Labour Court Main Division http://namiblii.org/index.php/ en Natangwe v S (HC-NLD-CRI-APP-CAL 52 of 2020) [2021] NALCMD 11 (04 February 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/labour-court-main-division/2021/11-0 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Natangwe v S (HC-NLD-CRI-APP-CAL 52 of 2020) [2021] NALCMD 11 (04 February 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/19/2021 - 11:05</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nalcmd/2021/11/2021-nalcmd-11.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=51378">2021-nalcmd-11.docx</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HELD AT OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">APPEAL JUDGEMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:670px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:319px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Fillemon Natangwe v The State</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i> </i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No.: </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-NLD-CRI-APP-CAL-2020/00052</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:319px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:116px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J et</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice Small AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:116px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard on</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> : 08 December 2020</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: 04 February 2021 </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Natangwe v S </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-NLD-CRI-APP-CAL-2020/00052) [2021] NAHCNLD 11  (04 February 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:5px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The appeal partly succeeds.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The conviction of dealing in cannabis is set aside and substituted with a conviction of possession of cannabis in contravening s 2(b) of Act 41 of 1971.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence of 24 months imprisonment is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (Small AJ concurring);</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]<b>        </b>Appellant and accused one (now deceased) were charged with contravening section 2(a) of Act 41 of 1971; Dealing in a prohibited dependence-producing drug alternatively possession of a prohibited dependence producing drug. At the commencement of the trial accused one passed on and the charges were withdrawn against her. The matter proceeded against accused two. He pleaded not guilty to both main and alternative counts. After the evidence was led’ the magistrate relying on the s 10 presumption under the Act convicted the accused of dealing in cannabis and subsequently sentenced him to 24 months imprisonment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]<b>        </b>Dissatisfied with both conviction and sentence imposed, the appellant filed a notice of appeal. Although the appellant appealed against both the conviction and sentence the grounds and arguments raised lean more towards sentence. For good measure he also appealed against a fine, even though no fine was imposed. Counsel for the respondent in the heads of argument submitted that, the conviction on the charge of contravening section 2 (a) of the Act is flawed in that the magistrate relied on the presumption without cautioning the appellant against such. Counsel further submitted that this court is bound to set aside the conviction of dealing and substitute it with possession of cannabis. With regard to appeal against sentence counsel submitted that a sentence of 24 months imprisonment of which 12 months are suspended for that period will be an appropriate  sentence in the circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]<b>        </b>While perusing the record in preparation of the judgement it became obvious that the State led evidence of two witnesses. They testified that they searched the accused as well as his stand and found nothing. Thereafter accused took them to his room. They further testified that they knew it was accused’s room because he led them and opened the door with the key. In the process of searching they lifted the mattress and found the transparent packets between the mattress and the bed. At that moment, accused walked outside, ran and fled the scene. They confirmed the content of these packets to be cannabis.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]<b>        </b>Accused gave evidence and stated that the police came to his house but did not find anything. They went to the lady’s house where cannabis was found. He was not staying at that house and was just informed that cannabis was found. He was later arrested. He did not know why the police claimed it was his cannabis. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]<b>        </b>The magistrate rightly found the accused’s version not possibly reasonably be true and rejected it as false. However in her reason for convicting the accused on dealing in dagga she stated that section 10 of the Act indicates that accused is presumed to be dealing in cannabis if found in possession of more than 115 grams of cannabis and he fails to prove to the contrary. The magistrate further found that the quantity and the manner in which the cannabis was wrapped is clear that accused was dealing in cannabis. It is the reliance on the presumption this court found to be a misdirection. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]<b>        </b>It is common cause that, the court a quo was dealing with an undefended accused. This court has on numerous occasion held that for a conviction on dealing in cannabis to follow, accused has (in the particulars of the charge) to be informed of the presumption and the contents of the evidence on which the state is intending to rely on. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]<b>        </b>I respectfully agree with the Court’s holding in <i>S v Kuvare</i> 1992 NR 7 (HC) that, where an accused is charged with having contravened s 2 (a) of the Act, it is unfair not to inform him in the particulars of the charge that he is presumed to have dealt in dagga because he was in possession of more than 115 grams of dagga as provided in s 10 (1) (a) (i). Furthermore, in such circumstances the accused should be informed by the prosecutor of the presumption and the content of the evidence which he/she intended to lead. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]<b>        </b>It is trite that 334 grams of cannabis is quite a substantial quantity. However that is not sufficient to warrant a conviction on dealing in cannabis relying solely on the s 10 presumption. In the instant case there is no evidence that cannabis had been packed for sale for the magistrate to form such opinion. Had the accused <i>in casu</i> been warned of the presumption created by s 10, the conviction on dealing could not have been faulted. The failure to caution the undefended accused prejudiced him and the magistrate committed an irregularity that vitiating the proceedings. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]<b>        </b>I am satisfied that the evidence proves the offence of contravening s 2 (b) of the Act; possession of a prohibited dependence producing substance and the magistrate was correct in rejecting the accused’s evidence. Thus the conviction on dealing in prohibited dependence producing substance has in terms of s 322 (1) (b) of Act 51 of 1977 as amended read with s 19 (1) (b) of the High Court Act 16 of 1990 to be set aside and be substituted. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">AD sentence:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]<b>      </b>With regard to the appeal against sentence it is our respective view that the sentence of 24 months imprisonment on dealing in cannabis valued 334 grams is too lenient when regard is had that accused had recently been convicted of possession of cannabis. Accused had not been rehabilitated and his conduct calls for a lengthy custodial sentence. Considering the quantity and the value involved this court will not interfere with the discretion exercised and the appeal stands to fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]<b>      </b>In the result:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:76px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1. The appeal partly succeeds.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:76px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2. The conviction of dealing in cannabis is set aside and substituted with a conviction of possession of cannabis in contravening of s 2(b) of Act 41 of 1971.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:76px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3. The sentence of 24 months imprisonment is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge(s) signature</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Comments:</span></span></span></b>  </span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">None</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SMALL AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">None</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:37px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                     Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Appellant</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondent</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr F Natangwe</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Oluno Correctional Facility, Ondangwa</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ms S Petrus</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Office of the Prosecutor General, Oshakati</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:319px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:331px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-943ebeb2d67d531dcc6c1967db091b8c33e9ba5a72a8bf11a9fc82206d31a266"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HELD AT OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">APPEAL JUDGEMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:670px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:319px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Fillemon Natangwe v The State</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i> </i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No.: </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-NLD-CRI-APP-CAL-2020/00052</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:319px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:116px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J et</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice Small AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:116px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard on</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> : 08 December 2020</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: 04 February 2021 </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Natangwe v S </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-NLD-CRI-APP-CAL-2020/00052) [2021] NAHCNLD 11  (04 February 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:5px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The appeal partly succeeds.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The conviction of dealing in cannabis is set aside and substituted with a conviction of possession of cannabis in contravening s 2(b) of Act 41 of 1971.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence of 24 months imprisonment is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (Small AJ concurring);</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]<b>        </b>Appellant and accused one (now deceased) were charged with contravening section 2(a) of Act 41 of 1971; Dealing in a prohibited dependence-producing drug alternatively possession of a prohibited dependence producing drug. At the commencement of the trial accused one passed on and the charges were withdrawn against her. The matter proceeded against accused two. He pleaded not guilty to both main and alternative counts. After the evidence was led’ the magistrate relying on the s 10 presumption under the Act convicted the accused of dealing in cannabis and subsequently sentenced him to 24 months imprisonment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]<b>        </b>Dissatisfied with both conviction and sentence imposed, the appellant filed a notice of appeal. Although the appellant appealed against both the conviction and sentence the grounds and arguments raised lean more towards sentence. For good measure he also appealed against a fine, even though no fine was imposed. Counsel for the respondent in the heads of argument submitted that, the conviction on the charge of contravening section 2 (a) of the Act is flawed in that the magistrate relied on the presumption without cautioning the appellant against such. Counsel further submitted that this court is bound to set aside the conviction of dealing and substitute it with possession of cannabis. With regard to appeal against sentence counsel submitted that a sentence of 24 months imprisonment of which 12 months are suspended for that period will be an appropriate  sentence in the circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]<b>        </b>While perusing the record in preparation of the judgement it became obvious that the State led evidence of two witnesses. They testified that they searched the accused as well as his stand and found nothing. Thereafter accused took them to his room. They further testified that they knew it was accused’s room because he led them and opened the door with the key. In the process of searching they lifted the mattress and found the transparent packets between the mattress and the bed. At that moment, accused walked outside, ran and fled the scene. They confirmed the content of these packets to be cannabis.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]<b>        </b>Accused gave evidence and stated that the police came to his house but did not find anything. They went to the lady’s house where cannabis was found. He was not staying at that house and was just informed that cannabis was found. He was later arrested. He did not know why the police claimed it was his cannabis. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]<b>        </b>The magistrate rightly found the accused’s version not possibly reasonably be true and rejected it as false. However in her reason for convicting the accused on dealing in dagga she stated that section 10 of the Act indicates that accused is presumed to be dealing in cannabis if found in possession of more than 115 grams of cannabis and he fails to prove to the contrary. The magistrate further found that the quantity and the manner in which the cannabis was wrapped is clear that accused was dealing in cannabis. It is the reliance on the presumption this court found to be a misdirection. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]<b>        </b>It is common cause that, the court a quo was dealing with an undefended accused. This court has on numerous occasion held that for a conviction on dealing in cannabis to follow, accused has (in the particulars of the charge) to be informed of the presumption and the contents of the evidence on which the state is intending to rely on. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]<b>        </b>I respectfully agree with the Court’s holding in <i>S v Kuvare</i> 1992 NR 7 (HC) that, where an accused is charged with having contravened s 2 (a) of the Act, it is unfair not to inform him in the particulars of the charge that he is presumed to have dealt in dagga because he was in possession of more than 115 grams of dagga as provided in s 10 (1) (a) (i). Furthermore, in such circumstances the accused should be informed by the prosecutor of the presumption and the content of the evidence which he/she intended to lead. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]<b>        </b>It is trite that 334 grams of cannabis is quite a substantial quantity. However that is not sufficient to warrant a conviction on dealing in cannabis relying solely on the s 10 presumption. In the instant case there is no evidence that cannabis had been packed for sale for the magistrate to form such opinion. Had the accused <i>in casu</i> been warned of the presumption created by s 10, the conviction on dealing could not have been faulted. The failure to caution the undefended accused prejudiced him and the magistrate committed an irregularity that vitiating the proceedings. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]<b>        </b>I am satisfied that the evidence proves the offence of contravening s 2 (b) of the Act; possession of a prohibited dependence producing substance and the magistrate was correct in rejecting the accused’s evidence. Thus the conviction on dealing in prohibited dependence producing substance has in terms of s 322 (1) (b) of Act 51 of 1977 as amended read with s 19 (1) (b) of the High Court Act 16 of 1990 to be set aside and be substituted. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">AD sentence:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]<b>      </b>With regard to the appeal against sentence it is our respective view that the sentence of 24 months imprisonment on dealing in cannabis valued 334 grams is too lenient when regard is had that accused had recently been convicted of possession of cannabis. Accused had not been rehabilitated and his conduct calls for a lengthy custodial sentence. Considering the quantity and the value involved this court will not interfere with the discretion exercised and the appeal stands to fail. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]<b>      </b>In the result:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:76px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1. The appeal partly succeeds.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:76px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2. The conviction of dealing in cannabis is set aside and substituted with a conviction of possession of cannabis in contravening of s 2(b) of Act 41 of 1971.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:76px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3. The sentence of 24 months imprisonment is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge(s) signature</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Comments:</span></span></span></b>  </span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">None</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SMALL AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:46px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">None</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:670px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:37px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                     Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Appellant</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondent</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:339px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr F Natangwe</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Oluno Correctional Facility, Ondangwa</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ms S Petrus</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Office of the Prosecutor General, Oshakati</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:319px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:331px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 19 Jul 2021 11:05:19 +0000 Mariana 25429 at http://namiblii.org Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v Sheyanena Thobias (LCA 3 of 2016) [2021] NALCMD 22 (11 May 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/labour-court-main-division/2021/22 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v Sheyanena Thobias (LCA 3 of 2016) [2021] NALCMD 22 (11 May 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 09:58</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-search-summary field--type-text-with-summary field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Search summary</div> <div class="field__item"><p><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Recusal of a Judge</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">- Recusal application brought after appeal heard and judgment reserved but before delivery of judgment- the test of double reasonableness applied and confirmed. There is no time bar to an application of recusal if brought on the correct facts. The interest of justice is best served if the presiding judge would have recused herself at the commencement of the hearing if she aware of the correct facts- recusal is merited despite the delay in bringing the recusal application, which delay may undermine the interest of justice and may very well be a bar to an application for recusal. Further factors considered by the court to be of relevance is the delay in bringing the application, failure to timeously alert the court to the correct facts and the administration of justice.</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-headnote-and-holding field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Headnote and holding</div> <div class="field__item"><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The applicant brought an application for the judge to recuse herself after the appeal was heard and judgement reserved but not yet delivered. The respondent in the appeal is a member of the Mine Workers Union (MUN). MUN instructed the respondent’s legal practitioner to act on behalf of the respondent to oppose the appeal. It is common cause that the presiding judge at the time of hearing the appeal was an acting judge, and she returned to her practice as a legal practitioner thereafter.  It is further common cause that MUN is a client of the practice of the acting presiding judge, and <a name="_Hlk71376096" id="_Hlk71376096">MUN in fact represents its members in labour matters and instructs and pay attorneys to represent its members in labour matters.  The presiding judge at the time was not aware that the respondent is a member of MUN, and this was not brought to the attention of the judge until much later when the judgment was delayed. The applicant assert that the presiding judge should recuse herself now that the association with MUN was brought to her attention before the judgment is delivered.</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, t</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">he relationship or the association between the presiding officer and the MUN and its member is not trivial in nature and the presiding officer </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">could not bring the necessary judicial objectivity to the issues in the case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, the double-reasonableness test to the consideration of the correct facts is applicable when considering an application for recusal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the presiding officer heard the appeal in oblivion to the correct facts, and the court would determine the application on the basis of apprehension of bias, which is apprehension is based on the current and continuing association between the presiding officer and the respondent, as a member of the MUN, and there is no time bar- such can be raised even after matter heard but before judgment is delivered. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held </span></span></span></i><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">that</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, fundamental considerations, namely, the failure by the applicant to disclose that the respondent is a member of the MUN and its failure to bring an application earlier constitute evidence that the applicant did not consider there to be a risk of bias, perceived or real. The other consideration is the interests of justice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, a party cannot acquiesce on a matter as serious as bias and the obligation of a judge to recuse himself or herself in the interests of justice, particularly having regard to the constitutional right to a fair trial.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, the court </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">accepts that the application has merit and the applicant’s perceived bias is well founded on the correct facts. However, in the interest of justice, the court frowns upon the conduct of the applicant by delaying in bringing of the recusal application and its failure to alert the court timeously of the association with MUN.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nalcmd/2021/22/2021-nalcmd-22.doc" type="application/msword; length=126464">2021-nalcmd-22.