily by an individual under threat of any penalty, punishment or other harm to be imposed or inflicted on or caused to that individual by any other individual, if the first- mentioned individual does not perform the work or render the service;(b)any work, performed by an employee’s child who is under the age of 18 years, if the work is performed in terms of an arrangement or scheme in any undertaking between the employer and the employee;(c)any work performed by any individual because that individual is for any reason subject to the control, supervision or jurisdiction of a traditional leader in that leader’s capacity as traditional leader.
(3)It is an offence for any person to directly or indirectly, cause, permit or require an individual to perform forced labour prohibited under this section and a person who is convicted of the offence is liable to a fine not exceeding N$20 000, or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding four years or to both the fine and imprisonment.

5. Prohibition of discrimination and sexual harassment in employment

(1)For the purposes of this section -(a)“AIDS” means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, a human disease which is caused by the HIV and which is characterised by the progressive destruction of the body’s immune system;(b)“employment” decision includes -(i)access to vocational guidance, training and placement services;(ii)access to employment and to a particular occupation or job, including -(aa)advertising;(bb)recruitment procedures;(cc)selection procedures;(dd)appointments and the appointment process;(ee)promotion, demotion, and transfer;(ff)remuneration and other terms and conditions of employment;(iii)access to and the provision of benefits, facilities and services;(iv)security of tenure; or(v)discipline, suspension or termination of employment;(vi)dismissal arising from collective termination or redundancy;(c)“family responsibility” means the responsibility of an employee to an individual -(i)who is a parent, spouse, son, daughter or dependant of the employee; and(ii)who, regardless of age, needs the care and support of that employee;(d)“HIV” means Human Immunodeficiency Virus, a virus that weakens the body’s immune system, ultimately causing AIDS;(e)“person with disability” means an individual who suffers from any persistent physical or mental limitation that restricts that individual’s preparation for, entry into or participation or advancement in, employment or an occupation;(f)“racially disadvantaged persons” means individuals who belong to a racial or ethnic group that was or is, directly or indirectly, disadvantaged in the labour field as a consequence of social, economic, or educational imbalances arising out of racially discriminatory laws or practices before the independence of Namibia;(g)“work of equal value” means work that -(i)is of the same or compared with any other work is broadly similar in nature, having due regard to the frequency with which any differences in relation to the first-mentioned work and such other work occur, and the natural extent of such differences, does not justify the determination of conditions of employment which differ from the conditions of employment prevailing in respect of any employee of the opposite sex performing such work; and[Subparagraph (i) is amended by Act 2 of 2012 to correct various errors of punctuation, grammar, etc.](ii)requires skills, abilities, responsibilities, working environment or other requirements which are of equal value to employees belonging to any sex.
(2)A person must not discriminate in any employment decision directly or indirectly, or adopt any requirement or engage in any practice which has the effect of discrimination against any individual on one or more of the following grounds -(a)race, colour, or ethnic origin;(b)sex, marital status or family responsibilities;(c)religion, creed or political opinion;(d)social or economic status;(e)degree of physical or mental disability;(f)AIDS or HIV status; or(g)previous, current or future pregnancy.
(3)For the purpose of subsection (2) it is discrimination on grounds of sex to differentiate without justification in any employment decision between employees who do work of equal value, or between applicants for employment who seek work of equal value.
(4)For the purpose of subsection (2) it is not discrimination -(a)to take any affirmative action measure to ensure that racially disadvantaged persons, women or persons with disabilities -(i)enjoy employment opportunities at all levels of employment that are at least equal to those enjoyed by other employees of the same employer; and(ii)are equitably represented in the workforce of an employer;(b)to select any person for purposes of employment or occupation according to reasonable criteria, including but not limited to, the ability, capacity, productivity and conduct of that person or in respect of the operational requirements and needs of the particular work or occupation in the industry in question;(c)to distinguish, exclude or prefer any individual on the basis of an inherent requirement of a job;(d)to take any measure that has been approved by the Employment Equity Commission in terms of the Affirmative Action (Employment) Act, 1998 (Act No. 29 of 1998);(e)in the case of a female employee who is pregnant, to temporarily reassign her duties or functions, other than her normal duties or functions, which are suitable to her pregnant condition, provided that the reassignment does not lead to a reduction in remuneration or any other benefits; or(f)in the case of a person with a disability, that person is, in consequence of the disability, incapable of performing the duties or functions connected to the employment or occupation in question or is so prohibited by law.[Paragraph (f), read together with the introductory phrase, seems to be incomplete as it fails to state what acts do not constitute discrimination in respect of a person with a disability.]
(5)In any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of subsection (2) -(a)the complainant must establish the facts that prove the existence of discrimination; and(b)if the existence of discrimination is established, the respondent must prove -(i)that the discrimination did not take place as alleged; or(ii)that the facts proved do not constitute discrimination in terms of this section.
(6)In a dispute alleging discrimination without justification, it is a complete defence to the allegation if -(a)the decision taken by the employer was in compliance with -(i)an affirmative action plan approved by the Employment Equity Commission in terms of the Affirmative Action (Employment) Act, 1998 (Act No. 29 of 1998); and(ii)section 19(1) and (2) of that Act; and(b)the dispute arises from a choice by an employer between or among individuals, all of whom share the attribute which is asserted to be the basis for the alleged discrimination in terms of subsection (2).
(7)For the purposes of subsections (8), (9) and (10) -(a)employee” includes a prospective employee;(b)“sexual harassment” means any unwarranted conduct of a sexual nature towards an employee which constitutes a barrier to equality in employment where -(i)the victim has made it known to the perpetrator that he or she finds the conduct offensive; or(ii)the perpetrator should have reasonably realised that the conduct is regarded as unacceptable, taking into account the respective positions of the parties in the place of employment, the nature of their employment relationships and the nature of the place of employment.
(8)A person must not, in any employment decision or in the course of an employee’s employment, directly or indirectly sexually harass an employee.
(9)Where sexual harassment is perpetrated by an employer against an employee, and that employee resigns as a result of the sexual harassment, that resignation constitutes a constructive dismissal.
(10)A constructive dismissal contemplated in subsection (9) may constitute unfair dismissal for the purposes of section 33, which entitles the employee to remedies available to an employee who has been unfairly dismissed.

6. Freedom of association

(1)A person must not prejudice an employee or an individual seeking employment because of past, present or anticipated -(a)exercise of any right conferred by this Act, any other law, contract of employment or collective agreement;(b)disclosure of information that the employee or individual seeking employment is entitled or required to give in terms of this Act or any other law;(c)failure or refusal to do something that an employer must not lawfully permit or require an employee to do;(d)membership of a trade union; or(e)participation in the lawful activities of a trade union -(i)outside of ordinary working hours; or(ii)with the consent of the employer, during working hours.
(2)A trade union or employers’ organisation must not discriminate against any individual on any of the grounds listed in section 5(2) in respect of -(a)admission to, suspension or termination of membership;(b)election to or removal from office;(c)the union’s or organisation’s activities.

7. Disputes concerning fundamental rights and protections

(1)Any party to a dispute may refer the dispute in writing to the Labour Commissioner if the dispute concerns -(a)a matter within the scope of this Act and Chapter 3 of the Namibian Constitution; or(b)the application or interpretation of section 5 or 6.
(2)The person who refers a dispute must satisfy the Labour Commissioner that a copy of the notice of a dispute has been served on all other parties to the dispute.
(3)Subject to subsection (4), the Labour Commissioner may refer the dispute to an arbitrator to resolve the dispute through arbitration, in accordance with Part C of Chapter 8 of this Act.
(4)If a dispute alleges discrimination, the Labour Commissioner may -(a)first designate a conciliator to attempt to resolve the dispute through conciliation; and(b)refer the dispute to arbitration in terms of subsection (3) only if the dispute remains unresolved after conciliation.
(5)Despite this section, a person who alleges that any fundamental right or protection under this Chapter has been infringed or is threatened may approach the Labour Court for enforcement of that right or protection or other appropriate relief.

Chapter 3
BASIC CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT

Part A – APPLICATION OF THIS CHAPTER

8. Definitions relating to basic conditions of employment

(1)In this Chapter -(a)annual leave cycle” means the period of 12 consecutive months’ employment with the same employer immediately following -(i)an employee’s commencement of employment; or(ii)the completion of the last annual leave cycle;(b)basic wage” means, for the purpose of calculating any basic condition of employment, that part of an employee’s remuneration in money including the cash equivalent of payment in kind, if any, as calculated in terms of section 10, paid in respect of work done during the hours ordinarily worked but does not include -(i)allowances, including travel and subsistence, housing, motor vehicle, transport, and professional allowances, whether or not based on the employee’s basic wage;(ii)pay for overtime, as defined in section 8 (g);(iii)additional pay for work on a Sunday or a public holiday;(iv)additional pay for night work, as required in terms of section 19(1); or(v)payments in respect of pension, annuity or medical benefits or insurance;(c)continuous shift” means a shift in a continuous operation, as permitted by the Minister in terms of section 15(1);(d)incapacity” means an inability to work owing to any sickness or injury;(e)monetary remuneration” refers to that part of the remuneration that is paid in money;(f)overtime” means time worked in excess of the hours an employee ordinarily works in any ordinary working day but does not include any work done on -(i)a Sunday, if it is not an ordinary working day for that employee; or(ii)a public holiday;(g)security officer” means an employee who -(i)controls, checks and reports on the movement of individuals, vehicles and goods through a checkpoint or at any other place; or(ii)protects persons or property;(h)sick leave” means any period during which the employee is unable to work due to incapacity;(i)sick leave cycle”-(i)means the period of 36 consecutive months’ employment with the same employer immediately following -(aa)an employee’s commencement of employment; or(bb)the completion of the last sick leave cycle; and(ii)includes any period, or combination of periods, not exceeding a total of 36 weeks, during which an employee is on annual leave, sick leave or any other absence from work on the instructions, or with the permission, of the employer;(j)spread-over” means the period from the time an employee first starts work in any one 24 hour-cycle to the time the employee finally stops work in that cycle;(k)urgent work” means -(i)emergency work, which if not attended to immediately, could cause harm to or endanger the life, personal safety or health of any person or could cause serious damage or destruction to property;(ii)work connected with the arrival, departure, loading, unloading, provisioning, fuelling or maintenance of -(aa)a ship;(bb)an aircraft; or(cc)a truck or other heavy vehicle;used to transport passengers, livestock or perishable goods;(l)week” in relation to an employee, means a period of seven days within which the working week of that employee falls; and(m)weekly interval” means the interval between the end of one ordinary working week and the start of the next.
(2)For the purposes of paying basic wages, an employer may not pay to an employee an in-kind payment except by agreement between the employer and the employee or in terms of a collective agreement.
(3)The Minister must prescribe the portion of basic wage that may be paid in-kind pursuant to any agreement and the manner of calculation of the cash equivalent value of an in-kind payment.

9. Basic conditions

(1)Each provision set out in Parts B through to F of this Chapter is a basic condition of employment.
(2)A basic condition of employment constitutes a term of any contract of employment except to the extent that -(a)any law regulating the employment of individuals provides a term that is more favourable to the employee;(b)a term of the contract of employment or a provision of a collective agreement is more favourable to the employee; or(c)the basic condition of employment has been altered as a result of an exemption or a variation granted in terms of section 139.
(3)Subject to section 2(3) to (5), if there is a conflict between the provisions of this Chapter, and the provisions of any other law, the law that provides the more favourable terms and conditions for the employee prevails to the extent of the conflict.

Part B – REMUNERATION

10. Calculation of remuneration and basic wages

(1)This section applies when, for any purpose of this Act, it is necessary to determine the applicable hourly, daily, weekly or monthly rate of pay of an employee -(a)whose remuneration is based on a different time interval; or(b)who is remunerated on a basis other than time worked.
(2)If an employee is remunerated on a basis other than time worked, that employee must be considered, for the purpose of this section, to be remunerated on a weekly basis, and that employee’s weekly remuneration or weekly basic wage must be calculated as follows:(a)calculate the total amount of remuneration or basic wage earned by the employee during -(i)the immediately preceding 13 weeks of work; or(ii)if the employee has been in employment for a shorter period, that shorter period of work; and(b)divide that total by the number of weeks the employee worked to determine the employee’s average weekly remuneration or basic wage.
(3)To determine the comparable hourly, daily, weekly or monthly remuneration or basic wage of an employee who is paid on an hourly, daily, weekly, fortnightly or monthly basis -(a)in the first column of Table 1 below, locate the line for that employee’s applicable pay period;(b)read across on that line to the column for the desired comparable rate of remuneration or basic wage, as indicated in the first line of the table; and(c)apply the formula set out in the cell of the table thus located.

Table 1 - Calculation of remuneration and basic wages


  To calculate hourly rates To calculate daily rates To calculate weekly rates To calculate monthly rates
Employees whose remuneration is set by the hour   Multiply the hourly rate by the number of ordinary hours of work each day. Multiply the hourly rate by the number of ordinary hours of work each week. Calculate the weekly rate, then multiply the calculated weekly rate by 4,333.
Employees whose remuneration is set by the day Divide the daily rate by the number of ordinary hours of work each day.   Multiply the hourly rate by the number of ordinary hours of work each week. Calculate the weekly rate, then multiply the calculated weekly rate by 4,333.
Employees whose remuneration is set by the week Divide the weekly rate (or calculated weekly rate) by the number of ordinary hours of work each week. Divide the weekly rate (or calculated weekly rate) by the number of ordinary days of work each week.   Calculate the weekly rate, then multiply the calculated weekly rate by 4,333.
Employees whose remuneration is set by the fortnight Divide the fortnightly rate by two times the number of ordinary hours of work each week. Divide the fortnightly rate by two times the number of ordinary days of work each week. Divide the fortnightly rate by two. Calculate the weekly rate, then multiply the calculated weekly rate by 4,333.
Employees whose remuneration is set by the month Divide the monthly rate by 4,333 times the number of hours ordinary worked each week. Divide the monthly rate by 4,333 times the number of days ordinary worked each week. Divide the monthly rate by 4,333.  


(4)For the purposes of Table 1 in subsection (3) -(a)‘ordinary hours’ -(i)must not exceed the maximum number of ordinary hours referred to in section 16;(ii)do not include overtime.(b)‘ordinary days’ means -(i)five days, if the employee works a five day week;(ii)six days, if the employee works a six day week; or(iii)the number of agreed days, if the employee works less than five days a week.[Most other provisions of the Act use double quotation marks to offset terms being defined.]

11. Payment of remuneration

(1)An employer must pay to an employee any monetary remuneration to which the employee is entitled -(a)not later than one hour after completion of the ordinary hours of work on the normal pay day, which may be daily, weekly, fortnightly or monthly;(b)in cash, or, at the employee’s option, by cheque, and the payment must be either -(i)to the employee; or(ii)by direct deposit into an account designated in writing by that employee; and(c)in a sealed envelope, if payment is in cash or by cheque.
(2)In the case of an employee whose contract of employment is terminated before the pay day, the employer must, on the day on which the contract is terminated, pay to the employee the remuneration to which the employee is entitled in the manner set out in subsection (1)(b) and (c).
(3)Each payment contemplated in subsections (1) and (2) -(a)must be supported by a written statement of particulars in the prescribed form, which -(i)must accompany the payment, if payment is in cash or by cheque; or(ii)must be in a sealed envelope given to the employee, if payment is by direct deposit;(b)must not be made at a shop, bottle store or other place where intoxicating liquor is sold or stored or any place of amusement in that shop, bottle store or place, unless the employee is employed in that shop, bottle store or place.
(4)If any part of an employee’s remuneration is paid in kind, then it must be made in the manner set out in subsection(1)(a), unless the employee requests otherwise.

12. Deductions and other acts concerning remuneration

(1)An employer must not make any deduction from an employee’s remuneration unless -(a)the deduction is required or permitted in terms of a court order, or any law; or(b)subject to subsection (2), the deduction is -(i)required or permitted under any collective agreement or in terms of any arbitration award; or(ii)agreed in writing and concerns a payment contemplated in subsection (3).
(2)The deductions made in terms of subsection (1)(b) must not in aggregate exceed one third of the employee’s remuneration.
(3)A deduction referred to in subsection (1)(b)(ii) may be made only in respect of the payment of -(a)rent in respect of accommodation supplied by the employer;(b)goods sold by the employer;(c)a loan advanced by the employer;(d)contributions to employee benefit funds; or(e)subscriptions or levies to a registered trade union.
(4)An employer who deducts an amount from an employee’s remuneration in terms of subsection (1) for payment to another person must pay the amount to that person in accordance with the time period and other requirements specified in the law, court order, arbitration award or agreement.
(5)An employer must not -(a)levy a fine on an employee unless it is authorised by statute or a collective agreement;(b)require an employee to -(i)buy goods from a shop owned by the employer or run on its behalf;(ii)use the services rendered by the employer for reward;(iii)pay for any goods supplied by the employer at a price exceeding an amount equal to the price paid by the employer for the goods plus any reasonable costs incurred by the employer in acquiring the goods;(c)require or permit an employee to -(i)repay any remuneration duly paid to an employee; or(ii)acknowledge receipt of an amount greater than the remuneration actually received.
(6)Subject to any provision in a contract of employment or collective agreement to the contrary, an employer may, by written notice to the employee -(a)reduce an employee’s agreed number of ordinary hours of work for a period of no longer than three months for operational reasons or other reasons recognised by law; and(b)correspondingly reduce that employee’s remuneration, but by no more than one-half of that employee’s basic wage.
(7)The reduction of ordinary hours of work may be extended for additional periods not exceeding three months by written agreement between the employer and employee or the employee’s registered trade union, in the case of an exclusive bargaining agent.