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><shape id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" o:gfxdata="UEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQC2gziS/gAAAOEBAAATAAAAW0NvbnRlbnRfVHlwZXNdLnhtbJSRQU7DMBBF&lt;br /&gt;&#10;90jcwfIWJU67QAgl6YK0S0CoHGBkTxKLZGx5TGhvj5O2G0SRWNoz/78nu9wcxkFMGNg6quQqL6RA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;0s5Y6ir5vt9lD1JwBDIwOMJKHpHlpr69KfdHjyxSmriSfYz+USnWPY7AufNIadK6MEJMx9ApD/oD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OlTrorhX2lFEilmcO2RdNtjC5xDF9pCuTyYBB5bi6bQ4syoJ3g9WQ0ymaiLzg5KdCXlKLjvcW893&lt;br /&gt;&#10;SUOqXwnz5DrgnHtJTxOsQfEKIT7DmDSUCaxw7Rqn8787ZsmRM9e2VmPeBN4uqYvTtW7jvijg9N/y&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JsXecLq0q+WD6m8AAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQA4/SH/1gAAAJQBAAALAAAAX3JlbHMvLnJl&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bHOkkMFqwzAMhu+DvYPRfXGawxijTi+j0GvpHsDYimMaW0Yy2fr2M4PBMnrbUb/Q94l/f/hMi1qR&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JVI2sOt6UJgd+ZiDgffL8ekFlFSbvV0oo4EbChzGx4f9GRdb25HMsYhqlCwG5lrLq9biZkxWOiqY&lt;br /&gt;&#10;22YiTra2kYMu1l1tQD30/bPm3wwYN0x18gb45AdQl1tp5j/sFB2T0FQ7R0nTNEV3j6o9feQzro1i&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OWA14Fm+Q8a1a8+Bvu/d/dMb2JY5uiPbhG/ktn4cqGU/er3pcvwCAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;IQB+xl6WJAIAAFAEAAAOAAAAZHJzL2Uyb0RvYy54bWysVFFv2yAQfp+0/4B4X+xYSdpacaouXaZJ&lt;br /&gt;&#10;XTep3Q/AGNtowDEgsbNfvwOnWdS9VfMD4jj47u777ry+HbUiB+G8BFPR+SynRBgOjTRdRX887z5c&lt;br /&gt;&#10;U+IDMw1TYERFj8LT2837d+vBlqKAHlQjHEEQ48vBVrQPwZZZ5nkvNPMzsMKgswWnWUDTdVnj2IDo&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WmVFnq+yAVxjHXDhPZ7eT066SfhtK3j41rZeBKIqirmFtLq01nHNNmtWdo7ZXvJTGuwNWWgmDQY9&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Q92zwMjeyX+gtOQOPLRhxkFn0LaSi1QDVjPPX1Xz1DMrUi1Ijrdnmvz/g+WPh++OyKaiBSWGaZTo&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WYyBfISRFJGdwfoSLz1ZvBZGPEaVU6XePgD/6YmBbc9MJ+6cg6EXrMHs5vFldvF0wvERpB6+QoNh&lt;br /&gt;&#10;2D5AAhpbpyN1SAZBdFTpeFYmpsJjyOWqmOfo4ugrFlerZZIuY+XLa+t8+CxAk7ipqEPlEzo7PPgQ&lt;br /&gt;&#10;s2Hly5UYzIOSzU4qlQzX1VvlyIFhl+zSlwp4dU0ZMlT0ZlksJwLeAKFlwHZXUlf0Oo/f1ICRtk+m&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Sc0YmFTTHlNW5sRjpG4iMYz1eNKlhuaIjDqY2hrHEDc9uN+UDNjSFfW/9swJStQXg6rczBeLOAPJ&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WCyvCjTcpae+9DDDEaqigZJpuw3T3Oytk12PkaY+MHCHSrYykRwln7I65Y1tm7g/jVici0s73fr7&lt;br /&gt;&#10;I9j8AQAA//8DAFBLAwQUAAYACAAAACEAT6Rysd8AAAAJAQAADwAAAGRycy9kb3ducmV2LnhtbEyP&lt;br /&gt;&#10;QW/CMAyF75P2HyIj7TJBQpFgdHURQpt2BnbZLTSmrWiStgm07NfPO20n23pPz9/LNqNtxI36UHuH&lt;br /&gt;&#10;MJ8pEOQKb2pXInwe36cvIELUzujGO0K4U4BN/viQ6dT4we3pdoil4BAXUo1QxdimUoaiIqvDzLfk&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WDv73urIZ19K0+uBw20jE6WW0ura8YdKt7SrqLgcrhbBD29366lTyfPXt/3Ybbv9OekQnybj9hVE&lt;br /&gt;&#10;pDH+meEXn9EhZ6aTvzoTRIOwmq+4S0SYrnmyYb1c8HJCWCgFMs/k/wb5DwAAAP//AwBQSwECLQAU&lt;br /&gt;&#10;AAYACAAAACEAtoM4kv4AAADhAQAAEwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAW0NvbnRlbnRfVHlwZXNdLnht&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bFBLAQItABQABgAIAAAAIQA4/SH/1gAAAJQBAAALAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC8BAABfcmVscy8ucmVs&lt;br /&gt;&#10;c1BLAQItABQABgAIAAAAIQB+xl6WJAIAAFAEAAAOAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC4CAABkcnMvZTJvRG9j&lt;br /&gt;&#10;LnhtbFBLAQItABQABgAIAAAAIQBPpHKx3wAAAAkBAAAPAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAH4EAABkcnMvZG93&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bnJldi54bWxQSwUGAAAAAAQABADzAAAAigUAAAAA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;" strokecolor="white" style="position:absolute; left:0; text-align:left; margin-left:478px; margin-top:-6px; width:123pt; height:19.5pt; z-index:251657728" type="#_x0000_t202"><textbox></textbox></shape></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p align="right" style="text-align:right; margin-bottom:15px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">NOT REPORTABLE</span></span></span></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-center"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">LABOUR COURT OF NAMIBIA MAIN DIVISION, WINDHOEK</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">             LCA 03/2016</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the matter between:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 460.7pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">NAMDEB DIAMOND CORPORATION (PTY) LTD                                       APPLICANT</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">And</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 460.7pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SHEYANENA THOBIAS                                                                                </span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">RESPONDENT</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 414.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral Citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v </span></span></span></span></i><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">Sheyanena Thobias</span></span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt"> (LCA 03/2016) [2021] NALCMD 22 (11 May 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-left:120px; text-indent:-90.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Coram</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:                E ANGULA AJ </span></span></span><b> </b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:120px; text-indent:-90.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:                 Determined on the papers  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:120px; text-indent:-90.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:           11 MAY 2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:120px; text-indent:-90.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Flynote:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">  <b>Recusal of a Judge</b>- Recusal application brought after appeal heard and judgment reserved but before delivery of judgment- the test of double reasonableness applied and confirmed. There is no time bar to an application of recusal if brought on the correct facts. The interest of justice is best served if the presiding judge would have recused herself at the commencement of the hearing if she aware of the correct facts- recusal is merited despite the delay in bringing the recusal application, which delay may undermine the interest of justice and may very well be a bar to an application for recusal. Further factors considered by the court to be of relevance is the delay in bringing the application, failure to timeously alert the court to the correct facts and the administration of justice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Summary:     </span></span></span></b> <span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The applicant brought an application for the judge to recuse herself after the appeal was heard and judgement reserved but not yet delivered. The respondent in the appeal is a member of the Mine Workers Union (MUN). MUN instructed the respondent’s legal practitioner to act on behalf of the respondent to oppose the appeal. It is common cause that the presiding judge at the time of hearing the appeal was an acting judge, and she returned to her practice as a legal practitioner thereafter.  It is further common cause that MUN is a client of the practice of the acting presiding judge, and <a name="_Hlk71376096" id="_Hlk71376096">MUN in fact represents its members in labour matters and instructs and pay attorneys to represent its members in labour matters.  The presiding judge at the time was not aware that the respondent is a member of MUN, and this was not brought to the attention of the judge until much later when the judgment was delayed. The applicant assert that the presiding judge should recuse herself now that the association with MUN was brought to her attention before the judgment is delivered.</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, t</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">he relationship or the association between the presiding officer and the MUN and its member is not trivial in nature and the presiding officer </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">could not bring the necessary judicial objectivity to the issues in the case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, the double-reasonableness test to the consideration of the correct facts is applicable when considering an application for recusal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the presiding officer heard the appeal in oblivion to the correct facts, and the court would determine the application on the basis of apprehension of bias, which is apprehension is based on the current and continuing association between the presiding officer and the respondent, as a member of the MUN, and there is no time bar- such can be raised even after matter heard but before judgment is delivered. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held </span></span></span></i><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">that</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, fundamental considerations, namely, the failure by the applicant to disclose that the respondent is a member of the MUN and its failure to bring an application earlier constitute evidence that the applicant did not consider there to be a risk of bias, perceived or real. The other consideration is the interests of justice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, a party cannot acquiesce on a matter as serious as bias and the obligation of a judge to recuse himself or herself in the interests of justice, particularly having regard to the constitutional right to a fair trial.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, the court </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">accepts that the application has merit and the applicant’s perceived bias is well founded on the correct facts. However, in the interest of justice, the court frowns upon the conduct of the applicant by delaying in bringing of the recusal application and its failure to alert the court timeously of the association with MUN.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <div style="border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt; padding:0cm 0cm 1.0pt 0cm"> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify; padding:0cm"> </p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify; padding:0cm"> </p> </div> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div style="border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt; padding:0cm 0cm 1.0pt 0cm"> <p align="center" style="border:none; text-align:center; padding:0cm"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ORDER</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </div> <p class="CxSpLast" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Angula, AJ recuse herself from the further conduct of the matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:57px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The applicant pays the costs of this application, such costs not limited in terms of rule 32 (11).</span></span></span>  </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <div style="border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt; border-top:solid windowtext 1.5pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:1.0pt 0cm 1.0pt 0cm"> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify; padding:0cm"> </p> <p align="center" style="border:none; text-align:center; padding:0cm"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">E ANGULA AJ:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Brief history</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        The matter before the court is an application for my recusal brought by the applicant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]          The respondent in the appeal was employed as a bus driver by the applicant. He was dismissed following a disciplinary hearing. The respondent referred a dispute to the Labour Commissioner for unfair dismissal and unfair labour practice and the arbitrator found in favour of the respondent. The arbitrator did however not order reinstatement of the respondent, but awarded the respondent compensation of 6 months and 12 months’ salary.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]          The applicant appealed the matter to the labour court. The appeal was heard on 18 November 2016, when judgment was reserved and thereafter the acting presiding judge returned to her private practice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]          During November 2018, when judgment remained outstanding, the applicant addressed a letter to the Registrar raising factors upon which I am asked to recuse myself. The respondent in turn dispute the grounds for recusal in a response letter addressed to the Registrar. On that basis, I informed the parties that the judgment was due to be delivered during December 2018 and as such I called upon the parties in chamber to discuss the applicant’s concerns.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]          During the chamber meeting held in 2019, I assured the parties that I was not aware that the respondent is a member of the MUN. I further informed the parties that I did not represent MUN at the firm as at that time MUN was represented by another director of the firm. I was not privy to the internal working of MUN. I also informed the parties that the director who represented MUN has since resigned and I have taken on the matters previously handled by her, including the MUN.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        It is common cause that </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MUN in fact represents its members and instructs and pay attorneys to represent its members in labour matters.  Although I was at the time not aware that the respondent is a member of MUN, this fact was equally not brought to my attention until November 2018 and again in January 2019 during the chamber meeting. In November 2018, I note that the judgment was delayed. The applicant asserts that I should now recuse myself as the association with MUN was brought to my attention despite the fact that the judgment was prepared and ready for delivery. The respondent vehemently opposed the request for my recusal, hence this application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span>        <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">There are three factors which are relevant to the grounds raised for this court to consider the recusal application. They can be conveniently dealt with as they provide a perspective to the way in which the arguments raised by the applicant are to be considered.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        First, at the beginning of 2016, MUN became a client of the firm at which I practice.  In 2018, MUN ranked amongst the top clients of the firm. Second, MUN does represents its members and actively instructs legal practitioners to represent its members. MUN is not merely a financier despite paying legal fees on behalf of its members.  MUN is the client and not the individual members represented by the firm. Third, the respondent is a member of MUN, and the legal practitioner of the respondent was instructed by MUN to represent the respondent in the labour matter. I was not aware that the respondent was a member of MUN at that time as the parties did not appraise me of this fact when the appeal was heard.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        These facts are of relevance, in relation to the allegation of apprehension of bias raised in favour of the applicant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      The respondent correctly asserted that at the time of hearing of the appeal I was not informed and was not aware that the respondent is a member of MUN.  It is common cause that I did not know the respondent personally and did not act on his behalf in his personal capacity and as a member of the MUN.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      The respondent further asserts that I, as a presiding judge, have no interest in the outcome of the matter and is not partial towards the respondent. This is indeed correct.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Test for recusal</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]        The test for recusal is well established. Both the High Court and Supreme Court have honed down the legal requirements to include at least a double-reasonableness test based on a consideration of the correct facts. In <i>President of the Republic of South Africa and Others v South African Rugby Football Union and Others<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> (the <i>SARFU</i> case) para 48, cited with approval by Damaseb DCJ in the <i>Minister of Finance and Another v Hollard Insurance Company of Namibia and Others</i><a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a>, it was put as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘The question is whether a reasonable, objective and informed person would on the correct facts reasonably apprehend that the Judge has not or will not bring an impartial mind to bear on the adjudication of the case, that is a mind open to persuasion by the evidence and the submissions of counsel.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]        The present case turns in part on what are the true facts and there is no dispute as to the correct facts, the following extract from <i>SARFU</i> (para 45) is of relevance: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘The apprehension of the reasonable person must be assessed in the light of the true facts as they emerge at the hearing of the application. It follows that incorrect facts which were taken into account by an applicant must be ignored in applying the test.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]        The double-reasonableness test was explained by Cameron J in <i>South African Commercial Catering and Allied Workers Union and Others v Irvin &amp; Johnson Ltd (Seafoods Division Fish Processing)<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> para 14:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘Not only must the person apprehending bias be a reasonable person, but the apprehension itself must in the circumstances be reasonable.'' This two-fold aspect finds reflection also in <i>S v Roberts</i>, decided shortly after <i>Sarfu</i>, where the Supreme Court of Appeal required both that the apprehension be that of the reasonable person in the position of the litigant and that it be based on reasonable grounds.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]        In paras 12 – 13 the court expanded on <i>SARFU</i> and said:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘(T)wo considerations are built into the test itself. The first is that in considering the application for recusal, the court as a starting point presumes that judicial officers are impartial in adjudicating disputes. As later emerges from the <i>Sarfu</i> judgment, this in-built aspect entails two further consequences. On the one hand, it is the applicant for recusal who bears the onus of rebutting the presumption of judicial impartiality. On the other, the presumption is not easily dislodged. It requires "cogent" or "convincing" evidence to be rebutted.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              The second in-built aspect of the test is that "absolute neutrality" is something of a chimera in the judicial context. This is because Judges are human. They are unavoidably the product of their own life experiences and the perspective thus derived inevitably and distinctively informs each Judge's performance of his or her judicial duties. But colourless neutrality stands in contrast to judicial impartiality — a distinction the <i>Sarfu</i> decision itself vividly illustrates.’ </span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">See <i>S v Shackell<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> <a name="0-0-0-9135" id="0-0-0-9135"></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> [16]       As observed from the earlier extract in S<i>ARFU</i>, an apprehension of bias arises if it is founded ‘on the correct facts’. In other words, if the factual foundation is wanting, then the apprehension is misplaced and that will end the enquiry. Finally, the test is objective and the party alleging bias, or an apprehension of bias bears the onus of proving it. <a name="0-0-0-9147" id="0-0-0-9147"></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]        The following additional principles from the Constitutional Court in <i>Bernet v Absa Bank</i><a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></a> find application, cited with approval and adopted by Smuts J in the matter of <i>Januarie v Registrar of the High Court and Others</i><a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></a>:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">              ‘The apprehension of bias may arise either from the association or interest that the judicial officer has in one of the litigants before the court or from the interest that the judicial office has in the outcome of the case. Or it may arise from the conduct or utterance by a judicial officer prior to or during proceedings. In all these situations, the judicial officer must ordinarily recuse himself or herself. The apprehension of bias principle reflects the fundamental principle of our Constitutional that courts must be independent and impartial. And fundamental to our judicial system is that courts must not only be independent and impartial, but they must be seen to the independent and impartial.’ </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]        In the <i>Minister of Finance and Another v Hollard Company Limited and Others<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7" title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i>, Damaseb DCJ considered the principles of suspicion of partiality as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">              ‘[88]   The rationale of this practice is set out in Bernert. The learned Chief Justice reasoned that where the judge‘s interest in the matter before him is not trivial in nature, it may give rise to a suspicion of partiality. The court pointed out that disclosure of any such interest must be made to the parties even in cases where is no realistic possibility that the outcome of a case would affect a judicial officer’s interest of shareholding. Ncgobo CJ wrote (at p 111A-C):</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">              </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">              The question which a judicial office should subjectively ask himself or herself, therefore, is whether, <a name="_Hlk71455771" id="_Hlk71455771">having regard to his or her share ownership or other interest in one of the litigants in proceedings, he or she can bring the necessary judicial dispassion (objectivity) to the issues in the case</a>. If the answer to this question is negative, the judicial officer must, of his or her own accord, recuse himself or herself. If, on the other hand, the answer to the question is in the affirmative, the second question to ask is whether there is any basis for a reasonable apprehension of bias on the part of the parties, whether on the basis of an interest in the outcome of the case, interest on one of the litigants (by shareholding, family relations or otherwise) or attachment to the case. If the answer to this question is in the affirmative, the judicial officer must disclose his or her interest in the case, no matter how small or trivial that interest may be. And, in the event of any doubt, a judicial officer should err in favour of disclosure.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]        In the matter of <i>Moch v Nedtravel (Pty) Ltd t/a American Express Travel Service</i><a href="#_ftn8" name="_ftnref8" title="" id="_ftnref8"><sup><sup><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]</span></span></span></sup></sup></a><i>,</i> the following is stated in respect of a judge’s outlook on recusal:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">              ‘A judicial officer should not be unduly sensitive and ought not regard an application for his recusal as a personal affront. (Compares <i>S v Barn 1972 (4) SA 41 (E) at43G-44)</i>. If he does, he is likely to get his judgment clouded; and, should he in a case like the present openly convey his resentment to the parties, the result will most likely be to fuel the fire of suspicion on the part of the applicant for recusal. After all, where a reasonable suspicion of bias is alleged, a judge is primarily concerned with the perceptions of the applicant for his recusal for, as Trollip AJA said in <i>S v Rail 1982 (1) SA 828 (A) at 831 in fin-832:</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">     “(T)he Judge must ensure that “justice is done.” It is equally important I think that he should also ensure that justice is seen to be done. After all, that is a fundamental principle of our law and public policy. He should therefore so conduct the trial that his open-mindedness, his impartiality and his fairness are manifest to all those who are concerned in the trial and its outcome, especially the accused.”’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Application of the law to the facts</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]        It is common cause that if at the commencement of the hearing I was aware that the respondent was a member of the MUN, I would have disclosed that fact and recused myself.  This is so because MUN is my client, and the respondent is indirectly a potential client of the firm. I see the relationship between myself as a legal practitioner, MUN and its members enjoying the rights and privileges accorded to a client and attorney to warrant my absolute honesty and loyalty towards such client, without compromising my integrity. <a name="_Hlk71470906" id="_Hlk71470906">The relationship or the association between myself and the MUN and its member is not trivial in nature, it is rather intricate.</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]        Having </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">regard to my relationship or association to the MUN, and such, the respondent, <a name="_Hlk71471075" id="_Hlk71471075">I could not bring the necessary judicial objectivity to the issues in the case</a>. This is because the MUN would expect me, in my capacity as their attorney, not to act against the respondent. In my mind, I do not make a distinction between MUN and its members because of the nature and function of the MUN towards its members. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[22]        <a name="_Hlk71471642" id="_Hlk71471642">Given that I heard the appeal in oblivion to these facts, the court is called upon to consider the recusal application on basis of apprehension of bias </a>as raised by the applicant.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[23] The applicant knows that the MUN instructs attorneys on behalf of its members working at the applicant. The applicant knew that the presiding officer’s firm represent member of the MUN since 2016. The applicant knew, at least in 2017, that the presiding officer’s firm represent members of the MUN and act for the MUN against the applicant but has remained silent until its communication to the Registrar in November 2018.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[24]        It was only after these exchanges between the parties and the presiding officer in chamber, did the applicant alerted the court to this crucial fact.  No explanation was tendered by the applicant why it did not do so earlier and why it waited to bring the present application three years later.