13. Wage order

(1)After considering a report and recommendations of the Wages Commission, the Minister may make a wage order determining remuneration and other conditions of employment for employees in any industry and area -(a)in accordance with the recommendations, or with modifications;(b)by notice in the Gazette; and(c)with effect from a date specified in that Gazette.
(2)A wage order is binding on all employers and employees described in the notice.
(3)A wage order remains binding until it is -(a)suspended or cancelled by the Minister in accordance with subsection (4);(b)amended or superseded by a new or amended wage order; or(c)superseded by a collective agreement that provides for terms that are better than those contained in the wage order.
(4)The Minister, after consulting the parties bound by a wage order, may suspend or cancel all or part of that order by publishing a notice in the Gazette, setting out-(a)the provisions affected by the suspension or cancellation;(b)the industry and areas affected by the suspension or cancellation; and(c)the period of the suspension, or date the cancellation takes effect.
(5)In addition to publication of any information in the Gazette as contemplated in this section, the Minister must, where appropriate, publish the information through other available means, with a view to ensuring that the intended recipients of the information receive the information.

14. Exemptions from a wage order

(1)Any person may apply to the Minister in the prescribed manner and form for an exemption from the provisions of a wage order.
(2)The Minister may exempt any person or category of persons from any provision of a wage order if the Minister is satisfied that -(a)the terms and conditions of employment of the employees affected by the exemption are not less favourable than those contained in the wage order; or(b)special circumstances exist that justify the exemption in the interests of the affected employees.
(3)An exemption granted in terms of subsection (2) -(a)must be set out in the prescribed form, which must -(i)state the period of the exemption as determined by the Minister; and(ii)be signed by the Minister;(b)may commence on -(i)the date it is signed, or a later date; or(ii)a date before the date it is signed, but not earlier than the date of the application for exemption; and(c)may include any conditions under which the exemption is granted.
(4)The Permanent Secretary must -(a)forward the exemption to any person exempted and the employees affected by the exemption; and(b)furnish a copy of the exemption to any person on payment of the prescribed fee.
(5)The Minister may, in writing, amend or withdraw an exemption.

Part C – HOURS OF WORK

15. Declaration of continuous shifts

(1)The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, declare any operation to be a continuous operation and permit the working of continuous shifts in respect of those operations.
(2)In a notice referred to in subsection (1), the Minister may prescribe any condition in respect of the shift, provided that no one shift may be longer than eight hours.
(3)In addition to publication of any information in the Gazette as contemplated in this section, the Minister must, where appropriate, publish the information through other available means, with a view to ensuring that the intended recipients of the information receive the information.

16. Ordinary hours of work

(1)Subject to any provision of this Chapter to the contrary, an employer must not require or permit an employee, other than an employee contemplated in subsection (3), to work more than -(a)45 hours in any week, and in any case, not more than -(i)nine hours on any day, if the employee works for five days or fewer in a week; or(ii)eight hours on any day, if the employee works for more than five days in a week; or(b)if the employee works in a continuous operation, the maximum number of hours prescribed by the Minister in terms of section 15(2) for that employee’s continuous shift.
(2)The ordinary hours of work of an employee described in subsection (1) whose duties include serving members of the public may be extended up to 15 minutes in a day, but not more than a total of 60 minutes in a week, to enable that employee to continue performing those duties after the completion of ordinary hours of work.
(3)Subject to any provision of this Chapter to the contrary, an employer must not require or permit a security officer, an employee working in emergency healthcare services or an employee of a class designated by the Minister in terms of subsection (5) to work more than -(a)60 hours in any week, and in any case, not more than -(i)12 hours on any day, if the employee works for five days or fewer in a week; or(ii)10 hours on any day, if the employee works for more than five days a week; or(b)if the employee works in a continuous operation, the maximum number of hours prescribed by the Minister in terms of section 15(2) for that employee’s continuous shift.
(4)In determining the time worked during the week by an employee for the purposes of this section, any meal interval referred to in section 18 -(a)of an employee subject to subsection (3) must be regarded as time worked;(b)of any other employee must be disregarded.
(5)The Minister may designate a class of employees for the purpose of subsection (3) by notice in the Gazette if satisfied that the affected employees or their registered trade unions have been consulted.

17. Overtime

(1)Subject to any provision of this Chapter to the contrary, an employer must not require or permit an employee to work overtime except in accordance with an agreement, but, such an agreement must not require an employee to work more than 10 hours overtime a week, and in any case, not more than three hours’ overtime a day.
(2)An employer must pay an employee for each hour of overtime worked at a rate at least one and one-half times the employee’s hourly basic wage but, when an employee who ordinarily works on a Sunday or public holiday, works overtime on that Sunday or public holiday, the employer must pay that employee at a rate of at least double the employee’s hourly basic wage.
(3)An employer may apply in writing to the Permanent Secretary to increase the limits on overtime work referred to in subsection (1) if the employees affected by the application agree.
(4)If the Permanent Secretary grants the application, the Permanent Secretary must issue a notice stipulating -(a)the class of employees to whom the notice applies;(b)the new limits on overtime work;(c)any conditions concerning the working of that overtime; and(d)its period of application,and may amend or withdraw the notice at any time.
(5)This section, except subsection (2), does not apply to an employee who is performing urgent work.

18. Meal intervals

(1)An employer must give an employee who works continuously for more than five hours a meal interval of at least one hour.
(2)An employer may shorten the meal interval to not less than 30 minutes if -(a)the employee agrees; and(b)the employer has given written notice to the Permanent Secretary of that agreement.
(3)An employer must not require or permit an employee to work during a meal interval.
(4)For the purposes of this section -(a)work is continuous unless it is interrupted by an interval that is more than 60 minutes, or such shorter period as agreed in terms of subsection (2);(b)a driver of a motor vehicle who does no work other than remaining in charge of the vehicle or its load during a meal interval is deemed not to be working during the interval; and(c)an employee must be remunerated for any portion of a meal interval that is longer than 90 minutes.
(5)This section does not apply to -(a)an employee who is engaged in urgent work;(b)a security officer; or(c)an employee who works on a continuous shift.

19. Night work

(1)An employee is entitled to an additional payment of six percent of that employee’s hourly basic wage, excluding overtime, for each hour of work performed by that employee between the hours of 20h00 and 07h00.
(2)An employer must not require or permit an employee, whom the employer knows, or reasonably ought to know, is pregnant, to perform any work, including overtime work, between the hours of 20h00 and 07h00, during the period -(a)eight weeks before her expected date of confinement; or(b)eight weeks after her confinement.
(3)The periods referred to in subsection (2) may be extended if a medical practitioner certifies that it is necessary for the health of the employee or her child.

20. Daily spread-over and weekly rest period

(1)No employer may require or permit an employee, other than an employee who is performing urgent work, to work a spread-over of more than 12 hours.
(2)An employer must not require or permit an employee, other than an employee who is performing urgent work, to work without a weekly interval of at least 36 consecutive hours of rest.

21. Work on Sundays

(1)An employer must not require or permit an employee to perform work on a Sunday, except as provided in this section.
(2)Subsection (1) does not apply to an employer who employs an employee for the purposes of -(a)urgent work;(b)carrying on the business of a shop, hotel, boarding house or hostel that lawfully operates on a Sunday;(c)performing domestic service in a private household;(d)health and social welfare care and residential facilities, including hospitals, hospices, orphanages and old age homes;(e)work on a farm required to be done on that day;(f)work in which continuous shifts are worked; or(g)any activity approved by the Permanent Secretary in terms of subsection (4).
(3)An employer may apply in writing to the Permanent Secretary to approve work on Sundays if the employees affected by the application agree.
(4)If the Permanent Secretary grants the application, the Permanent Secretary must issue a notice in writing stipulating -(a)the nature of the work to which the notice applies; and(b)any conditions that may apply.
(5)Subject to subsection (6), an employer must pay an employee who works on Sunday double that employee’s hourly basic wage for each hour worked.
(6)Despite subsection (5), an employer may pay an employee who works on Sunday, one and one half of that employee’s hourly basic wage for each hour worked, if -(a)the employer grants that employee an equal period of time away from work during the next working week; and(b)that employee agrees.
(7)In a case of an employee who ordinarily works on Sunday, the employer must pay the employee’s daily remuneration plus the hourly basic wage for each hour worked.
(8)For the purpose of this section, if the majority of the hours worked on a shift that extends into or begins on a Sunday falls on -(a)the Sunday, all the hours on that shift are deemed to have been worked on Sunday; or(b)the Saturday or Monday, all the hours on that shift are deemed to have been worked on that Saturday or Monday.

22. Public holidays

(1)An employer must not require or permit an employee to perform any work on a public holiday, except as provided in this section.
(2)Subsection (1) does not apply to an employer who employs an employee for the purposes of -(a)urgent work;(b)carrying on the business of a shop, hotel, boarding house or hostel that lawfully operates on a public holiday;(c)performing domestic service in a private household;(d)health and social welfare care and residential facilities, including hospitals, hospices, orphanages and old age homes;(e)work on a farm required to be done on that day;(f)work in which continuous shifts are worked; or(g)any activity approved by the Permanent Secretary in terms of subsection (4).
(3)An employer may apply in writing to the Permanent Secretary to approve work on a public holiday if the employees affected by the application agree.
(4)If the Permanent Secretary grants the application, the Permanent Secretary must issue a notice in writing stipulating -(a)the nature of the work to which the notice applies; and(b)any conditions that may apply.
(5)If a public holiday falls on a day on which an employee would ordinarily work, the employer must either -(a)pay -(i)an employee who does not work on the public holiday, no less than that employee’s daily remuneration subject to subsection (6); or(ii)an employee who works on the public holiday, that employee’s normal daily remuneration plus that employee’s hourly basic wage for each hour worked; or(b)if the employee referred to in paragraph (a)(ii) requests and the employer agrees -(i)pay an employee who works on the public holiday that employee’s normal daily remuneration plus one half of that employee’s hourly basic wage for each hour worked; and(ii)grant that employee an equal period of time from work during the next working week.
(6)If an employee who does not work on a public holiday fails, without a valid reason, to work on either the day immediately before, or the day immediately following, that public holiday, the employer is not required to pay that employee the amount otherwise required in terms of subsection (5)(a)(i).
(7)If an employee works on a public holiday that falls on a day other than the employee’s ordinary work day, the employer must pay double that employee’s hourly basic wage for each hour worked.
(8)For the purpose of subsections (1) to (7), if the majority of the hours worked on a shift, that extends into or begins on a public holiday, falls on -(a)the public holiday, all the hours on that shift are deemed to have been worked on the public holiday; or(b)the other day, all the hours on that shift are deemed to have been worked on that day

Part D – LEAVE

23. Annual leave

(1)For the purpose of this section “ordinary work week” means the number of days per week ordinarily worked by an employee.
(2)Every employee is entitled to at least four consecutive weeks’ annual leave with full remuneration in respect of each annual leave cycle, calculated as follows:
Number of days in ordinary work week Annual leave entitlement in working days
6 24
5 20
4 16
3 12
2 8
1 4

(3)If an employee does not ordinarily work a fixed number of days per week, the employee is entitled to annual leave calculated on the basis of the average number of days worked per week over the 12 months prior to the commencement of a new annual leave cycle, multiplied by four.
(4)The number of leave days referred to in subsection (2) may be reduced by the number of days during the annual leave cycle which, on request by the employee, the employer granted that employee as occasional leave on full remuneration.
(5)An employer may determine when the annual leave is to be taken provided that it is taken no later than -(a)four months after the end of the annual leave cycle; or(b)six months after the end of the annual leave cycle, if, before the end of the four month period contemplated in paragraph (a), the employee agreed in writing to such an extension.
(6)An employer must pay the remuneration due to an employee in respect of annual leave -(a)according to that employee’s regular pay schedule, if the employee is paid by direct deposit as contemplated in section 11(1)(b)(ii); or(b)in any other case, not later than -(i)the last working day before the commencement of the annual leave; or(ii)not later than the first pay day after the end of the leave period, if the employee requests such an extension in writing.
(7)An employer must not require or permit an employee to take annual leave during any other period of leave to which the employee is entitled in terms of this Part.
(8)An employer must grant an employee an additional day of paid leave if a public holiday falls on a day -(a)during the employee’s annual leave; and(b)on which the employee would ordinarily have worked.
(9)An employer must not require or permit an employee to work for the employer during any period of annual leave.
(10)Except on termination of employment, an employer must not pay an employee an amount of money in substitution for the annual leave to which that employee is entitled, whether or not the employee requests or agrees in writing to such a payment.

24. Sick leave

(1)During any sick leave cycle, an employee is entitled to sick leave as follows:(a)not less than 30 working days, if the employee ordinarily works five days during a week;(b)not less than 36 working days, if the employee ordinarily works six days during the week; and(c)not less than the number of working days calculated on a pro rata basis, if the employee ordinarily works fewer than five days during a week,but an employee is entitled to one day’s sick leave for every 26 days worked during the employee’s first year of employment.
(2)For the purposes of subsection (1)(b), the sick leave days to which an employee who does not ordinarily work a fixed number of days per week is entitled must be calculated annually on the basis of the average number of days worked per week over the previous 12 months.
(3)Subject to subsection (4), on the employee’s normal pay day, the employer must pay that employee an amount equal to that employee’s daily remuneration for each day of absence on sick leave.
(4)Despite subsection (3), an employer is not required to pay an employee for sick leave in any of the following circumstances:(a)if the employee -(i)has been absent from work for more than two consecutive days; and(ii)fails to produce a medical certificate by a medical practitioner or any other evidence of proof of illness as may be prescribed;(b)to the extent that the employee is entitled to payment in terms of the Employees’ Compensation Act, 1941 (Act No. 30 of 1941), if the employee is absent from work during any period of incapacity arising from an accident or a scheduled disease;(c)to the extent that the employee is entitled to payment in respect of that sick leave from a fund or organisation -(i)designated by the employee, and in respect of which the employer makes contributions at least equal to that made by the employee; and(ii)that guarantees the payment of sick leave; or(d)to the extent that the employee is entitled to payment in respect of that sick leave under any other legislation.
(5)Sick leave -(a)does not form part of annual, compassionate or maternity leave;(b)does not entitle the employee to any additional remuneration on termination of employment; and(c)if not used during the period referred to in subsection (1), lapses at the end of that period.

25. Compassionate leave

(1)An employee is, during each period of 12 months of continuous employment, entitled to five working days’ compassionate leave with fully paid remuneration.
(2)An employee is entitled to compassionate leave if there is a death or serious illness in the family.
(3)The Minister must prescribe the form and manner in which compassionate leave may be applied for by an employee and any other information that may be required to support the application.
(4)Compassionate leave -(a)does not form part of annual, sick or maternity leave;(b)does not entitle the employee to any additional remuneration on termination of employment; and(c)if not used during the period referred to in subsection (1), lapses at the end of that period.
(5)For the purposes of this section “family” means a -(a)child, including a child adopted in terms of any law, custom or tradition;(b)spouse;(c)parent, grandparent, brother or sister, of the employee; or(d)father-in-law or mother-in-law of the employee.

26. Maternity leave

(1)Subject to subsection (3), a female employee who has completed six months’ continuous service in the employment of an employer is, with a view to her confinement, entitled to not less than 12 weeks’ maternity leave, calculated as follows:(a)before her actual date of confinement -(i)she is entitled to commence maternity leave four weeks before her expected date of confinement, as certified by her medical practitioner; and(ii)she is entitled to maternity leave for the entire time from the commencement of her maternity leave as contemplated in paragraph (i), until her actual date of confinement;(b)after her date of confinement, she is entitled to -(i)eight weeks maternity leave in every case; and(ii)in the case of an employee whose date of confinement occurred less than four weeks after the commencement of her maternity leave, the amount of additional time required to bring her total maternity leave to 12 weeks.
(2)The employee must provide the employer with a certificate signed by a medical practitioner confirming -(a)the expected date of confinement before taking maternity leave; and(b)the actual date of confinement on her return from leave.
(3)During any period of maternity leave, the provisions of the contract of employment remain in force, and the employer must, during the period of maternity leave, pay to the employee the remuneration payable to that employee except the basic wage.
(4)The Social Security Commission established by the Social Security Act, 1994 (Act No. 34 of 1994) must, during the period that an employee is on maternity leave, pay to that employee such portion of that employee’s basic wage as may be prescribed in terms of that Act.
(5)An employer must not dismiss an employee during her maternity leave or at the expiry of that leave on -(a)any grounds contemplated in section 34; or(b)any grounds arising from her pregnancy, delivery, or her resulting family status or responsibility.
(6)Subsection (5) does not apply if -(a)the employer has offered the employee comparable alternative employment; and(b)she has unreasonably refused to accept that offer.