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[25]        In <i>S v Herbst</i><a href="#_ftn9" name="_ftnref9" title="" id="_ftnref9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></a><i> </i>the court in dealing with delay did not see it in the form of acquiescence, but rather that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘Although it is obviously desirable that an application for recusal should be brought as soon as possible after the applicant becomes aware of the cause for complaint, I do not think that the applicant's delay in bringing his application in the present case precluded him from bringing it at all.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[26]        <i>Bernert v Absa Bank Supra, </i>para 74 confirms that the issue cannot be considered within the framework of acquiescence. A party cannot acquiesce on a matter as serious as bias and the obligation of a judge to recuse himself or herself in the interests of justice, particularly having regard to the constitutional right to a fair trial<a name="0-0-0-9159" id="0-0-0-9159"></a>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[27]        The applicant, however, argues that, <a name="_Hlk71471883" id="_Hlk71471883">it is the current and continuing association, and there is no time bar</a>. I do not consider this to be a correct characterisation of the issues which arises from delay. <a name="_Hlk71471255" id="_Hlk71471255">The issue raises fundamental considerations, namely, the failure by the applicant to disclose that the respondent is a member of the MUN and its failure to bring an application earlier, at least in 2017, constitute evidence that the applicant did not seriously consider there to be a risk of bias, perceived or real. The other consideration is the interests of justice.</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[28]        In the present matter all the considerations are relevant.  The applicant did not bring the application in 2017, when they allegedly became aware that the firm at which the presiding officer practices was instructed by the MUN and the applicant have failed to give any satisfactory explanation why it did not proceed with the application, but only decided to consider its position for the first time in November 2018. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[29]        The applicant’s conduct is not that of a person who is concerned about the possibility of bias on the part of the presiding judge but more concerned about the actual outcome of the matter- in view of the delayed judgment. The applicant ought to have been forthright with the court. This much is clear given that the applicant insisted on bringing the recusal application despite communication from the presiding judge that the judgment was ready to be delivered in December 2018, a month later. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[30]        As regards the interests of justice, the judgment was ready to be delivered in 2018, after it was already delayed for a period of two years. The delay in bringing the recusal application raises those very issues regarding the interests of justice which weighed with the court in <i>Bernert</i>. In para 74 the court held:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘In my view, whether a litigant should be allowed to raise the issue of recusal at a later stage, despite an earlier opportunity to do so, implicates the interests of justice and not waiver. . . . In addition, the interests of justice demand that the interests of other litigants be considered.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[31]        Although I agree with the applicant that the close association between the MUN and the presiding office only arose after the hearing of this matter- but before the judgment is delivered- constitute a continued apprehension of bias, I disagree that it did not undermine the interest of justice which demand that the court takes into account the interest of the litigants. In 2016, the respondent received an award in his favour. Its 5 years later, and the matter is not yet finalised, had it not been for this recusal application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[32]        In view of the position I took that I would have recused myself had I known that the respondent was a member of the MUN, <a name="_Hlk71472191" id="_Hlk71472191">I accept that the application has merit and the applicant’s perceived bias is well founded on the correct facts. However, in the interest of justice, I frown upon the conduct of the applicant by delaying in bringing this application, or its failure to alert the court timeously of the association with MUN.</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[33]        I therefore grant an order recusing myself from the matter. The applicant must pay the costs of this application because its conduct undermined the interest of justice, which must be seen to be done.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[34]        I accordingly make the following order that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a name="_Hlk71472318" id="_Hlk71472318"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.           Honourable Angula, AJ recuse herself from the further conduct of the matter.</span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         The applicant pays the costs of this application, such costs not limited in terms of rule 32 (11).</span></span></span>                                                            </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                                                                                                                     </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                        _________________</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">E M ANGULA</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:15px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">APPEARANCES:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant:                                                                  Geoff Dicks</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                    Instructed by Köpplinger Boltman</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondent:                                                             Nelao Shilongo</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                    Of Sisa Namandje &amp; Co Inc.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">President of the Republic of South Africa and Others v South African Rugby Football Union and Others</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 1999 (4) SA 147 (CC) (1999 (7) BCLR 725; [1999] ZACC 9)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> <i>Minister of Finance  v Hollard Insurance Company of Namibia Limited </i>(P8-2018) [2019] NASC (28 May 2019)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">South African Commercial Catering and Allied Workers Union and Others v Irvin &amp; Johnson Ltd (Seafoods Division Fish Processing)</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 2000 (3) SA 705 (CC) (2000 (8) BCLR 886; [2000] ZACC 10)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">See <i>S v Shackell</i> 2001 (4) SA 1 (SCA) (2001 (2) SACR 185; [2001] 4 All SA 279) paras 19 – 22</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn5"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title="" id="_ftn5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Bernet v Absa Bank</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 2011 (3) SA 92 (CC)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn6"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6" title="" id="_ftn6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Januarie v Registrar of the High Court and Others</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Case (I396/2009) [2013] NAHMD 170 (19 June 2013), also cited with approval by Geier J in Beukes v The president of the republic of Namibia (A427/2013) [2015] NAHCMD 62 (17)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn7"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7" title="" id="_ftn7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> <i>Minister of Finance  v Hollard Insurance Company of Namibia Limited </i>(P8-2018) [2019] NASC (28 May 2019)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn8"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref8" name="_ftn8" title="" id="_ftn8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Moch v Nedtravel (Pty) Ltd t/a American Express Travel Service</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> 1996 (3) SA 1 (A) ([1996] ZASCA 2).</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn9"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref9" name="_ftn9" title="" id="_ftn9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i>S v Herbst </i>1980 (3) SA 1026 (E)<i> </i></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-ebfe766c354f4e753f89dda136e110f1a14742ba04ff99ba3edbc79fcb32a05b"> <div><div class="views-field 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style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">LABOUR COURT OF NAMIBIA MAIN DIVISION, WINDHOEK</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">             LCA 03/2016</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the matter between:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 460.7pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">NAMDEB DIAMOND CORPORATION (PTY) LTD                                       APPLICANT</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">And</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 460.7pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SHEYANENA THOBIAS                                                                                </span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">RESPONDENT</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 414.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral Citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v </span></span></span></span></i><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">Sheyanena Thobias</span></span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt"> (LCA 03/2016) [2021] NALCMD 22 (11 May 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-left:120px; text-indent:-90.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Coram</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:                E ANGULA AJ </span></span></span><b> </b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:120px; text-indent:-90.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:                 Determined on the papers  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:120px; text-indent:-90.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:           11 MAY 2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:120px; text-indent:-90.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Flynote:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">  <b>Recusal of a Judge</b>- Recusal application brought after appeal heard and judgment reserved but before delivery of judgment- the test of double reasonableness applied and confirmed. There is no time bar to an application of recusal if brought on the correct facts. The interest of justice is best served if the presiding judge would have recused herself at the commencement of the hearing if she aware of the correct facts- recusal is merited despite the delay in bringing the recusal application, which delay may undermine the interest of justice and may very well be a bar to an application for recusal. Further factors considered by the court to be of relevance is the delay in bringing the application, failure to timeously alert the court to the correct facts and the administration of justice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Summary:     </span></span></span></b> <span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The applicant brought an application for the judge to recuse herself after the appeal was heard and judgement reserved but not yet delivered. The respondent in the appeal is a member of the Mine Workers Union (MUN). MUN instructed the respondent’s legal practitioner to act on behalf of the respondent to oppose the appeal. It is common cause that the presiding judge at the time of hearing the appeal was an acting judge, and she returned to her practice as a legal practitioner thereafter.  It is further common cause that MUN is a client of the practice of the acting presiding judge, and <a name="_Hlk71376096" id="_Hlk71376096">MUN in fact represents its members in labour matters and instructs and pay attorneys to represent its members in labour matters.  The presiding judge at the time was not aware that the respondent is a member of MUN, and this was not brought to the attention of the judge until much later when the judgment was delayed. The applicant assert that the presiding judge should recuse herself now that the association with MUN was brought to her attention before the judgment is delivered.</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, t</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">he relationship or the association between the presiding officer and the MUN and its member is not trivial in nature and the presiding officer </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">could not bring the necessary judicial objectivity to the issues in the case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, the double-reasonableness test to the consideration of the correct facts is applicable when considering an application for recusal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the presiding officer heard the appeal in oblivion to the correct facts, and the court would determine the application on the basis of apprehension of bias, which is apprehension is based on the current and continuing association between the presiding officer and the respondent, as a member of the MUN, and there is no time bar- such can be raised even after matter heard but before judgment is delivered. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held </span></span></span></i><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">that</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, fundamental considerations, namely, the failure by the applicant to disclose that the respondent is a member of the MUN and its failure to bring an application earlier constitute evidence that the applicant did not consider there to be a risk of bias, perceived or real. The other consideration is the interests of justice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, a party cannot acquiesce on a matter as serious as bias and the obligation of a judge to recuse himself or herself in the interests of justice, particularly having regard to the constitutional right to a fair trial.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held that</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, the court </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">accepts that the application has merit and the applicant’s perceived bias is well founded on the correct facts. However, in the interest of justice, the court frowns upon the conduct of the applicant by delaying in bringing of the recusal application and its failure to alert the court timeously of the association with MUN.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <div style="border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt; padding:0cm 0cm 1.0pt 0cm"> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify; padding:0cm"> </p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify; padding:0cm"> </p> </div> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div style="border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt; padding:0cm 0cm 1.0pt 0cm"> <p align="center" style="border:none; text-align:center; padding:0cm"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ORDER</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </div> <p class="CxSpLast" style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Angula, AJ recuse herself from the further conduct of the matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:57px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:17px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The applicant pays the costs of this application, such costs not limited in terms of rule 32 (11).</span></span></span>  </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <div style="border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt; border-top:solid windowtext 1.5pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:1.0pt 0cm 1.0pt 0cm"> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify; padding:0cm"> </p> <p align="center" style="border:none; text-align:center; padding:0cm"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">E ANGULA AJ:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Brief history</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        The matter before the court is an application for my recusal brought by the applicant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]          The respondent in the appeal was employed as a bus driver by the applicant. He was dismissed following a disciplinary hearing. The respondent referred a dispute to the Labour Commissioner for unfair dismissal and unfair labour practice and the arbitrator found in favour of the respondent. The arbitrator did however not order reinstatement of the respondent, but awarded the respondent compensation of 6 months and 12 months’ salary.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]          The applicant appealed the matter to the labour court. The appeal was heard on 18 November 2016, when judgment was reserved and thereafter the acting presiding judge returned to her private practice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]          During November 2018, when judgment remained outstanding, the applicant addressed a letter to the Registrar raising factors upon which I am asked to recuse myself. The respondent in turn dispute the grounds for recusal in a response letter addressed to the Registrar. On that basis, I informed the parties that the judgment was due to be delivered during December 2018 and as such I called upon the parties in chamber to discuss the applicant’s concerns.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]          During the chamber meeting held in 2019, I assured the parties that I was not aware that the respondent is a member of the MUN. I further informed the parties that I did not represent MUN at the firm as at that time MUN was represented by another director of the firm. I was not privy to the internal working of MUN. I also informed the parties that the director who represented MUN has since resigned and I have taken on the matters previously handled by her, including the MUN.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        It is common cause that </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MUN in fact represents its members and instructs and pay attorneys to represent its members in labour matters.  Although I was at the time not aware that the respondent is a member of MUN, this fact was equally not brought to my attention until November 2018 and again in January 2019 during the chamber meeting. In November 2018, I note that the judgment was delayed. The applicant asserts that I should now recuse myself as the association with MUN was brought to my attention despite the fact that the judgment was prepared and ready for delivery. The respondent vehemently opposed the request for my recusal, hence this application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span>        <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">There are three factors which are relevant to the grounds raised for this court to consider the recusal application. They can be conveniently dealt with as they provide a perspective to the way in which the arguments raised by the applicant are to be considered.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        First, at the beginning of 2016, MUN became a client of the firm at which I practice.  In 2018, MUN ranked amongst the top clients of the firm. Second, MUN does represents its members and actively instructs legal practitioners to represent its members. MUN is not merely a financier despite paying legal fees on behalf of its members.  MUN is the client and not the individual members represented by the firm. Third, the respondent is a member of MUN, and the legal practitioner of the respondent was instructed by MUN to represent the respondent in the labour matter. I was not aware that the respondent was a member of MUN at that time as the parties did not appraise me of this fact when the appeal was heard.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        These facts are of relevance, in relation to the allegation of apprehension of bias raised in favour of the applicant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      The respondent correctly asserted that at the time of hearing of the appeal I was not informed and was not aware that the respondent is a member of MUN.  It is common cause that I did not know the respondent personally and did not act on his behalf in his personal capacity and as a member of the MUN.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      The respondent further asserts that I, as a presiding judge, have no interest in the outcome of the matter and is not partial towards the respondent. This is indeed correct.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Test for recusal</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]        The test for recusal is well established. Both the High Court and Supreme Court have honed down the legal requirements to include at least a double-reasonableness test based on a consideration of the correct facts. In <i>President of the Republic of South Africa and Others v South African Rugby Football Union and Others<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> (the <i>SARFU</i> case) para 48, cited with approval by Damaseb DCJ in the <i>Minister of Finance and Another v Hollard Insurance Company of Namibia and Others</i><a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a>, it was put as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘The question is whether a reasonable, objective and informed person would on the correct facts reasonably apprehend that the Judge has not or will not bring an impartial mind to bear on the adjudication of the case, that is a mind open to persuasion by the evidence and the submissions of counsel.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]        The present case turns in part on what are the true facts and there is no dispute as to the correct facts, the following extract from <i>SARFU</i> (para 45) is of relevance: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘The apprehension of the reasonable person must be assessed in the light of the true facts as they emerge at the hearing of the application. It follows that incorrect facts which were taken into account by an applicant must be ignored in applying the test.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]        The double-reasonableness test was explained by Cameron J in <i>South African Commercial Catering and Allied Workers Union and Others v Irvin &amp; Johnson Ltd (Seafoods Division Fish Processing)<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> para 14:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘Not only must the person apprehending bias be a reasonable person, but the apprehension itself must in the circumstances be reasonable.'' This two-fold aspect finds reflection also in <i>S v Roberts</i>, decided shortly after <i>Sarfu</i>, where the Supreme Court of Appeal required both that the apprehension be that of the reasonable person in the position of the litigant and that it be based on reasonable grounds.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]        In paras 12 – 13 the court expanded on <i>SARFU</i> and said:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘(T)wo considerations are built into the test itself. The first is that in considering the application for recusal, the court as a starting point presumes that judicial officers are impartial in adjudicating disputes. As later emerges from the <i>Sarfu</i> judgment, this in-built aspect entails two further consequences. On the one hand, it is the applicant for recusal who bears the onus of rebutting the presumption of judicial impartiality. On the other, the presumption is not easily dislodged. It requires "cogent" or "convincing" evidence to be rebutted.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              The second in-built aspect of the test is that "absolute neutrality" is something of a chimera in the judicial context. This is because Judges are human. They are unavoidably the product of their own life experiences and the perspective thus derived inevitably and distinctively informs each Judge's performance of his or her judicial duties. But colourless neutrality stands in contrast to judicial impartiality — a distinction the <i>Sarfu</i> decision itself vividly illustrates.’ </span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">See <i>S v Shackell<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> <a name="0-0-0-9135" id="0-0-0-9135"></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> [16]       As observed from the earlier extract in S<i>ARFU</i>, an apprehension of bias arises if it is founded ‘on the correct facts’. In other words, if the factual foundation is wanting, then the apprehension is misplaced and that will end the enquiry. Finally, the test is objective and the party alleging bias, or an apprehension of bias bears the onus of proving it. <a name="0-0-0-9147" id="0-0-0-9147"></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]        The following additional principles from the Constitutional Court in <i>Bernet v Absa Bank</i><a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></a> find application, cited with approval and adopted by Smuts J in the matter of <i>Januarie v Registrar of the High Court and Others</i><a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></a>:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">              ‘The apprehension of bias may arise either from the association or interest that the judicial officer has in one of the litigants before the court or from the interest that the judicial office has in the outcome of the case. Or it may arise from the conduct or utterance by a judicial officer prior to or during proceedings. In all these situations, the judicial officer must ordinarily recuse himself or herself. The apprehension of bias principle reflects the fundamental principle of our Constitutional that courts must be independent and impartial. And fundamental to our judicial system is that courts must not only be independent and impartial, but they must be seen to the independent and impartial.’ </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]        In the <i>Minister of Finance and Another v Hollard Company Limited and Others<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7" title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i>, Damaseb DCJ considered the principles of suspicion of partiality as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">              ‘[88]   The rationale of this practice is set out in Bernert. The learned Chief Justice reasoned that where the judge‘s interest in the matter before him is not trivial in nature, it may give rise to a suspicion of partiality. The court pointed out that disclosure of any such interest must be made to the parties even in cases where is no realistic possibility that the outcome of a case would affect a judicial officer’s interest of shareholding. Ncgobo CJ wrote (at p 111A-C):</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">              </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">              The question which a judicial office should subjectively ask himself or herself, therefore, is whether, <a name="_Hlk71455771" id="_Hlk71455771">having regard to his or her share ownership or other interest in one of the litigants in proceedings, he or she can bring the necessary judicial dispassion (objectivity) to the issues in the case</a>. If the answer to this question is negative, the judicial officer must, of his or her own accord, recuse himself or herself. If, on the other hand, the answer to the question is in the affirmative, the second question to ask is whether there is any basis for a reasonable apprehension of bias on the part of the parties, whether on the basis of an interest in the outcome of the case, interest on one of the litigants (by shareholding, family relations or otherwise) or attachment to the case. If the answer to this question is in the affirmative, the judicial officer must disclose his or her interest in the case, no matter how small or trivial that interest may be. And, in the event of any doubt, a judicial officer should err in favour of disclosure.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]        In the matter of <i>Moch v Nedtravel (Pty) Ltd t/a American Express Travel Service</i><a href="#_ftn8" name="_ftnref8" title="" id="_ftnref8"><sup><sup><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]</span></span></span></sup></sup></a><i>,</i> the following is stated in respect of a judge’s outlook on recusal:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">              ‘A judicial officer should not be unduly sensitive and ought not regard an application for his recusal as a personal affront. (Compares <i>S v Barn 1972 (4) SA 41 (E) at43G-44)</i>. If he does, he is likely to get his judgment clouded; and, should he in a case like the present openly convey his resentment to the parties, the result will most likely be to fuel the fire of suspicion on the part of the applicant for recusal. After all, where a reasonable suspicion of bias is alleged, a judge is primarily concerned with the perceptions of the applicant for his recusal for, as Trollip AJA said in <i>S v Rail 1982 (1) SA 828 (A) at 831 in fin-832:</i></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">     “(T)he Judge must ensure that “justice is done.” It is equally important I think that he should also ensure that justice is seen to be done. After all, that is a fundamental principle of our law and public policy. He should therefore so conduct the trial that his open-mindedness, his impartiality and his fairness are manifest to all those who are concerned in the trial and its outcome, especially the accused.”’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Application of the law to the facts</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]        It is common cause that if at the commencement of the hearing I was aware that the respondent was a member of the MUN, I would have disclosed that fact and recused myself.  This is so because MUN is my client, and the respondent is indirectly a potential client of the firm. I see the relationship between myself as a legal practitioner, MUN and its members enjoying the rights and privileges accorded to a client and attorney to warrant my absolute honesty and loyalty towards such client, without compromising my integrity. <a name="_Hlk71470906" id="_Hlk71470906">The relationship or the association between myself and the MUN and its member is not trivial in nature, it is rather intricate.</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]        Having </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">regard to my relationship or association to the MUN, and such, the respondent, <a name="_Hlk71471075" id="_Hlk71471075">I could not bring the necessary judicial objectivity to the issues in the case</a>. This is because the MUN would expect me, in my capacity as their attorney, not to act against the respondent. In my mind, I do not make a distinction between MUN and its members because of the nature and function of the MUN towards its members. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[22]        <a name="_Hlk71471642" id="_Hlk71471642">Given that I heard the appeal in oblivion to these facts, the court is called upon to consider the recusal application on basis of apprehension of bias </a>as raised by the applicant.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[23] The applicant knows that the MUN instructs attorneys on behalf of its members working at the applicant. The applicant knew that the presiding officer’s firm represent member of the MUN since 2016. The applicant knew, at least in 2017, that the presiding officer’s firm represent members of the MUN and act for the MUN against the applicant but has remained silent until its communication to the Registrar in November 2018.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[24]        It was only after these exchanges between the parties and the presiding officer in chamber, did the applicant alerted the court to this crucial fact.  No explanation was tendered by the applicant why it did not do so earlier and why it waited to bring the present application three years later.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[25]        In <i>S v Herbst</i><a href="#_ftn9" name="_ftnref9" title="" id="_ftnref9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></a><i> </i>the court in dealing with delay did not see it in the form of acquiescence, but rather that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘Although it is obviously desirable that an application for recusal should be brought as soon as possible after the applicant becomes aware of the cause for complaint, I do not think that the applicant's delay in bringing his application in the present case precluded him from bringing it at all.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[26]        <i>Bernert v Absa Bank Supra, </i>para 74 confirms that the issue cannot be considered within the framework of acquiescence. A party cannot acquiesce on a matter as serious as bias and the obligation of a judge to recuse himself or herself in the interests of justice, particularly having regard to the constitutional right to a fair trial<a name="0-0-0-9159" id="0-0-0-9159"></a>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[27]        The applicant, however, argues that, <a name="_Hlk71471883" id="_Hlk71471883">it is the current and continuing association, and there is no time bar</a>. I do not consider this to be a correct characterisation of the issues which arises from delay. <a name="_Hlk71471255" id="_Hlk71471255">The issue raises fundamental considerations, namely, the failure by the applicant to disclose that the respondent is a member of the MUN and its failure to bring an application earlier, at least in 2017, constitute evidence that the applicant did not seriously consider there to be a risk of bias, perceived or real. The other consideration is the interests of justice.</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[28]        In the present matter all the considerations are relevant.  The applicant did not bring the application in 2017, when they allegedly became aware that the firm at which the presiding officer practices was instructed by the MUN and the applicant have failed to give any satisfactory explanation why it did not proceed with the application, but only decided to consider its position for the first time in November 2018. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[29]        The applicant’s conduct is not that of a person who is concerned about the possibility of bias on the part of the presiding judge but more concerned about the actual outcome of the matter- in view of the delayed judgment. The applicant ought to have been forthright with the court. This much is clear given that the applicant insisted on bringing the recusal application despite communication from the presiding judge that the judgment was ready to be delivered in December 2018, a month later. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[30]        As regards the interests of justice, the judgment was ready to be delivered in 2018, after it was already delayed for a period of two years. The delay in bringing the recusal application raises those very issues regarding the interests of justice which weighed with the court in <i>Bernert</i>. In para 74 the court held:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">              ‘In my view, whether a litigant should be allowed to raise the issue of recusal at a later stage, despite an earlier opportunity to do so, implicates the interests of justice and not waiver. . . . In addition, the interests of justice demand that the interests of other litigants be considered.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[31]        Although I agree with the applicant that the close association between the MUN and the presiding office only arose after the hearing of this matter- but before the judgment is delivered- constitute a continued apprehension of bias, I disagree that it did not undermine the interest of justice which demand that the court takes into account the interest of the litigants. In 2016, the respondent received an award in his favour. Its 5 years later, and the matter is not yet finalised, had it not been for this recusal application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[32]        In view of the position I took that I would have recused myself had I known that the respondent was a member of the MUN, <a name="_Hlk71472191" id="_Hlk71472191">I accept that the application has merit and the applicant’s perceived bias is well founded on the correct facts. However, in the interest of justice, I frown upon the conduct of the applicant by delaying in bringing this application, or its failure to alert the court timeously of the association with MUN.</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[33]        I therefore grant an order recusing myself from the matter. The applicant must pay the costs of this application because its conduct undermined the interest of justice, which must be seen to be done.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[34]        I accordingly make the following order that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a name="_Hlk71472318" id="_Hlk71472318"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.           Honourable Angula, AJ recuse herself from the further conduct of the matter.</span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         The applicant pays the costs of this application, such costs not limited in terms of rule 32 (11).</span></span></span>                                                            </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                                                                                                                     </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:42.55pt 70.9pt 106.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                        _________________</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">E M ANGULA</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:15px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">APPEARANCES:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant:                                                                  Geoff Dicks</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                    Instructed by Köpplinger Boltman</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondent:                                                             Nelao Shilongo</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 42.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                    Of Sisa Namandje &amp; Co Inc.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">President of the Republic of South Africa and Others v South African Rugby Football Union and Others</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 1999 (4) SA 147 (CC) (1999 (7) BCLR 725; [1999] ZACC 9)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> <i>Minister of Finance  v Hollard Insurance Company of Namibia Limited </i>(P8-2018) [2019] NASC (28 May 2019)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">South African Commercial Catering and Allied Workers Union and Others v Irvin &amp; Johnson Ltd (Seafoods Division Fish Processing)</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 2000 (3) SA 705 (CC) (2000 (8) BCLR 886; [2000] ZACC 10)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">See <i>S v Shackell</i> 2001 (4) SA 1 (SCA) (2001 (2) SACR 185; [2001] 4 All SA 279) paras 19 – 22</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn5"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title="" id="_ftn5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Bernet v Absa Bank</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 2011 (3) SA 92 (CC)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn6"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6" title="" id="_ftn6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Januarie v Registrar of the High Court and Others</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Case (I396/2009) [2013] NAHMD 170 (19 June 2013), also cited with approval by Geier J in Beukes v The president of the republic of Namibia (A427/2013) [2015] NAHCMD 62 (17)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn7"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7" title="" id="_ftn7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> <i>Minister of Finance  v Hollard Insurance Company of Namibia Limited </i>(P8-2018) [2019] NASC (28 May 2019)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn8"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref8" name="_ftn8" title="" id="_ftn8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Moch v Nedtravel (Pty) Ltd t/a American Express Travel Service</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> 1996 (3) SA 1 (A) ([1996] ZASCA 2).</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn9"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref9" name="_ftn9" title="" id="_ftn9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i>S v Herbst </i>1980 (3) SA 1026 (E)<i> </i></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 09:58:20 +0000 Mariana 25397 at http://namiblii.org Isaacs v Beifang Mining Service (Pty) Ltd & ANother (HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA 16 of 2020) [2021] NALCMD 21 (10 May 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/labour-court-main-division/2021/21 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Isaacs v Beifang Mining Service (Pty) Ltd &amp; ANother (HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA 16 of 2020) [2021] NALCMD 21 (10 May 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 09:55</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-search-summary field--type-text-with-summary field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Search summary</div> <div class="field__item"><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:70.9pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Labour law</b> – Appeal – Question of law – An enquiry into a factual finding of an arbitrator will only amount to a question of law where there is no evidence which could reasonably support the finding of fact. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Labour law</b> —<b> </b>Labour Act 11 of 2007, s 33(1) (a) and (b) — Dismissal — Fairness of — Misconduct — Involving an element of dishonesty — Fair reason — Test whether dismissal for fair reason — If reasonable employer might reasonably have dismissed employee — Employee in breach of duty of acting honestly — Breach material and went to root of employment contract — Dismissal fair. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Evidence </b>— Evidence — Witnesses —  Calling, examination and refutation of — Cross-examination — If party fails to cross-examine witness, it is improper for him to argue that witness should be disbelieved — Party whose witness not cross-examined is entitled to assume that witness's evidence accepted unless it is so absurd, fantastic or of so romancing a nature that no reasonable person can believe it.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-headnote-and-holding field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Headnote and holding</div> <div class="field__item"><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"> The appellant was previously employed by the first respondent as a maintenance foreman responsible for the first respondent’s maintenance workshop. The first respondent conducts drilling and blasting activities, using explosives, as a contractor for Swakop Uranium on its mining site near Arandis. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">Following a disciplinary hearing in December 2017, the appellant was dismissed having been found guilty on two charges of misconduct, namely insubordination and deliberately supplying falsified information.  The matter was referred to arbitration, at the end of which the second respondent found that the appellant’s dismissal was both procedurally and substantively fair.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">Her findings were, amongst others, that the respondent’s witnesses were not meaningfully challenged (in some instances not challenged at all) on the facts and events leading to the charges being laid against the appellant. She also found that the factual basis for the appellant’s belated defence to the charges relating to insubordination was not laid, as the respondent’s witnesses were not cross-examined on this defence.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">The appellant appealed the arbitrator’s findings on the basis that no reasonable trier of fact would have made such findings, and that the arbitrator should have set aside the sanction of dismissal, because the appellant was not counselled on the misconduct complained of.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><i>Held that</i> as an overriding principle it is to be borne in mind that unless the decision of an arbitrator is asserted to be perverse, an Appellate Court should be assiduous to avoid interfering with the decision for the reason that on the facts, it (the Appellate Court) would have reached a different decision on the record.  That is not open to the Appellate Court.  The test is whether the arbitrator reached a decision on the facts that no reasonable decision maker could have reached.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><i>Held further that</i> an employment agreement creates a fiduciary relationship between employer and employee, requiring conduct of the utmost good faith. Therefore, an employee’s dishonest conduct goes to the foundation of the employment relationship. It amounts to a breach of its material terms and has invariably been accepted by our Namibian courts as a valid ground for dismissal.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><i>Held further that a</i> party to legal proceedings has the duty, through cross-examination, to dispute the evidence of witnesses should she disagree with their evidence. She must confront the witnesses with the conflicting version(s) and must place the contrary version(s) before them.  Thus, if the evidence of a witness is not challenged in cross-examination, the party who called the witness (and the trier of fact) may assume that the unchallenged evidence has been accepted as correct.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">The court could not find any basis upon which to hold that the factual findings, or the application of the relevant law by the arbitrator was in any way incorrect and unreasonable. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">The appeal was accordingly dismissed.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nalcmd/2021/21/2021-nalcmd-21.doc" type="application/msword; length=123904">2021-nalcmd-21.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>                                                                                                            </b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">NOT REPORTABLE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><shape id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" o:gfxdata="UEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQC2gziS/gAAAOEBAAATAAAAW0NvbnRlbnRfVHlwZXNdLnhtbJSRQU7DMBBF&lt;br /&gt;&#10;90jcwfIWJU67QAgl6YK0S0CoHGBkTxKLZGx5TGhvj5O2G0SRWNoz/78nu9wcxkFMGNg6quQqL6RA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;0s5Y6ir5vt9lD1JwBDIwOMJKHpHlpr69KfdHjyxSmriSfYz+USnWPY7AufNIadK6MEJMx9ApD/oD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OlTrorhX2lFEilmcO2RdNtjC5xDF9pCuTyYBB5bi6bQ4syoJ3g9WQ0ymaiLzg5KdCXlKLjvcW893&lt;br /&gt;&#10;SUOqXwnz5DrgnHtJTxOsQfEKIT7DmDSUCaxw7Rqn8787ZsmRM9e2VmPeBN4uqYvTtW7jvijg9N/y&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JsXecLq0q+WD6m8AAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQA4/SH/1gAAAJQBAAALAAAAX3JlbHMvLnJl&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bHOkkMFqwzAMhu+DvYPRfXGawxijTi+j0GvpHsDYimMaW0Yy2fr2M4PBMnrbUb/Q94l/f/hMi1qR&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JVI2sOt6UJgd+ZiDgffL8ekFlFSbvV0oo4EbChzGx4f9GRdb25HMsYhqlCwG5lrLq9biZkxWOiqY&lt;br /&gt;&#10;22YiTra2kYMu1l1tQD30/bPm3wwYN0x18gb45AdQl1tp5j/sFB2T0FQ7R0nTNEV3j6o9feQzro1i&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OWA14Fm+Q8a1a8+Bvu/d/dMb2JY5uiPbhG/ktn4cqGU/er3pcvwCAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;IQB+xl6WJAIAAFAEAAAOAAAAZHJzL2Uyb0RvYy54bWysVFFv2yAQfp+0/4B4X+xYSdpacaouXaZJ&lt;br /&gt;&#10;XTep3Q/AGNtowDEgsbNfvwOnWdS9VfMD4jj47u777ry+HbUiB+G8BFPR+SynRBgOjTRdRX887z5c&lt;br /&gt;&#10;U+IDMw1TYERFj8LT2837d+vBlqKAHlQjHEEQ48vBVrQPwZZZ5nkvNPMzsMKgswWnWUDTdVnj2IDo&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WmVFnq+yAVxjHXDhPZ7eT066SfhtK3j41rZeBKIqirmFtLq01nHNNmtWdo7ZXvJTGuwNWWgmDQY9&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Q92zwMjeyX+gtOQOPLRhxkFn0LaSi1QDVjPPX1Xz1DMrUi1Ijrdnmvz/g+WPh++OyKaiBSWGaZTo&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WYyBfISRFJGdwfoSLz1ZvBZGPEaVU6XePgD/6YmBbc9MJ+6cg6EXrMHs5vFldvF0wvERpB6+QoNh&lt;br /&gt;&#10;2D5AAhpbpyN1SAZBdFTpeFYmpsJjyOWqmOfo4ugrFlerZZIuY+XLa+t8+CxAk7ipqEPlEzo7PPgQ&lt;br /&gt;&#10;s2Hly5UYzIOSzU4qlQzX1VvlyIFhl+zSlwp4dU0ZMlT0ZlksJwLeAKFlwHZXUlf0Oo/f1ICRtk+m&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Sc0YmFTTHlNW5sRjpG4iMYz1eNKlhuaIjDqY2hrHEDc9uN+UDNjSFfW/9swJStQXg6rczBeLOAPJ&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WCyvCjTcpae+9DDDEaqigZJpuw3T3Oytk12PkaY+MHCHSrYykRwln7I65Y1tm7g/jVici0s73fr7&lt;br /&gt;&#10;I9j8AQAA//8DAFBLAwQUAAYACAAAACEAgUMzqN8AAAALAQAADwAAAGRycy9kb3ducmV2LnhtbEyP&lt;br /&gt;&#10;wU6DQBCG7ya+w2aaeDHtAlGCyNI0jcZzWy/etuwUSNlZYLeF+vSOJz3OP1/++aZYz7YTVxx960hB&lt;br /&gt;&#10;vIpAIFXOtFQr+Dy8LzMQPmgyunOECm7oYV3e3xU6N26iHV73oRZcQj7XCpoQ+lxKXzVotV+5Hol3&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JzdaHXgca2lGPXG57WQSRam0uiW+0Ogetw1W5/3FKnDT2806HKLk8evbfmw3w+6UDEo9LObNK4iA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;c/iD4Vef1aFkp6O7kPGiU5A+JTGjCpYvUQqCiSzLODly8hynIMtC/v+h/AEAAP//AwBQSwECLQAU&lt;br /&gt;&#10;AAYACAAAACEAtoM4kv4AAADhAQAAEwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAW0NvbnRlbnRfVHlwZXNdLnht&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bFBLAQItABQABgAIAAAAIQA4/SH/1gAAAJQBAAALAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC8BAABfcmVscy8ucmVs&lt;br /&gt;&#10;c1BLAQItABQABgAIAAAAIQB+xl6WJAIAAFAEAAAOAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC4CAABkcnMvZTJvRG9j&lt;br /&gt;&#10;LnhtbFBLAQItABQABgAIAAAAIQCBQzOo3wAAAAsBAAAPAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAH4EAABkcnMvZG93&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bnJldi54bWxQSwUGAAAAAAQABADzAAAAigUAAAAA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;" strokecolor="white" style="position:absolute; left:0; text-align:left; margin-left:428px; margin-top:-61px; width:123pt; height:19.5pt; z-index:251657728" type="#_x0000_t202"><textbox></textbox></shape></span></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"> </p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-center"><b>REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</b></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>LABOUR COURT OF NAMIBIA MAIN DIVISION, WINDHOEK</b></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">             Case no:       HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA-2020/00016</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">In the matter between:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <h4 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><b>EBEN ISAACS                                                                                                     APPELLANT</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></h4> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">and</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="left" style="text-align:left"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">BEIFANG MINING SERVICE (PTY) LTD                                        FIRST RESPONDENT</span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="left" style="text-align:left"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">EMMA NIKANOR N.O.                                                                   