27. Extended maternity leave

(1)If a medical practitioner certifies that -(a)due to complications arising from pregnancy or delivery, it is necessary for the health of an employee, an employer must grant that employee extended maternity leave in excess of the periods referred to in section 26 (1)(a) or (b), up to a maximum equal to the greater of -(i)one month; or(ii)the amount of accrued sick leave that the employee has at that time; or(b)due to complications arising from birth or congenital conditions, it is necessary for the health of the employee’s child, an employer must grant that employee extended maternity leave in excess of the periods referred to in section 26(1)(b), up to a maximum equal to the greater of -(i)one month; or(ii)the amount of accrued sick leave that the employee has at that time.
(2)If a medical practitioner issues a certificate in terms of both subsection (1)(a) and (b), the periods of extended maternity leave must run concurrently.
(3)A period of extended maternity leave must run immediately before or immediately following an employee’s maternity leave in terms of section 26.
(4)Section 26(3) to (6) apply in respect of an employee who takes extended maternity leave under this section.

Part E – ACCOMMODATION

28. Provision of accommodation

(1)For the purposes of this section, a “dependant” means the spouse and the dependant children of the employee or of the spouse.[The word “dependant” is usually spelt “dependant” when used as a noun, and “dependent” when used as an adjective.]
(2)If an employee is required to live at the place of employment or to reside on any premises owned or leased by the employer, that employer must provide the employee with adequate housing including sanitary and water facilities.
(3)If an employee contemplated in subsection (2) lives on agricultural land, the employer must provide sufficient facilities referred to in that subsection to meet the reasonable needs of the employee and the employee’s dependants, and must either -(a)permit the employee to keep livestock and to cultivate land to meet the reasonable needs of that employee and that employee’s dependants; or(b)in terms of an agreement with the employee -(i)provide the employee with sufficient food to meet the reasonable needs of the employee and the employee’s dependants; or(ii)pay the employee an additional amount to do so.
(4)An employer who terminates the employment of an employee who is required to live at the place of employment or to reside on any premises owned, leased or provided by the employer may not require the employee to vacate the said premises or place unless -(a)in the case of an employee residing on agricultural land, the employer gives to the employee three months’ written notice to vacate; or(b)in the case of all other employees, the employer gives to the employee at least one month’s written notice to vacate.
(5)If an employee has referred a dispute to the Labour Commissioner alleging an unfair dismissal within 30 days following the termination of employment the employer may not, despite subsection (4), require the employee to vacate the place or premises until the dispute is resolved in terms of Part G of this Chapter or otherwise disposed of.

Part F – TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT

29. Period of employment

For the purposes of this Part the period of employment includes -(a)the time that the employee worked for the employer;(b)the period of any leave granted in terms of this Act;(c)any leave of absence granted in terms of this Act or granted by the employer for any other reason;(d)any period of suspension;(e)if the employee has been reinstated, the period from the date of dismissal to the date of reinstatement; and(f)the period of any lawful strike or lockout.

30. Termination of employment on notice

(1)Subject to any provisions of this Part to the contrary, if a contract of employment may be terminated on notice, the period of notice must be not less than -(a)one day, if the employee has been employed for four weeks or less;(b)one week, if the employee has been employed for more than four weeks but not more than one year;(c)one month, if the employee has been employed for more than one year.
(2)An employer and an employee may agree to a longer notice period than required in terms of subsection (1), provided that it is of equal duration for both parties.
(3)Subject to subsection (4), notice of termination must be given in writing, stating the reasons for termination, if the termination is by the employer, and the date on which the notice is given, which may be -(a)on any working day in respect of an employee contemplated in subsection (1)(a);(b)on or before the last working day of the week in respect of an employee contemplated in subsection (1)(b); or(c)on the first or the 15th of the month in respect of an employee contemplated in subsection (1)(c).
(4)Despite subsection (3), an illiterate employee may give notice orally.
(5)An employer must not give notice of termination -(a)during any period of leave to which the employee is entitled in terms of Part D of this Chapter; or(b)to run concurrently with any such period of leave.
(6)Nothing in this section affects the right -(a)of a dismissed employee to dispute the lawfulness or fairness of the dismissal in terms of this Act or any other law; or(b)of an employer or an employee to terminate the contract of employment without notice, for any cause recognised by law, or to make payment instead of notice in terms of section 31.
(7)Nothing in this section prevents an employer or an employee from waiving any right to notice conferred by this section.

31. Payment instead of notice

(1)Instead of giving an employee notice in terms of section 30, an employer may pay the employee the remuneration the employee would have received, if the employee had worked during the period of notice.
(2)If an employee gives notice of termination of employment, the employer -(a)may waive the notice, but(b)in that case, must pay the employee the remuneration contemplated in subsection (1).
(3)Instead of giving an employer notice in terms of section 30, an employee may pay the employer the remuneration the employer would have paid, if the employee had worked during the period of notice.

32. Automatic termination of contracts of employment

(1)Subject to a notice in terms of subsection (2), a contract of employment terminates automatically -(a)one month after -(i)the death or sequestration of the employer, if the employer is an individual;(ii)the date on which the employer is wound up, if the employer is a juristic person; or(iii)the date on which the partnership is dissolved, if the employer is a partnership; or(b)at the end of a longer period -(i)provided for in the contract of employment or a collective agreement; or(ii)during which the employer continues to carry on business.
(2)At any time during the period contemplated in subsection (1), an executor, administrator, liquidator or a partner may give notice to terminate an employee’s contract of employment in accordance with this Part, or of a collective agreement.
(3)Despite the provisions of any law to the contrary, an employee whose contract is terminated in the circumstances referred to in subsection (1) is a preferent creditor in respect of any remuneration due or monies payable to the employee in terms of this Act.

33. Unfair dismissal

(1)An employer must not, whether notice is given or not, dismiss an employee -(a)without a valid and fair reason; and(b)without following -(i)the procedures set out in section 34, if the dismissal arises from a reason set out in section 34 (1); or(ii)subject to any code of good practice issued under section 137, a fair procedure, in any other case.
(2)It is unfair to dismiss an employee because the employee -(a)discloses information that the employee is entitled or required to disclose to another person;(b)fails or refuses to do anything that an employer must not lawfully permit or require an employee to do;(c)exercises any right conferred by -(i)this Act; or(ii)the terms of the contract of employment or collective agreement;(d)belongs, or has belonged, to a trade union;(e)takes part in the formation of a trade union; or(f)participates in the lawful activities of a trade union -(i)outside of working hours; or(ii)within working hours -(aa)with the consent of the employer; or(bb)in the circumstances contemplated in section 67(4).
(3)It is unfair to dismiss an employee because of such employee’s sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, religion, creed or social or economic status, political opinion or marital status.
(4)In any proceedings concerning a dismissal -(a)if the employee establishes the existence of the dismissal;(b)it is presumed, unless the contrary is proved by the employer, that the dismissal is unfair.