SECOND RESPONDENT                                                                                  </span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:133px; text-indent:-99.25pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Neutral citation:   </b><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">Isaacs v Beifang Mining Service (Pty) Ltd </span></i>(HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA-2020/00016) [2021] NALCMD 21 (10 May 2021)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:133px; text-indent:-99.25pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:95px; text-indent:-70.9pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Coram:</b>          Schimming-Chase AJ</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:95px; text-indent:-70.9pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Heard:</b><b>           27 November 2020</b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:95px; text-indent:-70.9pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Delivered:</b><b>     10 May 2021</b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-indent:-72.0pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:70.9pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Flynote:        Labour law</b> – Appeal – Question of law – An enquiry into a factual finding of an arbitrator will only amount to a question of law where there is no evidence which could reasonably support the finding of fact. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Labour law</b> —<b> </b>Labour Act 11 of 2007, s 33(1) (a) and (b) — Dismissal — Fairness of — Misconduct — Involving an element of dishonesty — Fair reason — Test whether dismissal for fair reason — If reasonable employer might reasonably have dismissed employee — Employee in breach of duty of acting honestly — Breach material and went to root of employment contract — Dismissal fair. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Evidence </b>— Evidence — Witnesses —  Calling, examination and refutation of — Cross-examination — If party fails to cross-examine witness, it is improper for him to argue that witness should be disbelieved — Party whose witness not cross-examined is entitled to assume that witness's evidence accepted unless it is so absurd, fantastic or of so romancing a nature that no reasonable person can believe it.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Summary:     </b> The appellant was previously employed by the first respondent as a maintenance foreman responsible for the first respondent’s maintenance workshop. The first respondent conducts drilling and blasting activities, using explosives, as a contractor for Swakop Uranium on its mining site near Arandis. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">Following a disciplinary hearing in December 2017, the appellant was dismissed having been found guilty on two charges of misconduct, namely insubordination and deliberately supplying falsified information.  The matter was referred to arbitration, at the end of which the second respondent found that the appellant’s dismissal was both procedurally and substantively fair.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">Her findings were, amongst others, that the respondent’s witnesses were not meaningfully challenged (in some instances not challenged at all) on the facts and events leading to the charges being laid against the appellant. She also found that the factual basis for the appellant’s belated defence to the charges relating to insubordination was not laid, as the respondent’s witnesses were not cross-examined on this defence.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">The appellant appealed the arbitrator’s findings on the basis that no reasonable trier of fact would have made such findings, and that the arbitrator should have set aside the sanction of dismissal, because the appellant was not counselled on the misconduct complained of.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><i>Held that</i> as an overriding principle it is to be borne in mind that unless the decision of an arbitrator is asserted to be perverse, an Appellate Court should be assiduous to avoid interfering with the decision for the reason that on the facts, it (the Appellate Court) would have reached a different decision on the record.  That is not open to the Appellate Court.  The test is whether the arbitrator reached a decision on the facts that no reasonable decision maker could have reached.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><i>Held further that</i> an employment agreement creates a fiduciary relationship between employer and employee, requiring conduct of the utmost good faith. Therefore, an employee’s dishonest conduct goes to the foundation of the employment relationship. It amounts to a breach of its material terms and has invariably been accepted by our Namibian courts as a valid ground for dismissal.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><i>Held further that a</i> party to legal proceedings has the duty, through cross-examination, to dispute the evidence of witnesses should she disagree with their evidence. She must confront the witnesses with the conflicting version(s) and must place the contrary version(s) before them.  Thus, if the evidence of a witness is not challenged in cross-examination, the party who called the witness (and the trier of fact) may assume that the unchallenged evidence has been accepted as correct.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">The court could not find any basis upon which to hold that the factual findings, or the application of the relevant law by the arbitrator was in any way incorrect and unreasonable. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">The appeal was accordingly dismissed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>ORDER</b></span></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The appeal is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">There shall be no order as to costs.  </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>JUDGMENT</b></span></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-indent:-72.0pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">SCHIMMING-CHASE, AJ</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">This is an appeal against a ruling of the second respondent, the arbitrator, in which she found that the appellant’s dismissal on charges of misconduct was procedurally and substantively fair. Only the first respondent opposed this appeal. I will therefore, for ease of reference, refer to the first respondent as ‘the respondent’.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The respondent conducts drilling and blasting activities, using explosives, as contractor for Swakop Uranium (Pty) Ltd (a mining company) on its mining site, near Arandis. The appellant was employed as a maintenance foreman, in charge of its mechanical workshop.  He had at least two subordinates reporting to him. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant was charged with four counts of misconduct, namely:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:47px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:17px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Insubordination, alternatively failure to comply with a lawful instruction;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Deliberately supplying incorrect and falsified information, alternatively dishonesty;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Breach of contract;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Poor work performance.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">A disciplinary hearing was held on 4 December 2017 and at its conclusion on                          17 January 2018, the appellant was found guilty on two charges of misconduct, namely  - insubordination, and deliberately supplying falsified information. The appellant was also dismissed on this date.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The particulars of the insubordination charge were that the appellant continued to collect parts from or place orders with suppliers without a valid purchase order, in violation of the respondent’s procurement processes and contrary to direct instructions to refrain from doing so. The last incident relevant to the charges occurred on 20 November 2017.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The particulars of the charge of deliberately supplying incorrect and falsified information, were that the appellant submitted falsified records with regard to mandatory statutory inspections to be performed on vehicles utilised in the transport of explosive substances. The incorrect and falsified information included:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:7px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">a backdated inspection sheet, signed off by one N van der Riet and others on the appellant’s instruction, in respect of an inspection performed on vehicle MMU1, whilst Mr Van der Riet did not perform the inspection on this vehicle; and </span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:7px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">various other inspection sheets that had been completed in the month of November at the appellant’s request, but which had been backdated to October 2017. These inspection sheets had a bearing on inspections purportedly performed in October 2017, whilst there were no records of any such inspections actually having taken place.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></li> </ol><ol start="7"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">On 09 May 2018, the appellant referred a dispute of unfair dismissal for arbitration pursuant to the provisions of s 86 of the Labour Act 2007, Act No 11 of 2007 (“the Labour Act”).  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="8"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant advanced that his dismissal was unfair, and without a valid and fair reason because the disciplinary hearing and appeal process did not comply with the rules of natural justice.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="9"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">At the commencement of the hearing and in his opening statement at the arbitration, the appellant advanced additional grounds relating to the severity of the sanction, and contended that his dismissal was inappropriate because there was no counselling provided to the appellant before he was dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="10"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Two witnesses testified at the arbitration hearing for the respondent, namely                         Mr P Rooi, the production manager, and Mr N van der Riet, the workshop foreman and mechanic.The appellant also testified.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="11"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">On 18 February 2020, the arbitrator, dismissed the appellant’s claims, holding that his dismissal by the respondent was for a valid and fair reason, and in compliance with                  s 33 of the Labour Act.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="12"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Her findings were, amongst others, that the respondent’s witnesses were not meaningfully challenged (in some instances not challenged at all) on the facts and events leading to the charges being laid against the appellant. She also found that the factual basis for the appellant’s belated defence to the charges relating to insubordination was also not laid, because the respondent’s witnesses were not cross-examined on this defence, it being raised for the first time during the appellant’s testimony, after the respondent closed its case. She also found the appellant’s evidence to be lacking in credibility.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="13"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant raised some 14 grounds of appeal, some of which were not appealable as they are not questions of law. Distilled to its essence, the appeal is based on the arbitrators’ factual findings being such that no reasonable trier of fact would have made such findings, and that the arbitrator should have set aside the sanction of dismissal, because the appellant was not counselled about the misconduct complained of. Thus, the appeal is aimed at the arbitrator’s findings on the fairness of the disciplinary procedure (procedural fairness) and the validity and fairness of the reasons for the dismissal (substantive fairness).  For ease of reference, the appellant’s grounds of appeal are summarised as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">there was insufficient evidence to find that the appellant failed to obey instructions and falsified documents;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">regarding the findings of insubordination, the arbitrator incorrectly applied the respondent’s procurement rules, because the appellant acted on direct instructions from his supervisor;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> the arbitrator accordingly incorrectly found that the appellant admitted having flouted the procurement procedures;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the arbitrator incorrectly found that the appellant failed to prove that the parts collected were not used in the respondent’s vehicle;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the respondent was inconsistent in disciplining the appellant, having tolerated past orders of parts without following the procurement rules under urgent circumstances;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">generally, the respondent’s evidence of the alleged misconduct was lacking as the witnesses contradicted each other and were evasive; </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the disciplinary sanction (dismissal) was unreasonable and unfair.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="14"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Before dealing with the findings of the arbitrator, a short exposition of the applicable law, which also informed the arbitrator’s findings. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="15"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">As an overriding principle it is to be borne in mind that unless the decision of an arbitrator is asserted to be perverse, an Appellate Court should be assiduous to avoid interfering with the decision for the reason that on the facts, it (the Appellate Court) would have reached a different decision on the record.  That is not open to the Appellate Court.  The test is whether the arbitrator reached a decision on the facts that no reasonable decision maker could have reached.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol start="16"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">An employment agreement creates a fiduciary relationship between employer and employee, requiring conduct of the utmost good faith. In <i>Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v Gaseb<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[3]</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> the Supreme Court expressed itself as follows on this principle:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">            ‘An employee has a fiduciary duty or a duty of trust which involves an obligation not to work against his or her employer’s interest. This was made clear by Smuts J, in <i>Novanam v Willem Absalom &amp; others</i> . In the <i>Novanam</i> matter the labour court referred with approval to <i>Daewoo Heavy Industries (SA) (Pty) Ltd v Banks &amp; others</i> at 462G-463A where the following is stated: “There is in most, if not all contracts of service, whether it be an employment contract or a contract of agency, an implied fiduciary duty on the part of the employee or agent towards the employer or principal as the case may be. In <i>Premier Medical and Industrial Equipment (Pty) Ltd v Winkler &amp; another</i> 1971 (3) SA 866 (W) at 867, Hiemstra J, quoting with approval Hawkins J in <i>Robb v Green</i> [1895] 2 QB1 at 10-11, said as follows at 86H-868A:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-align:justify; text-indent:-18pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">      </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘There can be no doubt that during the currency of his contract of employment the servant owes a fiduciary duty to his master which involves an obligation not to work against his master’s interests. It seems to be a self-evident proposition which applies even though there is not an express term in the contract of employment to that effect. It is stated thus in the leading case of <i>Robb v Green</i> (1895) 2 QB 1, per Hawkins J at 10-11:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:18.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">“I have a very decided opinion that, in the absence of any stipulation to the contrary, there is involved in every contract of service an implied obligation, call it by what name you will, on the servant that he shall perform his duty, especially in these essential respects, namely that he shall honestly and faithfully serve his master; that he shall not abuse his confidence in matters not appertaining to his service, and that he shall, by all reasonable means in his power, protect his master’s interests in respect to matters confided to him in the course of his service.”’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol start="17"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The employment relationship gives rise to a relationship of trust, and the employer is entitled to trust in the honesty and integrity of the employee who must act in the best interest of her employer. Therefore, an employee’s dishonest conduct – be that theft, fraud, forgery, other forms of dishonesty – goes to the foundation of the employment relationship. It amounts to a breach of its material terms and has invariably been accepted by our Namibian courts as a valid ground for dismissal. This principle has also been expressed as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘. . . it was one of the fundamental principles of the employment relationship that an employer should be able to place trust in the employee and that a breach of this trust or form of conduct involving dishonesty is one that goes to the heart of a relationship and is destructive of it’.<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="18"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The respondent’s blasting activities at Swakop Uranium are regulated by the Explosives Act 26 of 1956 (“the Explosives Act”) and the regulations promulgated thereunder<a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>.  Chapter 6 of the regulations places obligations on the respondent, including:  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">prescribing that vehicles transporting explosives must be specifically converted for that purpose and must be licensed as such by an explosives inspector;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">prohibiting transport of explosives, unless in such purposively converted and licensed vehicles;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">prescribing the monthly examination of the condition of the licensed vehicles and its equipment by a qualified motor mechanic or mechanical engineer, during the first week of every month;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">the completion by the qualified motor mechanic or mechanical engineer of a prescribed monthly examination certificate and examination sheet, certifying the examination was conducted and recording the condition of the vehicles and equipment and the results of the inspections and any repairs effected;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">keeping of the certificates of condition and the monthly inspection sheets, which must be sent to the Chief Inspector of Explosives annually, during September each year.<a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="19"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Non-compliance with the regulations is a criminal offence<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7" title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>.   </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="20"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">A party to legal proceedings has the duty, through cross-examination, to dispute the evidence of witnesses should she disagree with their evidence. She must confront the witnesses with the conflicting version(s) and must place the contrary version(s) before them.  Thus, if the evidence of a witness is not challenged in cross-examination, the party who called the witness (and the trier of fact) may assume that the unchallenged evidence has been accepted as correct. In <i>Small v Smith,</i><a href="#_ftn8" name="_ftnref8" title="" id="_ftnref8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> the principle was expressed thus:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <h1 style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘It is, in my opinion, elementary and standard practice for a party to put to each opposing witness so much of his own case or defence as concerns that witness and if need be to inform him, if he has not been given notice thereof, that other witnesses will contradict him, so as to give him fair warning and an opportunity of explaining the contradiction and defending his own character. It is grossly unfair and improper to let a witness’s evidence go unchallenged in cross-examination and afterwards argue that he must be disbelieved. Once a witness’s evidence on a point in dispute has been deliberately left unchallenged in cross-examination and particularly by a legal practitioner, the party calling that witness is normally entitled to assume in the absence of a notice to the contrary that the witness’s testimony is accepted as correct.... unless the testimony is so manifestly absurd, fantastic or of so romancing a character that no reasonable person can attach any credence to it whatsoever.’<a href="#_ftn9" name="_ftnref9" title="" id="_ftnref9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">Where a party denies allegations made against her, and raises grounds to justify her conduct, in essence a special defence, or defence of justification is raised. Such a defence must be properly pleaded, and supported by evidence on a balance of probabilities, in order to succeed.<a href="#_ftn10" name="_ftnref10" title="" id="_ftnref10"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[10]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></p> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"> </h1> <ol start="21"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The facts, which are not in meaningful dispute<a href="#_ftn11" name="_ftnref11" title="" id="_ftnref11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[11]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>, were fully summarised in the arbitrator’s ruling. Only the salient facts are summarised below. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol start="22"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">As maintenance foreman, part of the appellant’s job description was to ensure that the respondent’s vehicles and equipment used to transport explosives, were mechanically examined and reported on by a qualified mechanic and electrician every month. This was to ensure that the vehicles were in a condition to safely transport explosives and to comply with the first respondent’s obligations in terms of the Explosives Act. Thus, the monthly examination and report, and the results thereof were statutory requirements and had to be attended by (signed) a qualified mechanic and electrician for onward submission to the relevant authorities</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">  </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="23"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant had to present, annually, the twelve monthly examination reports to the respondent’s production manager (Mr Rooi) for onward conveyance to Swakop Uranium and the Chief Inspector of Explosives. It had to reach the Chief Inspector by the end of September each year.   </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="24"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The respondent had difficulty during September 2017 to gather and present the previous years’ monthly examination sheets. Mr Rooi suspected the appellant did not keep them properly on a monthly basis, as was required. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="25"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">During early November 2017, Mr Rooi enquired with the appellant into the monthly vehicle examination sheets for October 2017. The enquiry was made prior to the lunch hour. The appellant replied that the inspections were not done and they did not have the examination sheets.  He could not hand the October 2017 examination sheets to Mr Rooi, upon his enquiry.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="26"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant knew that he had to keep the examination records on a monthly basis, and he also knew what the consequences of not timeously producing examination sheets were, namely that the respondent risked losing their vehicles’ explosives licenses and being held criminally liable and fined.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="27"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">After the lunch hour, the appellant promptly handed a signed examination sheet to Mr Rooi. The sheet was signed by the mechanic, Mr van der Riet, and the electrician,           Mr D Titus, who had certified that the vehicle examinations for October 2017 had been attended to. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="28"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Mr Rooi found it strange that the examination sheet that had not been available earlier that morning, was suddenly presented that afternoon. He enquired with the mechanic and the electrician, who reported to him that they did not actually perform the inspection, but signed the document on the appellant’s request. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="29"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Mr van der Riet testified that he was the maintenance foreman and a qualified mechanic, who reported to the appellant at the time. He signed the examination sheet for October 2017 during November 2017, upon request by the appellant. The appellant informed him that it was needed for filing purposes, and he signed the sheet without performing the monthly examinations of the explosives vehicles, and without completing the examination sheet.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">     </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="30"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant admitted that Mr Rooi enquired into the examination sheet for October 2017, and that he eventually submitted the said sheet, albeit belatedly, as they had been busy.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="31"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The facts on record revealed that the explosive vehicles’ examinations for October 2017 were not done by Mr van der Riet, and that the vehicle examination sheet for October 2017 was backdated when the appellant presented it to Mr van der Riet, who signed it only during November 2017. Further, the examination sheet for October 2017 which the appellant presented to Mr Rooi contained a false certification that the vehicle examinations for October 2017 were done by Mr van der Riet and that they were done during October 2017.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="32"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">As regards the charge of insubordination, this related to the respondent’s procurement policy and procedures on spare parts. When in need of a spare part, the appellant was required to follow the respondent’s procurement policy, which required him to make out a requisition for the spare part and to submit it to the procurement department, which dealt directly with the suppliers to source, order, collect and pay for the spare parts. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="33"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The procurement department would make payment and then collect the parts from the supplier, unless they instructed the maintenance personnel to do so.  Final approval for the order of a part would lie with the general manager, Mr Wang. Following the procurement policy ensured that the respondent had a constant relationship with suppliers, had internal controls over procurement, that budget constraints were adhered to and it prevented possible abuse. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="34"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Previously, the appellant had direct dealings with the suppliers, ordering and collecting spare parts. The suppliers complained to the procurement department that the appellant did not follow the procurement policy. The appellant was repeatedly reprimanded and reminded to follow the policy and procedures during numerous meetings with him, including meetings with the most senior managers at the respondent.  The appellant was aware of the policies, and was pertinently informed that serious consequences may follow if he did not follow the procurement procedures.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="35"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Contrary to the procurement policy and procedures, and without an order or prior approval from the procurement department, the appellant ordered and collected a spare part from a supplier, Namibia Lubrication Services, on 20 November 2017.  The supplier complained to the respondent about the appellant not following the procedures. The spare part collected by the appellant was eventually used in repairs to the respondent’s explosives truck.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="36"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant testified that he approached Namibian Lubrication Services directly to order and collect the part, on the instructions of Mr Ren, his supervisor. The part was urgently needed to repair the respondent’s explosives truck that had been out of order for some time. The appellant stated that he followed the instructions of a superior to act contrary to the existing rules of the procurement procedures, and as a result, his misconduct was justified under the circumstances.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="37"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">This evidence was presented by the appellant after the respondent closed his case without same being put to any of the respondent’s witnesses. In addition, Mr Ren, who apparently instructed the appellant was not called to testify at the arbitration hearing. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="38"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The arbitrator made the following findings on the evidence: </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <h1 style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘Evidence was led that the applicant falsified documents, which he was asked by Mr Rooi in the morning, somewhere in November 2017, but he could not provide such documents, and in the afternoon of the same day, he submitted the requested documents. It is weird that the applicant when asked in the morning he could not produce the document, but in the afternoon he produced it. That is clearly indicating that the appellant did not do his job as required, because the document requested was for October 2017, which was supposed to be completed already and he only completed it after it was requested. The applicant knew very well that the inspections were not done on the vehicles, because if it was done, he could have the document ready in the file and if it is requested he would just have gone to collect it and submit it. In fact he would not have waited for Mr Rooi to request for the document if it is his duty to submit it on time, he should have submitted it already without being asked. For the applicant to wait for Mr Rooi to ask for the document, it is already an indication that the Applicant did not do his job as requested.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">Furthermore, the applicant went ahead and produced a document without inspection done, while it was a requirement that the document must be completed after the inspection was done. In my opinion, that is a clear falsification of the document, because he just completed the document without inspection. To add to that, the applicant asked or instructed the Mechanic to sign a blank document, which is a serious thing to do. When Mr van der Riet testified that he was instructed by the applicant to sign a blank document, the applicant did not dispute or challenge such evidence, and that led me to believe that Mr van der Riet’s evidence on that aspect. Again, Mr van der Riet testified that he asked the applicant on what was that document for, but he apparently told Mr van der Riet that it was just for filing purposes. That aspect was also not disputed by the applicant, meaning that the applicant was not honest when he asked Mr van der Riet to sign a blank document, while he knows very well that he was going to submit that document to Mr Rooi. Hence I tend to conclude that the applicant falsified the document and he was guilty of such an offence. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">It is a known fact that the applicant went to collect the part without purchase order and it is also well known that there were numerous meetings by the management with the applicant to caution him not to go and collect the parts without following procedures, as that was not the first incident. The applicant himself also testified to such effect, but I do not know why he is now saying that he is not guilty of count 1 while he committed that offence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">The applicant testified that he went to collect the part without a purchase order on 20 November 2017 from Namibia Lubrication Systems because he was instructed by Mr Ren to do it. The applicant failed to call Mr Ren as a witness to come and testify and there was no other witness that was called by the applicant to come and corroborate his evidence, despite the fact he testified that when he was instructed by Mr Ren, there were Mechanics, like Century, Nicky and Romeo. I do not know how the applicant expected me to believe and consider his evidence without any corroboration, I believe that, that was just an afterthought from the side of the applicant to sweeten his story, that he was instructed, while it is an actual fact that he failed to follow laid down procedures as usual, because that was not the first incident.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">In addition the applicant should take note that by the time he mentioned Mr Ren, the respondent had already closed their case. And there is no way they could call Mr Ren to come and testify after him, hence it was his responsibility to call Mr Ren to come and support his evidence. If the applicant mentioned Mr Ren during cross-examination of the respondent’s witnesses, that could be something else, but to mention him after the respondent closed their case and to expect the respondent to call Mr Ren after his testimony, I found that statement unreasonable</span></span>.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="39"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">In the result, the arbitrator found that the respondent had discharged its onus and proved that the findings of guilt against the respondent were entirely correct, and that the appellant’s dismissal was substantially and procedurally fair.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"> </h1> <ol start="40"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">In this regard, she made the following finding:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"> </h1> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘Again, it will not be fair if the respondent lets him continue to breach the company policy and procedures without being disciplined, because he was supposed to be a leader of his subordinates. If they let him continue breaking procedures that will bring problems in the company, because even the subordinates will not adhere to the rules and procedures.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"> </h1> <ol start="41"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">After consideration of the evidence led, as well as the findings of the arbitrator, this court cannot find any basis upon which to hold that the factual findings, or the application of the relevant law by the arbitrator was in any way incorrect and unreasonable. It is apparent from the record that the arbitrator properly applied her mind to the evidence and made a correct finding on the facts as well as the law. For the reasons given, the court will also not interfere in the arbitrator’s finding that dismissal was appropriate in the circumstances, given the evidence on record of the appellant’s serious misconduct, as well as the fact that the appellant was repeatedly warned (although not in a formal disciplinary setting) to no longer engage in the conduct complained of. The findings of the arbitrator are unassailable. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol start="42"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The following order is accordingly made:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"> </span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The appeal is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">There shall be no order as to costs. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="left" style="text-align:left"> </p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:240px; text-align:right; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">________________________</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:240px; text-align:right; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">EM SCHIMMING-CHASE, AJ</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p> </p> <p align="left" style="text-align:left"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">APPEARANCES</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:198.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">APPELLANT:                                                                                                Mr Edwin Coetzee</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:265px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:198.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">of Tjitemisa &amp; Associates, Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-indent:-189.0pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:265px; text-indent:-198.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">FIRST RESPONDENT:                                                                                      Mr P J Burger</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:265px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">of Kinghorn Associates, Swakopmund</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:265px; text-indent:-198.0pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> This was in essence, the sum total of the grounds advanced in the Summary of Dispute.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i>Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa</i> (LCA 62/2013) [2017] NALCMD 27 (14 August 2017) at para 45.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i>Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v Gaseb</i> 2019 (4) NR 1007 at para 65.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i>Standard Bank of SA Ltd v Commission for Conciliation Mediation Arbitration and Others </i>(1998) ILJ 903 (LC) at 905J-906A, approved in <i>Metropolitan Namibia Ltd v Haimbili </i>2004 (4) 110 NLC at 112.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn5"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title="" id="_ftn5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> Regulations were published by GN1604 of 1972 (RSA GG 3648) and amended by GN2371 of 1973 (RSA GG 4103), GN155 of 1977 (RSA GG 5395), GN2153 of 1977 (RSA GG 5779), GN2153 of 1979 (RSA GG 6665), GN2292 of 1979 (RSA GG 6706), GN AG49 of 1989 (OG 5761), GN51 of 2002 (Nam GG2717).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn6"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6" title="" id="_ftn6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> Regulations 6.38.1 and 6.38.2.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn7"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7" title="" id="_ftn7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> Regulation 6.50.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn8"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref8" name="_ftn8" title="" id="_ftn8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><i>Small v Smith</i> 1954 (3) SA 434 (S.W.A) at 438 E-G.  </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn9"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref9" name="_ftn9" title="" id="_ftn9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> Approved in inter alia<i> Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v Gaseb</i> 2019 (4) NR 1007 at par 61 and the authority collected at footnote 4.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn10"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref10" name="_ftn10" title="" id="_ftn10"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[10]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> See <i> Pillay v Krishna </i>1946 AD 946 at 852; </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn11"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref11" name="_ftn11" title="" id="_ftn11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[11]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> And also not materially placed in dispute in cross examination. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva 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margin-top:-61px; width:123pt; height:19.5pt; z-index:251657728" type="#_x0000_t202"><textbox></textbox></shape></span></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"> </p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-center"><b>REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</b></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>LABOUR COURT OF NAMIBIA MAIN DIVISION, WINDHOEK</b></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">             Case no:       HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA-2020/00016</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">In the matter between:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <h4 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><b>EBEN ISAACS                                                                                                     APPELLANT</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></h4> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">and</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="left" style="text-align:left"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">BEIFANG MINING SERVICE (PTY) LTD                                        FIRST RESPONDENT</span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="left" style="text-align:left"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">EMMA NIKANOR N.O.                                                                   SECOND RESPONDENT                                                                                  </span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:133px; text-indent:-99.25pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Neutral citation:   </b><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="color:black" xml:lang="EN-GB">Isaacs v Beifang Mining Service (Pty) Ltd </span></i>(HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA-2020/00016) [2021] NALCMD 21 (10 May 2021)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:133px; text-indent:-99.25pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:95px; text-indent:-70.9pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Coram:</b>          Schimming-Chase AJ</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:95px; text-indent:-70.9pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Heard:</b><b>           27 November 2020</b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:95px; text-indent:-70.9pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Delivered:</b><b>     10 May 2021</b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-indent:-72.0pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:70.9pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Flynote:        Labour law</b> – Appeal – Question of law – An enquiry into a factual finding of an arbitrator will only amount to a question of law where there is no evidence which could reasonably support the finding of fact. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Labour law</b> —<b> </b>Labour Act 11 of 2007, s 33(1) (a) and (b) — Dismissal — Fairness of — Misconduct — Involving an element of dishonesty — Fair reason — Test whether dismissal for fair reason — If reasonable employer might reasonably have dismissed employee — Employee in breach of duty of acting honestly — Breach material and went to root of employment contract — Dismissal fair. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Evidence </b>— Evidence — Witnesses —  Calling, examination and refutation of — Cross-examination — If party fails to cross-examine witness, it is improper for him to argue that witness should be disbelieved — Party whose witness not cross-examined is entitled to assume that witness's evidence accepted unless it is so absurd, fantastic or of so romancing a nature that no reasonable person can believe it.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>Summary:     </b> The appellant was previously employed by the first respondent as a maintenance foreman responsible for the first respondent’s maintenance workshop. The first respondent conducts drilling and blasting activities, using explosives, as a contractor for Swakop Uranium on its mining site near Arandis. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">Following a disciplinary hearing in December 2017, the appellant was dismissed having been found guilty on two charges of misconduct, namely insubordination and deliberately supplying falsified information.  The matter was referred to arbitration, at the end of which the second respondent found that the appellant’s dismissal was both procedurally and substantively fair.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">Her findings were, amongst others, that the respondent’s witnesses were not meaningfully challenged (in some instances not challenged at all) on the facts and events leading to the charges being laid against the appellant. She also found that the factual basis for the appellant’s belated defence to the charges relating to insubordination was not laid, as the respondent’s witnesses were not cross-examined on this defence.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">The appellant appealed the arbitrator’s findings on the basis that no reasonable trier of fact would have made such findings, and that the arbitrator should have set aside the sanction of dismissal, because the appellant was not counselled on the misconduct complained of.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><i>Held that</i> as an overriding principle it is to be borne in mind that unless the decision of an arbitrator is asserted to be perverse, an Appellate Court should be assiduous to avoid interfering with the decision for the reason that on the facts, it (the Appellate Court) would have reached a different decision on the record.  That is not open to the Appellate Court.  The test is whether the arbitrator reached a decision on the facts that no reasonable decision maker could have reached.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><i>Held further that</i> an employment agreement creates a fiduciary relationship between employer and employee, requiring conduct of the utmost good faith. Therefore, an employee’s dishonest conduct goes to the foundation of the employment relationship. It amounts to a breach of its material terms and has invariably been accepted by our Namibian courts as a valid ground for dismissal.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><i>Held further that a</i> party to legal proceedings has the duty, through cross-examination, to dispute the evidence of witnesses should she disagree with their evidence. She must confront the witnesses with the conflicting version(s) and must place the contrary version(s) before them.  Thus, if the evidence of a witness is not challenged in cross-examination, the party who called the witness (and the trier of fact) may assume that the unchallenged evidence has been accepted as correct.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">The court could not find any basis upon which to hold that the factual findings, or the application of the relevant law by the arbitrator was in any way incorrect and unreasonable. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">The appeal was accordingly dismissed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>ORDER</b></span></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The appeal is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">There shall be no order as to costs.  </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><b>JUDGMENT</b></span></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-indent:-72.0pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">SCHIMMING-CHASE, AJ</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">This is an appeal against a ruling of the second respondent, the arbitrator, in which she found that the appellant’s dismissal on charges of misconduct was procedurally and substantively fair. Only the first respondent opposed this appeal. I will therefore, for ease of reference, refer to the first respondent as ‘the respondent’.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The respondent conducts drilling and blasting activities, using explosives, as contractor for Swakop Uranium (Pty) Ltd (a mining company) on its mining site, near Arandis. The appellant was employed as a maintenance foreman, in charge of its mechanical workshop.  He had at least two subordinates reporting to him. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant was charged with four counts of misconduct, namely:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:47px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:17px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Insubordination, alternatively failure to comply with a lawful instruction;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Deliberately supplying incorrect and falsified information, alternatively dishonesty;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Breach of contract;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:17px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Poor work performance.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">A disciplinary hearing was held on 4 December 2017 and at its conclusion on                          17 January 2018, the appellant was found guilty on two charges of misconduct, namely  - insubordination, and deliberately supplying falsified information. The appellant was also dismissed on this date.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The particulars of the insubordination charge were that the appellant continued to collect parts from or place orders with suppliers without a valid purchase order, in violation of the respondent’s procurement processes and contrary to direct instructions to refrain from doing so. The last incident relevant to the charges occurred on 20 November 2017.