34. Dismissal arising from collective termination or redundancy

(1)If the reason for an intended dismissal is the reduction of the workforce arising from the re-organisation or transfer of the business or the discontinuance or reduction of the business for economic or technological reasons, an employer must -(a)at least four weeks before the intended dismissals are to take place, inform the Labour Commissioner and any trade union which the employer has recognised as the exclusive bargaining agent in respect of the employees, of -(i)the intended dismissals;(ii)the reasons for the reduction in the workforce;(iii)the number and categories of employees affected; and(iv)the date of the dismissals;(b)if there is no trade union recognised as the exclusive bargaining agent in respect of the employees, give the information contemplated in paragraph (a) to the workplace representatives elected in terms of section 67 and the employees at least four weeks before the intended dismissals;(c)subject to subsection (3), disclose all relevant information necessary for the trade union or workplace representatives to engage effectively in the negotiations over the intended dismissals;(d)negotiate in good faith with the trade union or workplace union representatives on -(i)alternatives to dismissals;(ii)the criteria for selecting the employees for dismissal;(iii)how to minimise the dismissals;(iv)the conditions on which the dismissals are to take place; and(v)how to avert the adverse effects of the dismissals; and(e)select the employees according to selection criteria that are either agreed or fair and objective.
(2)Despite subsection (1)(a) and (b), an employer may inform the trade union or workplace representative of the intended dismissals in less than four weeks if it is not practicable to do so within the period of four weeks.
(3)When disclosing information in terms of subsection (1)(c), an employer is not required to disclose information if -(a)it is legally privileged;(b)any law or court order prohibits the employer from disclosing it; or(c)it is confidential and, if disclosed, might cause substantial harm to the employer.
(4)If, after the negotiations and selections contemplated in subsection (1), the parties do not reach an agreement, either party may, within one week after the period referred to in subsection (1) or subsection (2), refer the matter to the Labour Commissioner, who must appoint a conciliator to assist the parties to resolve their dispute.
(5)After appointment in terms of subsection (4), the conciliator must, as soon as is reasonably possible, in an attempt to resolve the dispute, convene a meeting of the parties and may convene additional meetings as may be necessary up to a maximum period of four weeks as from the date that the dispute was referred to the Labour Commissioner in terms of subsection (4).
(6)During the periods referred to in subsections (1), (4) and (5) -(a)subsection 1(c) and (d) continues to apply to the employer, with the necessary changes; and(b)the employer may not dismiss employees in terms of this section, unless the dispute has been settled or otherwise disposed of.
(7)If there is a disguised transfer or continuance of an employer’s operation which employs or employed employees who are to be dismissed or were dismissed in terms of this section, the employees or their collective bargaining agent have the right to apply to the Labour Court for appropriate relief, including an order:(a)directing the restoration of the operation;(b)directing the reinstatement of the employees; or(c)awarding lost and future earnings.
(8)Nothing contained in this section prevents an employee from referring a dispute of unfair dismissal or failure to bargain in good faith to the Labour Commissioner in respect of the employee’s dismissal.
(9)For the purposes of subsection (7), “disguised transfer or continuance of an employers operation” includes any practice or situation whereby an employer who runs or operates any business purports to have gone out of business or to have discontinued all or part of its business operations, when in fact those business operations are continued under another name or form or carried out at another location, without the employer disclosing the full facts to the affected employees or their collective bargaining agent.
(10)An employer who contravenes or fails to comply with this section commits an offence and is liable to a fine not exceeding N$10 000, or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years or to both the fine and imprisonment.

35. Severance pay

(1)Subject to subsection (2), an employer must pay severance pay to an employee who has completed 12 months of continuous service, if the employee -(a)is dismissed;(b)dies while employed; or(c)resigns or retires on reaching the age of 65 years.
(2)Subsection (1) does not apply -(a)to a fair dismissal on grounds of misconduct or poor work performance;(b)if the employee unreasonably refuses to be reinstated; or(c)if the employee unreasonably refuses to accept employment on terms no less favourable than those applicable immediately before the termination of employment with -(i)the surviving spouse, heir or dependant of a deceased employer within one month of the death of the employer; or(ii)one or more of the former partners within one month of the dissolution of the partnership, if the employer was a partnership.
(3)Severance pay in terms of subsection (1) must be in an amount equal to at least one week’s remuneration for each year of continuous service with the employer.
(4)When calculating the length of an employee’s service for the purposes of subsections (1) and (3), the following rules apply:(a)if the employer is an individual, and dies and the employee is employed subsequently by the surviving spouse, heir or dependant of the deceased employer, the employee retains any service acquired before the employer’s death;(b)if the employer was a partnership that was dissolved, and the employee is employed subsequently by one or more of the former partners of that partnership, the employee retains any service acquired before the dissolution of the partnership;(c)if the employer’s business has been transferred to another person and the employee continues in the service of that business after the transfer, the employee retains any service acquired before the transfer of that business;(d)the service of an employee who works for the same employer on a seasonal basis for two or more successive years is regarded as continuous, provided that the period of service is made up of the periods actually worked; and(e)continuous service includes any period of employment contemplated in section 29.
(5)The payment of severance pay in terms of this section does not affect an employee’s right to any other amount that the employer is obliged to pay the employee.
(6)If the contract of employment is terminated as a result of the death of the employee and in the absence of a will, the employer must pay the severance pay to -(a)the employee’s surviving spouse; or(b)if there is no spouse, to the employee’s children;(c)if there are no children, to the employee’s estate.

36. Transportation on termination of employment

(1)If the employee is dismissed during the first 12 months of employment, and at any place other than the place where the employee was recruited, the employer must either -(a)transport the employee to the place that the employee was recruited; or(b)pay the employee an amount equal to the costs of that transport.
(2)Subsection (1) does not apply if an employee unreasonably refuses to be reinstated.

37. Payment on termination and certificates of employment

(1)On termination of employment, an employer must pay the employee all the remuneration due to the employee for -(a)work done before the termination;(b)any paid time off that the employee is entitled to in terms of sections 21(5) or (6) or 22(5) that the employee has not taken;(c)any period of annual leave due for any completed annual leave cycle in terms of section 23;(d)any annual leave pay to which the employee is entitled for any incomplete annual leave cycle in terms of subsection (2);(e)any severance pay due in terms of section 35;(f)any notice pay contemplated in section 31 if the employee is paid instead of being given notice; and(g)any transport allowance due in terms of section 36.
(2)Subject to subsection (3), an employee whose contract is terminated is entitled to accrued annual leave pay on a pro rata basis for work performed during an incomplete annual leave cycle as defined in section 23.
(3)An employee is not entitled to the accrued annual leave pay contemplated in subsection (2) if that employee, without good cause, fails -(a)to give notice of termination in terms of section 30, and to work the full period of the notice; or(b)to pay the employer the remuneration contemplated in section 31(3) instead of working the period of notice.
(4)An employer must pay the remuneration contemplated in subsection (1) to the employee -(a)on or before the next pay day after the termination; and(b)in accordance with section 11.
(5)On termination of employment an employer must give an employee a certificate of service stating -(a)the employee’s full name;(b)the name and address of the employer;(c)a description of the industry in which the employer is engaged;(d)the date of commencement and date of termination of employment;(e)the employee’s job description;(f)the remuneration at date of termination; and(g)if the employee requests, the reason for termination of employment.
(6)Nothing in this section prevents an employer from furnishing an employee whose employment has been terminated with a testimonial or other certificate of good character.

Part G – DISPUTES CONCERNING THIS CHAPTER

38. Disputes concerning this Chapter

(1)If there is a dispute about the non-compliance with, contravention, application or interpretation of this Chapter, any party to the dispute may refer the dispute in writing to the Labour Commissioner.
(2)The person who refers the dispute must satisfy the Labour Commissioner that a copy of the notice of a dispute has been served on all other parties to the dispute.
(3)The Labour Commissioner must refer the dispute to an arbitrator to resolve the dispute through arbitration in accordance with Part C of Chapter 8 of this Act.

Chapter 4
HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELFARE OF EMPLOYEES

Part A – RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES

39. Employer duties to employees

(1)Every employer or person in charge of premises where employees are employed must, without charge to the employees -(a)provide a working environment that -(i)is safe;(ii)is without risk to the health of employees; and(iii)has adequate facilities and arrangements for the welfare of employees;(b)provide and maintain plant, machinery and systems of work, and work processes, that are safe and without risk to the health of employees;(c)provide and maintain safe entry and exit from places of work;(d)provide employees with adequate personal protective clothing and equipment if reasonably necessary;(e)provide employees with the necessary information and training to work safely and without a risk to their health;(f)ensure that the use, handling, storage or transport of articles or substances is safe and without risk to the health of employees;(g)ensure that employees are given the necessary instructions and supervision to work safely and without a risk to their health;(h)ensure that the organisation of work, including hours of work and mealtimes, do not adversely affect the safety or health of employees; and(i)take any other prescribed steps to ensure the safety, health and welfare of employees at work.
(2)Every employer must report to a labour inspector in the prescribed manner, whenever -(a)there is an accident at any place where the employer’s employees work; or(b)a prescribed disease is contracted at any such place.

40. Employer’s duties to persons other than employees

(1)Every employer must conduct its business operations on its premises in a manner that, as far as is reasonably practicable, persons who are not employees of that employer are not exposed to the risk of their safety or health.
(2)The Minister may require, by regulation, an employer to inform persons who are not employees of that employer of any risk to their safety or health that might arise from the conduct of that employer’s business.

41. Employee duties

Every employee has a duty to -(a)take reasonable care to ensure -(i)the employee’s own safety and health in the workplace; and(ii)the safety and health of any individual who may be affected by the employee’s activities at work; and(b)co-operate with the employer to enable the employer to perform any duty imposed under this Chapter or the regulations.

42. Employee’s right to leave dangerous place of work

(1)If an employee has reasonable cause to believe that, until effective measures have been taken, it is neither safe nor healthy to continue work in a place of work, that employee may leave that place.
(2)If an employee leaves a place of work in terms of subsection (1), the employee must immediately inform the employer of the basis for believing that it is not safe or healthy to continue working there.
(3)An employee who leaves a place of work in terms of this section is entitled to the same conditions of service applicable to that employee and to receive the same remuneration during the period of absence.

Part B – HEALTH AND SAFETY REPRESENTATIVES AND COMMITTEES

43. Election of health and safety representatives

(1)The employees in a workplace -(a)with more than 10 but fewer than 101 employees, are entitled to elect from among themselves at least one health and safety representative; or(b)with 101 or more employees, are entitled to elect from among themselves at least one health and safety representative for the first 100 employees in the workplace, and at least one additional representative for each additional 100 employees, or part thereof;but, the employer and the employees or the trade union representing the employees may agree to a greater number of health and safety representatives.
(2)Whenever it is necessary to conduct an election for a health and safety representative -(a)the election must be conducted in the prescribed manner; and(b)the employer must provide any facilities that are reasonably necessary for the purposes of conducting the election.
(3)A health and safety representative holds office for two years and may stand for re-election.
(4)The employer must grant each health and safety representative -(a)time off during working hours without loss of pay in order to perform the functions of that office; and(b)reasonable leave of absence to attend health and safety meetings or training courses.
(5)The rights conferred by subsection (4) are subject to -(a)the provisions of any collective agreement; or(b)any conditions that are reasonable and necessary to ensure the effective performance of the employer’s operations.

44. Rights and powers of a health and safety representative

A health and safety representative is empowered to -(a)collect information on safety, health and welfare of employees;(b)inspect, at any reasonable time, the workplaces of the employees whom that representative represents;(c)investigate -(i)the causes of accidents and diseases at work;(ii)complaints about safety, health or welfare of employees;(iii)potential hazards and risks to health and safety;(d)make representations on the safety, health or welfare of employees to -(i)the employer; and(ii)a labour inspector;(e)perform any other functions -(i)provided for in a collective agreement;(ii)agreed to by the health and safety committee.

45. Duties to provide information

(1)Subject to subsection (2), an employer must -(a)provide every health and safety representative with sufficient information to enable the representative to -(i)perform the functions of that office;(ii)improve or maintain conditions of safety, health and welfare in the workplace;(b)consult with a health and safety representative -(i)on any policy on health, safety or welfare that may apply to the employees represented by that representative;(ii)in planning any change to the content, process or organisation of work that may affect health, safety or welfare of the employees represented by that representative;(c)at any reasonable time, allow a health and safety representative to inspect -(i)the workplaces of the employees represented by that representative;(ii)any place where an accident has occurred; or(iii)any place where a disease has been contracted; and(d)permit a health and safety representative access to a labour inspector.
(2)Subsection (1) does not require an employer to disclose information that -(a)is not related to the employees who are represented by the health and safety representative;(b)the employer is prohibited by law from disclosing;(c)is private and personal, unless the person affected by the disclosure consents;(d)may be detrimental to the business for reasons other than the effect of the disclosure on the employer’s obligations under this Chapter; or(e)is legally privileged.

46. Health and safety committees

(1)In any workplace with more than 100 employees, at the request of a health and safety representative, the employer must establish a health and safety committee consisting of -(a)every health and safety representative elected under section 43;(b)an equal number of representatives appointed by the employer; and(c)any additional individuals agreed to by the committee.
(2)Subject to a collective agreement, a health and safety committee may make rules in respect of the procedure of meetings of the committee.
(3)The functions of a health and safety committee include -(a)monitoring the application of health and safety regulations and rules in the workplace;(b)advising the employer on any matter concerning health and safety in the workplace; and(c)any other function agreed by the committee and the employer.

47. Disputes concerning this Chapter

(1)If there is a dispute about the non-compliance with, contravention, application or interpretation of this Chapter, any party to the dispute may refer the dispute in writing to the Labour Commissioner.
(2)The person who refers the dispute must satisfy the Labour Commissioner that a copy of the notice of a dispute has been served on all other parties to the dispute.
(3)The Labour Commissioner must refer the dispute to an arbitrator to resolve the dispute through arbitration in accordance with Part C of Chapter 8 of this Act.

Chapter 5
UNFAIR LABOUR PRACTICES

48. Unfair disciplinary action

(1)Section 33 in so far as it applies to the dismissal of an employee, does, read with the necessary changes, apply to all other forms of disciplinary action against an employee by an employer.
(2)Disciplinary action taken against an employee in contravention of section 33 constitutes an unfair labour practice.

49. Employee and trade union unfair labour practices

(1)It is an unfair labour practice for a registered trade union -(a)to refuse to bargain collectively, when the provisions of this Act or a collective agreement require the union to bargain collectively;(b)to bargain in bad faith; or(c)to engage in conduct that -(i)subverts orderly collective bargaining;(ii)intimidates any person;(d)not to fairly represent an employee in any bargaining unit in respect of which the trade union is recognised as the exclusive bargaining agent.
(2)It is an unfair labour practice for an employee to engage in any conduct contemplated in subsection (1)(c).
(3)This section does not prohibit any person from participating in a strike, picket or lockout that is in compliance with this Act.

50. Employer and employers’ organisation unfair labour practices

(1)It is an unfair labour practice for an employer or an employers’ organisation -(a)to refuse to bargain collectively when the provisions of this Act or a collective agreement require the employer or the organisation to bargain collectively;(b)to bargain in bad faith;(c)subject to subsections (2) to (7), to fail to disclose to a workplace union representative appointed in terms of this Act any relevant information that is reasonably required to allow the workplace union representative to perform the functions of that office under this Act;(d)subject to subsections (2) to (7), to fail to disclose to a recognised trade union any relevant information that is reasonably required to allow the trade union to consult or bargain collectively in respect of any labour matter;(e)to unilaterally alter any term or condition of employment;(f)to seek to control any trade union or federation of trade unions;(g)to engage in conduct that -(i)subverts orderly collective bargaining; or(ii)intimidates any person.
(2)When disclosing information in terms of subsection (1) -(a)the employer must notify the recognised trade union representative or workplace union representative in writing if any of the disclosed information is confidential; and(b)the employer is not required to disclose information if -(i)it is legally privileged;(ii)any law or court order prohibits the employer from disclosing it;(iii)it is confidential and, if disclosed, might cause substantial harm to an employee or the employer; or(iv)it is private personal information relating to an employee, unless that employee consents to the disclosure of that information.
(3)In any dispute about the disclosure of information, the arbitrator must first decide whether or not the information is relevant.
(4)If the arbitrator decides that information is relevant and if it is information referred to in subsection (2) (b) (iii) or (iv), the arbitrator must balance -(a)the harm that the disclosure is likely to cause; against(b)the harm that the failure to disclose is likely to cause to the ability of the trade union representative to perform its functions, or the ability of the recognised trade union to engage effectively in consultations or collective bargaining.
(5)If the arbitrator decides that the balance of harm favours disclosure, the arbitrator may order disclosure on terms designed to limit the harm likely to be caused to the employee or employer.
(6)When making an order, the arbitrator must take into account any breach of confidentiality in respect of information disclosed to the workplace union representative or the recognised trade union in terms of this section and may refuse to order the disclosure of the information for a period specified in the award.
(7)In any dispute about an alleged breach of confidentiality, the arbitrator may order that the right of disclosure of information in that workplace be withdrawn for a period specified in the award.

51. Disputes concerning this Chapter

(1)If there is a dispute about the non-compliance with, contravention, application or interpretation of this Chapter, any party to the dispute may refer the dispute in writing to the Labour Commissioner.
(2)The person who refers the dispute must satisfy the Labour Commissioner that a copy of the notice of a dispute has been served on all other parties to the dispute.
(3)The Labour Commissioner must refer the dispute to an arbitrator to resolve the dispute through arbitration in accordance with Part C of Chapter 8 of this Act.
(4)If a dispute concerning an alleged unilateral alteration of a term or condition of employment in violation of section (50)(1)(e) is referred to the Labour Commissioner, within 30 days following the alteration, the employer must restore such term or condition of employment as of the date of the alteration or refrain from effecting such alteration until the dispute is resolved or settled in terms of this Part or otherwise disposed of.
(5)An employer who contravenes or fails to comply with subsection (4) commits an offence and on conviction is liable to a fine not exceeding N$10 000 or to be imprisoned for a period not exceeding two years or to both the fine and imprisonment.