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The particulars of the charge of deliberately supplying incorrect and falsified information, were that the appellant submitted falsified records with regard to mandatory statutory inspections to be performed on vehicles utilised in the transport of explosive substances. The incorrect and falsified information included:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:7px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">a backdated inspection sheet, signed off by one N van der Riet and others on the appellant’s instruction, in respect of an inspection performed on vehicle MMU1, whilst Mr Van der Riet did not perform the inspection on this vehicle; and </span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:7px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">various other inspection sheets that had been completed in the month of November at the appellant’s request, but which had been backdated to October 2017. These inspection sheets had a bearing on inspections purportedly performed in October 2017, whilst there were no records of any such inspections actually having taken place.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></li> </ol><ol start="7"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">On 09 May 2018, the appellant referred a dispute of unfair dismissal for arbitration pursuant to the provisions of s 86 of the Labour Act 2007, Act No 11 of 2007 (“the Labour Act”).  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="8"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant advanced that his dismissal was unfair, and without a valid and fair reason because the disciplinary hearing and appeal process did not comply with the rules of natural justice.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="9"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">At the commencement of the hearing and in his opening statement at the arbitration, the appellant advanced additional grounds relating to the severity of the sanction, and contended that his dismissal was inappropriate because there was no counselling provided to the appellant before he was dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="10"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Two witnesses testified at the arbitration hearing for the respondent, namely                         Mr P Rooi, the production manager, and Mr N van der Riet, the workshop foreman and mechanic.The appellant also testified.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="11"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">On 18 February 2020, the arbitrator, dismissed the appellant’s claims, holding that his dismissal by the respondent was for a valid and fair reason, and in compliance with                  s 33 of the Labour Act.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="12"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Her findings were, amongst others, that the respondent’s witnesses were not meaningfully challenged (in some instances not challenged at all) on the facts and events leading to the charges being laid against the appellant. She also found that the factual basis for the appellant’s belated defence to the charges relating to insubordination was also not laid, because the respondent’s witnesses were not cross-examined on this defence, it being raised for the first time during the appellant’s testimony, after the respondent closed its case. She also found the appellant’s evidence to be lacking in credibility.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="13"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant raised some 14 grounds of appeal, some of which were not appealable as they are not questions of law. Distilled to its essence, the appeal is based on the arbitrators’ factual findings being such that no reasonable trier of fact would have made such findings, and that the arbitrator should have set aside the sanction of dismissal, because the appellant was not counselled about the misconduct complained of. Thus, the appeal is aimed at the arbitrator’s findings on the fairness of the disciplinary procedure (procedural fairness) and the validity and fairness of the reasons for the dismissal (substantive fairness).  For ease of reference, the appellant’s grounds of appeal are summarised as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">there was insufficient evidence to find that the appellant failed to obey instructions and falsified documents;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">regarding the findings of insubordination, the arbitrator incorrectly applied the respondent’s procurement rules, because the appellant acted on direct instructions from his supervisor;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> the arbitrator accordingly incorrectly found that the appellant admitted having flouted the procurement procedures;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the arbitrator incorrectly found that the appellant failed to prove that the parts collected were not used in the respondent’s vehicle;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the respondent was inconsistent in disciplining the appellant, having tolerated past orders of parts without following the procurement rules under urgent circumstances;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">generally, the respondent’s evidence of the alleged misconduct was lacking as the witnesses contradicted each other and were evasive; </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the disciplinary sanction (dismissal) was unreasonable and unfair.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="14"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Before dealing with the findings of the arbitrator, a short exposition of the applicable law, which also informed the arbitrator’s findings. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="15"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">As an overriding principle it is to be borne in mind that unless the decision of an arbitrator is asserted to be perverse, an Appellate Court should be assiduous to avoid interfering with the decision for the reason that on the facts, it (the Appellate Court) would have reached a different decision on the record.  That is not open to the Appellate Court.  The test is whether the arbitrator reached a decision on the facts that no reasonable decision maker could have reached.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol start="16"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">An employment agreement creates a fiduciary relationship between employer and employee, requiring conduct of the utmost good faith. In <i>Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v Gaseb<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[3]</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> the Supreme Court expressed itself as follows on this principle:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">            ‘An employee has a fiduciary duty or a duty of trust which involves an obligation not to work against his or her employer’s interest. This was made clear by Smuts J, in <i>Novanam v Willem Absalom &amp; others</i> . In the <i>Novanam</i> matter the labour court referred with approval to <i>Daewoo Heavy Industries (SA) (Pty) Ltd v Banks &amp; others</i> at 462G-463A where the following is stated: “There is in most, if not all contracts of service, whether it be an employment contract or a contract of agency, an implied fiduciary duty on the part of the employee or agent towards the employer or principal as the case may be. In <i>Premier Medical and Industrial Equipment (Pty) Ltd v Winkler &amp; another</i> 1971 (3) SA 866 (W) at 867, Hiemstra J, quoting with approval Hawkins J in <i>Robb v Green</i> [1895] 2 QB1 at 10-11, said as follows at 86H-868A:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-align:justify; text-indent:-18pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">      </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘There can be no doubt that during the currency of his contract of employment the servant owes a fiduciary duty to his master which involves an obligation not to work against his master’s interests. It seems to be a self-evident proposition which applies even though there is not an express term in the contract of employment to that effect. It is stated thus in the leading case of <i>Robb v Green</i> (1895) 2 QB 1, per Hawkins J at 10-11:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:18.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">“I have a very decided opinion that, in the absence of any stipulation to the contrary, there is involved in every contract of service an implied obligation, call it by what name you will, on the servant that he shall perform his duty, especially in these essential respects, namely that he shall honestly and faithfully serve his master; that he shall not abuse his confidence in matters not appertaining to his service, and that he shall, by all reasonable means in his power, protect his master’s interests in respect to matters confided to him in the course of his service.”’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol start="17"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The employment relationship gives rise to a relationship of trust, and the employer is entitled to trust in the honesty and integrity of the employee who must act in the best interest of her employer. Therefore, an employee’s dishonest conduct – be that theft, fraud, forgery, other forms of dishonesty – goes to the foundation of the employment relationship. It amounts to a breach of its material terms and has invariably been accepted by our Namibian courts as a valid ground for dismissal. This principle has also been expressed as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘. . . it was one of the fundamental principles of the employment relationship that an employer should be able to place trust in the employee and that a breach of this trust or form of conduct involving dishonesty is one that goes to the heart of a relationship and is destructive of it’.<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="18"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The respondent’s blasting activities at Swakop Uranium are regulated by the Explosives Act 26 of 1956 (“the Explosives Act”) and the regulations promulgated thereunder<a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>.  Chapter 6 of the regulations places obligations on the respondent, including:  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">prescribing that vehicles transporting explosives must be specifically converted for that purpose and must be licensed as such by an explosives inspector;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">prohibiting transport of explosives, unless in such purposively converted and licensed vehicles;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">prescribing the monthly examination of the condition of the licensed vehicles and its equipment by a qualified motor mechanic or mechanical engineer, during the first week of every month;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">the completion by the qualified motor mechanic or mechanical engineer of a prescribed monthly examination certificate and examination sheet, certifying the examination was conducted and recording the condition of the vehicles and equipment and the results of the inspections and any repairs effected;</span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">keeping of the certificates of condition and the monthly inspection sheets, which must be sent to the Chief Inspector of Explosives annually, during September each year.<a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="19"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Non-compliance with the regulations is a criminal offence<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7" title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>.   </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="20"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">A party to legal proceedings has the duty, through cross-examination, to dispute the evidence of witnesses should she disagree with their evidence. She must confront the witnesses with the conflicting version(s) and must place the contrary version(s) before them.  Thus, if the evidence of a witness is not challenged in cross-examination, the party who called the witness (and the trier of fact) may assume that the unchallenged evidence has been accepted as correct. In <i>Small v Smith,</i><a href="#_ftn8" name="_ftnref8" title="" id="_ftnref8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> the principle was expressed thus:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <h1 style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘It is, in my opinion, elementary and standard practice for a party to put to each opposing witness so much of his own case or defence as concerns that witness and if need be to inform him, if he has not been given notice thereof, that other witnesses will contradict him, so as to give him fair warning and an opportunity of explaining the contradiction and defending his own character. It is grossly unfair and improper to let a witness’s evidence go unchallenged in cross-examination and afterwards argue that he must be disbelieved. Once a witness’s evidence on a point in dispute has been deliberately left unchallenged in cross-examination and particularly by a legal practitioner, the party calling that witness is normally entitled to assume in the absence of a notice to the contrary that the witness’s testimony is accepted as correct.... unless the testimony is so manifestly absurd, fantastic or of so romancing a character that no reasonable person can attach any credence to it whatsoever.’<a href="#_ftn9" name="_ftnref9" title="" id="_ftnref9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">Where a party denies allegations made against her, and raises grounds to justify her conduct, in essence a special defence, or defence of justification is raised. Such a defence must be properly pleaded, and supported by evidence on a balance of probabilities, in order to succeed.<a href="#_ftn10" name="_ftnref10" title="" id="_ftnref10"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[10]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></p> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"> </h1> <ol start="21"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The facts, which are not in meaningful dispute<a href="#_ftn11" name="_ftnref11" title="" id="_ftnref11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[11]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a>, were fully summarised in the arbitrator’s ruling. Only the salient facts are summarised below. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol start="22"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">As maintenance foreman, part of the appellant’s job description was to ensure that the respondent’s vehicles and equipment used to transport explosives, were mechanically examined and reported on by a qualified mechanic and electrician every month. This was to ensure that the vehicles were in a condition to safely transport explosives and to comply with the first respondent’s obligations in terms of the Explosives Act. Thus, the monthly examination and report, and the results thereof were statutory requirements and had to be attended by (signed) a qualified mechanic and electrician for onward submission to the relevant authorities</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">  </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="23"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant had to present, annually, the twelve monthly examination reports to the respondent’s production manager (Mr Rooi) for onward conveyance to Swakop Uranium and the Chief Inspector of Explosives. It had to reach the Chief Inspector by the end of September each year.   </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="24"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The respondent had difficulty during September 2017 to gather and present the previous years’ monthly examination sheets. Mr Rooi suspected the appellant did not keep them properly on a monthly basis, as was required. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="25"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">During early November 2017, Mr Rooi enquired with the appellant into the monthly vehicle examination sheets for October 2017. The enquiry was made prior to the lunch hour. The appellant replied that the inspections were not done and they did not have the examination sheets.  He could not hand the October 2017 examination sheets to Mr Rooi, upon his enquiry.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="26"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant knew that he had to keep the examination records on a monthly basis, and he also knew what the consequences of not timeously producing examination sheets were, namely that the respondent risked losing their vehicles’ explosives licenses and being held criminally liable and fined.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="27"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">After the lunch hour, the appellant promptly handed a signed examination sheet to Mr Rooi. The sheet was signed by the mechanic, Mr van der Riet, and the electrician,           Mr D Titus, who had certified that the vehicle examinations for October 2017 had been attended to. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"> </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="28"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Mr Rooi found it strange that the examination sheet that had not been available earlier that morning, was suddenly presented that afternoon. He enquired with the mechanic and the electrician, who reported to him that they did not actually perform the inspection, but signed the document on the appellant’s request. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="29"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Mr van der Riet testified that he was the maintenance foreman and a qualified mechanic, who reported to the appellant at the time. He signed the examination sheet for October 2017 during November 2017, upon request by the appellant. The appellant informed him that it was needed for filing purposes, and he signed the sheet without performing the monthly examinations of the explosives vehicles, and without completing the examination sheet.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">     </span></span></span></span></span></h1> <ol start="30"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant admitted that Mr Rooi enquired into the examination sheet for October 2017, and that he eventually submitted the said sheet, albeit belatedly, as they had been busy.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="31"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The facts on record revealed that the explosive vehicles’ examinations for October 2017 were not done by Mr van der Riet, and that the vehicle examination sheet for October 2017 was backdated when the appellant presented it to Mr van der Riet, who signed it only during November 2017. Further, the examination sheet for October 2017 which the appellant presented to Mr Rooi contained a false certification that the vehicle examinations for October 2017 were done by Mr van der Riet and that they were done during October 2017.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="32"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">As regards the charge of insubordination, this related to the respondent’s procurement policy and procedures on spare parts. When in need of a spare part, the appellant was required to follow the respondent’s procurement policy, which required him to make out a requisition for the spare part and to submit it to the procurement department, which dealt directly with the suppliers to source, order, collect and pay for the spare parts. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="33"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The procurement department would make payment and then collect the parts from the supplier, unless they instructed the maintenance personnel to do so.  Final approval for the order of a part would lie with the general manager, Mr Wang. Following the procurement policy ensured that the respondent had a constant relationship with suppliers, had internal controls over procurement, that budget constraints were adhered to and it prevented possible abuse. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="34"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Previously, the appellant had direct dealings with the suppliers, ordering and collecting spare parts. The suppliers complained to the procurement department that the appellant did not follow the procurement policy. The appellant was repeatedly reprimanded and reminded to follow the policy and procedures during numerous meetings with him, including meetings with the most senior managers at the respondent.  The appellant was aware of the policies, and was pertinently informed that serious consequences may follow if he did not follow the procurement procedures.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="35"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">Contrary to the procurement policy and procedures, and without an order or prior approval from the procurement department, the appellant ordered and collected a spare part from a supplier, Namibia Lubrication Services, on 20 November 2017.  The supplier complained to the respondent about the appellant not following the procedures. The spare part collected by the appellant was eventually used in repairs to the respondent’s explosives truck.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="36"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The appellant testified that he approached Namibian Lubrication Services directly to order and collect the part, on the instructions of Mr Ren, his supervisor. The part was urgently needed to repair the respondent’s explosives truck that had been out of order for some time. The appellant stated that he followed the instructions of a superior to act contrary to the existing rules of the procurement procedures, and as a result, his misconduct was justified under the circumstances.  </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="37"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">This evidence was presented by the appellant after the respondent closed his case without same being put to any of the respondent’s witnesses. In addition, Mr Ren, who apparently instructed the appellant was not called to testify at the arbitration hearing. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="38"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The arbitrator made the following findings on the evidence: </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <h1 style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘Evidence was led that the applicant falsified documents, which he was asked by Mr Rooi in the morning, somewhere in November 2017, but he could not provide such documents, and in the afternoon of the same day, he submitted the requested documents. It is weird that the applicant when asked in the morning he could not produce the document, but in the afternoon he produced it. That is clearly indicating that the appellant did not do his job as required, because the document requested was for October 2017, which was supposed to be completed already and he only completed it after it was requested. The applicant knew very well that the inspections were not done on the vehicles, because if it was done, he could have the document ready in the file and if it is requested he would just have gone to collect it and submit it. In fact he would not have waited for Mr Rooi to request for the document if it is his duty to submit it on time, he should have submitted it already without being asked. For the applicant to wait for Mr Rooi to ask for the document, it is already an indication that the Applicant did not do his job as requested.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></h1> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">Furthermore, the applicant went ahead and produced a document without inspection done, while it was a requirement that the document must be completed after the inspection was done. In my opinion, that is a clear falsification of the document, because he just completed the document without inspection. To add to that, the applicant asked or instructed the Mechanic to sign a blank document, which is a serious thing to do. When Mr van der Riet testified that he was instructed by the applicant to sign a blank document, the applicant did not dispute or challenge such evidence, and that led me to believe that Mr van der Riet’s evidence on that aspect. Again, Mr van der Riet testified that he asked the applicant on what was that document for, but he apparently told Mr van der Riet that it was just for filing purposes. That aspect was also not disputed by the applicant, meaning that the applicant was not honest when he asked Mr van der Riet to sign a blank document, while he knows very well that he was going to submit that document to Mr Rooi. Hence I tend to conclude that the applicant falsified the document and he was guilty of such an offence. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">It is a known fact that the applicant went to collect the part without purchase order and it is also well known that there were numerous meetings by the management with the applicant to caution him not to go and collect the parts without following procedures, as that was not the first incident. The applicant himself also testified to such effect, but I do not know why he is now saying that he is not guilty of count 1 while he committed that offence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">The applicant testified that he went to collect the part without a purchase order on 20 November 2017 from Namibia Lubrication Systems because he was instructed by Mr Ren to do it. The applicant failed to call Mr Ren as a witness to come and testify and there was no other witness that was called by the applicant to come and corroborate his evidence, despite the fact he testified that when he was instructed by Mr Ren, there were Mechanics, like Century, Nicky and Romeo. I do not know how the applicant expected me to believe and consider his evidence without any corroboration, I believe that, that was just an afterthought from the side of the applicant to sweeten his story, that he was instructed, while it is an actual fact that he failed to follow laid down procedures as usual, because that was not the first incident.