Chapter 6
TRADE UNIONS AND EMPLOYERS’ ORGANISATIONS

Part A – ESTABLISHMENT AND WINDING UP OF TRADE UNIONS AND EMPLOYERS’ ORGANISATIONS

52. Definitions relating to this Chapter

(1)In this Chapter -(a)authorised representative” means any person authorised to represent a registered trade union or any office-bearer or official;(b)employer’s premises” means any premises under the control of an employer where work is done or employees are accommodated;(c)fee” means an entry fee, a periodic membership fee, a levy, or any other monetary amount owed by a member of a trade union to that union in terms of its constitution; and(d)workplace” means the place or places where the employees of an employer work, and if an employer carries on or conducts two or more operations that are independent of one another by reason of their size, function or organisation, each of those operations constitutes a separate workplace.
(2)In Parts A and B of this Chapter, “registered trade union” includes one or more trade unions acting jointly, or a federation of trade unions.

53. Constitutions of trade union or employers’ organisation

(1)A trade union or employers’ organisation that intends to register under section 57 of this Act must adopt a constitution that meets the requirements set out in this section.
(2)The constitution of a trade union or employers’ organisation that intends to register under this Act must -(a)state the name of that trade union or employers’ organisation;(b)declare its objects;(c)describe the industry or industries in its scope;(d)prescribe the qualifications for admission to membership;(e)provide for membership fees and the method for determining membership fees and other payments by members;(f)establish the circumstances and prescribe the procedure for the termination of membership, which must include -(i)an opportunity for the member to be heard; and(ii)a right of appeal;(g)prescribe that -(i)a member in good standing is a member who is not more than three months in arrears with the payment of any fees due in terms of the constitution;(ii)only a member in good standing may nominate candidates for any office or vote or be voted for in an election of an office bearer or official; and(iii)no person who has been convicted of an offence of which dishonesty is an element and for which that person has been sentenced to imprisonment without an option of a fine may stand for election as an office-bearer;(h)prescribe -(i)the functions of its officials and office bearers;(ii)the procedure for the appointment or election of officials and office-bearers;(iii)the terms of appointment of its officials and office-bearers; and(iv)the circumstances and manner in which officials and office-bearers may be removed from office;(i)in the case of a trade union, prescribe the procedure for nomination and election of -(i)workplace union representatives; and(ii)health and safety representatives;(j)prescribe -(i)that there must be at least one general meeting of members every three years;(ii)that general meetings of members must be open to all members; and(iii)the procedure for convening and conducting meetings of members and meetings of office bearers, including the quorum for meetings and the manner in which minutes are to be kept;(k)establish the manner in which ballots are to be conducted;(l)provide for the banking and investing of funds;(m)establish the purposes for which funds may be used;(n)provide that no payment may be made to an official or employee without the prior approval of its governing body granted under the hand of its chairperson except for their salaries and the expenses incurred by them in the course of their duties;(o)provide for the acquisition and control of property;(p)determine the date for the end of its financial year;(q)prescribe a procedure for affiliation, or amalgamation, with another trade union or employers’ organisation, as the case may be;(r)prescribe a procedure for changing the constitution; and(s)prescribe a procedure by which it may be wound up.
(3)A constitution of a trade union or employers’ organisation must not -(a)conflict with -(i)the fundamental human rights and freedoms set out in Chapter 3 of the Namibian Constitution;(ii)any other law;(b)hinder the attainment of the objects of any law; or(c)evade any obligation imposed by any law.
(4)The Labour Commissioner may -(a)notify any trade union or employers’ organisation in writing that the Labour Commissioner has reason to believe that its constitution does not comply with or contravenes subsection (2) or (3); and(b)in that notice, invite the trade union or employers’ organisation to make representations to the Labour Commissioner or to redraft its constitution in order to meet the requirements of subsections (2) or (3).
(5)After considering any representations or redrafted constitution submitted in terms of subsection (4)(b), the Labour Commissioner may -(a)inform the party that the constitution meets the requirements of subsections (2) and (3); or(b)inform the party that the constitution does not meet the requirements of subsections (2) and (3).

54. Changing constitution of registered trade union or registered employers’ organisation

(1)Any change to the constitution of a registered trade union or registered employers’ organisation takes effect only when the Labour Commissioner approves the change in terms of this section.
(2)A trade union or employers’ organisation may apply for the approval of a change to its constitution by submitting to the Labour Commissioner -(a)the prescribed form duly completed;(b)the prescribed number of copies of the resolution containing the wording of the change; and(c)a certificate signed by the chairperson stating that the resolution was passed in accordance with the constitution.
(3)The Labour Commissioner may require further information in support of the application.
(4)The Labour Commissioner must -(a)consider the application and any further information supplied by the applicant; and(b)if satisfied that the amendments meet the requirements contemplated in section 53, approve the change by issuing -(i)the prescribed certificate approving the change; or(ii)if it is a change of name, a new certificate of registration reflecting the new name.
(5)If the Labour Commissioner refuses to approve a change, the Labour Commissioner must give written notice of that decision and the reasons for the refusal.
(6)The provisions of section 53(2) to (5) apply, with the necessary changes, to applications in terms of this section.

55. Winding up of trade union or employers’ organisation

(1)The Labour Court may order a trade union or employers’ organisation to be wound up if -(a)the union or organisation has resolved to wind up its affairs and has applied to the Court for an order giving effect to that resolution;(b)the Labour Commissioner or any member of the union or organisation has applied to the Court for its winding up and the Court is satisfied that, for some reason that cannot be remedied, it is unable to continue functioning;(c)a person has applied for its winding up because it is insolvent.
(2)If the reason for the winding up is insolvency -(a)the Insolvency Act, 1943 (Act No. 16 of 1943) applies; but[The correct citation for the Insolvency Act is Act 24 of 1936. Act 16 of 1943 is the Insolvency Amendment Act which made the Insolvency Act 24 of 1936 applicable to South West Africa.](b)any reference in that Act to the court must be interpreted as referring to the Labour Court.

56. Appeals from decisions of Labour Commissioner

Any person aggrieved by a decision of the Labour Commissioner made under this Part may appeal to the Labour Court against that decision.

Part B – REGISTRATION OF TRADE UNIONS AND EMPLOYERS’ ORGANISATIONS

57. Requirements for registration

(1)Any trade union or employers’ organisation that has adopted a constitution that complies with section 53 may apply to the Labour Commissioner for registration, by submitting to the Labour Commissioner -(a)the prescribed form duly completed; and(b)three copies of its constitution, each duly certified by its chairperson and secretary as a true and correct copy of the constitution.
(2)The Labour Commissioner may require further information in support of an application.
(3)The Labour Commissioner must -(a)consider the application and any further information supplied by the applicant; and(b)if the constitution of the applicant meets the requirements for registration set out in section 53(2) and (3), register the applicant by issuing the prescribed certificate of registration.
(4)If the Labour Commissioner refuses to register the applicant, the Labour Commissioner must give written notice of that decision and the reasons for the refusal.
(5)The Minister may, by regulation, prescribe further requirements or conditions to be satisfied before registration under this Chapter.

58. Effect of registration of trade union or employers’ organisation

(1)A registered trade union or employers’ organisation is a juristic person.
(2)A member, office bearer or official of a registered trade union or employers’ organisation is not personally liable for any liability or obligation incurred in good faith by that union or organisation only because of being a member, office bearer or official.

59. Rights of registered trade unions and registered employers’ organisations

(1)Subject to any provision of this Act to the contrary, a registered trade union has the right -(a)to bring a case on behalf of its members and to represent its members in any proceedings brought in terms of this Act;(b)of access to an employer’s premises in terms of section 65;(c)to have union fees deducted on its behalf in terms of section 66;(d)to form federations with other registered trade unions;(e)to affiliate to and participate in the activities of federations formed with other trade unions;(f)to affiliate to and participate in the activities of any international workers’ organisation and, subject to any laws governing exchange control -(i)to make contributions to such an organisation; and(ii)to receive financial assistance from such an organisation;(g)in the case of a trade union recognised as an exclusive bargaining agent in terms of section 64 of this Act, to negotiate the terms of, and enter into, a collective agreement with an employer or a registered employers’ organisation; and(h)to report to the Labour Commissioner any dispute which has arisen between any employer and that employer’s employees who are members of the trade union.
(2)