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">In addition the applicant should take note that by the time he mentioned Mr Ren, the respondent had already closed their case. And there is no way they could call Mr Ren to come and testify after him, hence it was his responsibility to call Mr Ren to come and support his evidence. If the applicant mentioned Mr Ren during cross-examination of the respondent’s witnesses, that could be something else, but to mention him after the respondent closed their case and to expect the respondent to call Mr Ren after his testimony, I found that statement unreasonable</span></span>.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="39"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">In the result, the arbitrator found that the respondent had discharged its onus and proved that the findings of guilt against the respondent were entirely correct, and that the appellant’s dismissal was substantially and procedurally fair.</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"> </h1> <ol start="40"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">In this regard, she made the following finding:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"> </h1> <p style="text-indent:36.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%">‘Again, it will not be fair if the respondent lets him continue to breach the company policy and procedures without being disciplined, because he was supposed to be a leader of his subordinates. If they let him continue breaking procedures that will bring problems in the company, because even the subordinates will not adhere to the rules and procedures.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"> </h1> <ol start="41"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">After consideration of the evidence led, as well as the findings of the arbitrator, this court cannot find any basis upon which to hold that the factual findings, or the application of the relevant law by the arbitrator was in any way incorrect and unreasonable. It is apparent from the record that the arbitrator properly applied her mind to the evidence and made a correct finding on the facts as well as the law. For the reasons given, the court will also not interfere in the arbitrator’s finding that dismissal was appropriate in the circumstances, given the evidence on record of the appellant’s serious misconduct, as well as the fact that the appellant was repeatedly warned (although not in a formal disciplinary setting) to no longer engage in the conduct complained of. The findings of the arbitrator are unassailable. </span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><h1 style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify; margin-left:25px"> </h1> <ol start="42"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><span style="font-weight:normal">The following order is accordingly made:</span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"> </span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The appeal is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">There shall be no order as to costs. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="left" style="text-align:left"> </p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:240px; text-align:right; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">________________________</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:240px; text-align:right; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">EM SCHIMMING-CHASE, AJ</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p> </p> <p align="left" style="text-align:left"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">APPEARANCES</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:198.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">APPELLANT:                                                                                                Mr Edwin Coetzee</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:265px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:198.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">of Tjitemisa &amp; Associates, Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-indent:-189.0pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:265px; text-indent:-198.0pt; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">FIRST RESPONDENT:                                                                                      Mr P J Burger</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:265px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt">of Kinghorn Associates, Swakopmund</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:265px; text-indent:-198.0pt; text-align:justify"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> This was in essence, the sum total of the grounds advanced in the Summary of Dispute.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i>Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa</i> (LCA 62/2013) [2017] NALCMD 27 (14 August 2017) at para 45.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i>Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v Gaseb</i> 2019 (4) NR 1007 at para 65.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i>Standard Bank of SA Ltd v Commission for Conciliation Mediation Arbitration and Others </i>(1998) ILJ 903 (LC) at 905J-906A, approved in <i>Metropolitan Namibia Ltd v Haimbili </i>2004 (4) 110 NLC at 112.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn5"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title="" id="_ftn5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> Regulations were published by GN1604 of 1972 (RSA GG 3648) and amended by GN2371 of 1973 (RSA GG 4103), GN155 of 1977 (RSA GG 5395), GN2153 of 1977 (RSA GG 5779), GN2153 of 1979 (RSA GG 6665), GN2292 of 1979 (RSA GG 6706), GN AG49 of 1989 (OG 5761), GN51 of 2002 (Nam GG2717).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn6"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6" title="" id="_ftn6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> Regulations 6.38.1 and 6.38.2.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn7"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7" title="" id="_ftn7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> Regulation 6.50.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn8"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref8" name="_ftn8" title="" id="_ftn8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><i>Small v Smith</i> 1954 (3) SA 434 (S.W.A) at 438 E-G.  </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn9"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref9" name="_ftn9" title="" id="_ftn9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> Approved in inter alia<i> Namdeb Diamond Corporation (Pty) Ltd v Gaseb</i> 2019 (4) NR 1007 at par 61 and the authority collected at footnote 4.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn10"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref10" name="_ftn10" title="" id="_ftn10"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[10]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> See <i> Pillay v Krishna </i>1946 AD 946 at 852; </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn11"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-0.15pt"><a href="#_ftnref11" name="_ftn11" title="" id="_ftn11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="letter-spacing:-.15pt">[11]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> And also not materially placed in dispute in cross examination. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 09:55:16 +0000 Mariana 25396 at http://namiblii.org Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd v Moses & Another (HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA 26 of 2019) [2021] NALCMD 15 (16 April 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/labour-court-main-division/2021/15 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd v Moses &amp; Another (HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA 26 of 2019) [2021] NALCMD 15 (16 April 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 09:51</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-search-summary field--type-text-with-summary field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Search summary</div> <div class="field__item"><p><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Labour Law</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> – Dismissal - Employer/employee relationship - Dishonest conduct - Employer should feel confident it can trust an employee not to be in any way dishonest - Employee's dishonesty destroys or substantially diminishes confidence in the employer/employee relationship and has the effect of rendering the continuation of such relationship intolerable - Trust is the core of employment relationship - Dishonest conduct is breach of such trust - Such breach will justify dismissal.</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-headnote-and-holding field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Headnote and holding</div> <div class="field__item"><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">This is an appeal against the award of the arbitrator, Maxine Kröhne, who found in favour of the first respondent, (Justy Moses) and handed down her award on 19 February 2019. The arbitrator found that the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally and substantively unfair and ordered that the first respondent be reinstated and remunerated for the period which he remained unfairly dismissed (that is from March 2018 to February 2018). The amount equals to N$ 56 000 (Total Cost to company) x 12 months – N$672 000. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:93.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                               </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The first respondent was dismissed from the appellant’s employment on allegations of misconduct involving conflict of interest. The appellant aggrieved by the arbitrator’s award noted an appeal with this court on 23 May 2019. The first respondent opposes the appeal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">that the appellant had a fair and valid reason to dismiss the first respondent within the meaning of s 33(1) of the Labour Act, 2007. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> further that the dismissal was based on reasonable grounds in that the first respondent committed a serious breach that goes to the root of the contract of employment and company policies. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that conflict of interest and failure by the first respondent to declare his outside interest/companies/close corporations is a dismissible offence as contemplated in the appellant’s contract of employment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that due to the breach of trust between the appellant and the first respondent, the relationship between the appellant and the first respondent has irretrievably broken down and as such reinstatement is not feasible. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally unfair. However, the appellant had a valid reason to dismiss the first respondent. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that the appeal succeeds. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nalcmd/2021/15/2021-nalcmd-15.doc" type="application/msword; length=169984">2021-nalcmd-15.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">LABOUR COURT OF NAMIBIA, MAIN DIVISION, WINDHOEK</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CASE NO: HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA-2019/00026</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the matter between:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:369.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HANGANA SEAFOOD (PTY) LTD                                                                      APPELLANT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:360.0pt"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUSTY MOSES                                                                                           1<sup>ST</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MAXINE KRöHNE                                                                                      2<sup>nd</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral Citation:     </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd v Moses </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA-2019/00026) [2021] NALCMD 15 (16 April 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:144.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Coram</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:                    Ndauendapo J</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard:                       21 October 2020</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered:                 16 April 2021</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons:                  22 April 2021</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Flynote:         Labour Law</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> – Dismissal - Employer/employee relationship - Dishonest conduct - Employer should feel confident it can trust an employee not to be in any way dishonest - Employee's dishonesty destroys or substantially diminishes confidence in the employer/employee relationship and has the effect of rendering the continuation of such relationship intolerable - Trust is the core of employment relationship - Dishonest conduct is breach of such trust - Such breach will justify dismissal.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpLast" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Summary:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">     This is an appeal against the award of the arbitrator, Maxine Kröhne, who found in favour of the first respondent, (Justy Moses) and handed down her award on 19 February 2019. The arbitrator found that the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally and substantively unfair and ordered that the first respondent be reinstated and remunerated for the period which he remained unfairly dismissed (that is from March 2018 to February 2018). The amount equals to N$ 56 000 (Total Cost to company) x 12 months – N$672 000. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:93.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                               </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The first respondent was dismissed from the appellant’s employment on allegations of misconduct involving conflict of interest. The appellant aggrieved by the arbitrator’s award noted an appeal with this court on 23 May 2019. The first respondent opposes the appeal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">that the appellant had a fair and valid reason to dismiss the first respondent within the meaning of s 33(1) of the Labour Act, 2007. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> further that the dismissal was based on reasonable grounds in that the first respondent committed a serious breach that goes to the root of the contract of employment and company policies. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that conflict of interest and failure by the first respondent to declare his outside interest/companies/close corporations is a dismissible offence as contemplated in the appellant’s contract of employment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that due to the breach of trust between the appellant and the first respondent, the relationship between the appellant and the first respondent has irretrievably broken down and as such reinstatement is not feasible. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally unfair. However, the appellant had a valid reason to dismiss the first respondent. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that the appeal succeeds. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ORDER</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         The appeal succeeds. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         There is no order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"> </p> <p align="center" class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:center"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ndauendapo J</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        This is an appeal against the award of the arbitrator, Maxine Kröhne, who found in favour of the respondent, (Justy Moses) and handed down her award on 19 February 2019. The arbitrator found that the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally and substantively unfair and made the following award:  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘[96]     I therefore do not hesitate to make the following order:  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">1)         The Respondent is ordered to reinstate the Applicant effective as of the 1st day of March 2019 and;  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">2)         To compensate the Applicant the remuneration that he would have received over the period which he remained unfairly dismissed (that is from March 2018 to February 2018). The amount equals to N$ 56 000 (Total Cost to company) x 12 months – N$672 000.00 ON OR BEFORE THE 20th DAY OF MARCH 2019</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        On 23 May 2019 the appellant, who is Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd a private company with limited liability noted an appeal against the award handed down by the arbitrator, on 19 February 2019. The grounds of appeal are listed in the notice of appeal as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘The grounds of appeal (and further questions of law) on points of law only are the following:  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         The arbitrator erred in finding, based on the evidence, that the charges were vague and <b>lacked</b> sufficient information considering that the respondent must have known (and knew, and the appellant did not know):  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.1.      which of his many external business interests he had neglected to report his involvement in to the appellant, and when exactly this had occurred;  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.2.      in which year and on which date he did not declare or report his external business interests to the appellant;  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">when the arbitrator herself found that it was common knowledge that the respondent had more than one external business, being Aruab Fishing CC, Tses Fishing CC and Shamrock Investments CC (and the evidence showed that none of these were declared to the appellant).  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         The arbitrator erred in finding, in the face of the overwhelming evidence presented and policies and clauses of the employment contract referred to (and even quoted in the award) that the rule or policy that was contravened was not referred to.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         The arbitrator further erred in finding that before the respondent could be found guilty of breach of trust, the charge must make reference to “what rule, cause, policy, employment condition was contravened or not adhered to which can result in a breach of trust”.  There is no such requirement in law.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4.         The chairperson erred in finding that the chairperson did not consider or pronounce herself on the respondent’s preliminary points, i.e. that he sought outside representation and a postponement, whereas the evidence clearly was that she considered the application for a postponement and refused same, and furthermore (as the arbitrator herself found) that the respondent had access to outside representation (just as the appellant had) from the appellant’s holding company, but did not make use thereof.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5.         The arbitrator erred in ignoring completely the evidence that the respondent had not only failed to declare competing outside businesses, but involved a client of the appellant in a fraudulent scheme, to the embarrassment and financial detriment of the appellant.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6.         The arbitrator further erred in failing to consider that the respondent’s only defence to the serious allegations against him was that he had declared all his outside businesses, which obviously was not the case and was disproved.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.         The arbitrator further erred in finding that the respondent’s dismissal was substantively unfair because:  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.1       he was not charged with breach of his employment contract or failure to adhere to the declaration policy, or conflict of interest, but with dishonesty and/or gross negligence and breach of trust in that the respondent did not report his external business interests as required;  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.2       reporting and declaring “are two different actions” and “reporting one’s business interest .... would not be sufficient”.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8.         The arbitrator erred in finding that the appellant had no valid reason for charging the respondent with dishonesty and/or gross negligence and breach of trust, when the respondent’s conduct clearly justified all of these charges.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9.         The arbitrator further erred in finding that the appellant failed to prove on the balance of probabilities that the respondent’s failure to report his businesses was intentional or careless, when the evidence overwhelmingly showed the contrary, namely that it was intentionally concealed from the appellant because such businesses were in direct competition.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">10.       The arbitrator erred in making (contrary to all available evidence) the following astounding finding:  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">“ .... for breach of trust to be proven on a balance of probabilities, one needs to prove a breakdown in the relationship of trust between the concerned employee and the company.  This will include a situation where the conduct of the employee has created mistrust which is counterproductive to the company’s commercial activities or the public interest thereby making the continued employment relationship intolerable.  There is no evidence before me that the Applicants conduct created a mistrust to such an extent that the Respondent was harmed in anyway.”  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">11.       The arbitrator erred in finding that reinstatement was an appropriate remedy under the circumstances of the case and considering the egregious conduct of the respondent.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">12.       The arbitrator further erred in law in finding that the respondent had proven losses of N$672,000.00.’ </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The Parties </span></span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        The appellant is Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd, (I will, for ease of reference refer to the appellant as “the appellant”) a company with limited liability duly registered in terms of the Companies Act  28 of 2004 which operates a fishing fleet and a land-based fish processing factory. The appellant conducts business in Walvis Bay as a quota rights holder for the commercial harvesting of hake and by-catch, which includes crab and monk fish. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        The first respondent is Justy Moses, who was employed by the appellant as Assistant Fleet Manager as from 1 August 2014. (I will for ease of reference refer to Justy Moses as the “first respondent”). During 2017 the first respondent was promoted to the position of Operations Manager of the appellant’s fleet. The first respondent opposes the appeal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        The second respondent is Maxine Kröhne, an arbitrator who is in the employ of the Ministry of Labour at the Labour Commissioners office. The second respondent did not oppose the appeal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        The appellant is represented by Adv. G Dicks whereas the first respondent is represented by Adv. R. Rukoro. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The first respondent’s grounds of opposition</span></span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        The first respondent summarised his grounds of opposition as follows; I quote verbatim from the notice of opposition. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘1 Respondent maintains that there is still no appeal before court; and </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2. Regard being had to the evidence tendered and the nature of the operations of the Appellant, the Arbitrator was justified in finding that: </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.1 The charges were vague and that the Respondent was as a result    prejudiced; and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.2 The Appellants conducts in dismissing Respondent was inconsistent as other employees in similar position were not disciplined at all. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3. The Arbiter was justified on holding that the Appellant failed to refer to any policy provision of the Appellant Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd but instead referred to policies of other entities not party to the dispute. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 4. The Arbitrator was justified in holding that the disciplinary hearing was not conducted in a fair manner because the Respondent was refused external representation while the Appellant made use of an external person. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5. Regard being had to the totality of the evidence tendered the Arbitrator was justified in holding that the dismissal was unfair.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6. The Arbitrator was justified in holding that the employment relationship had not been irretrievably broken down.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7. Regard being had to the position and duties of the Respondent as well as all the evidence tendered, the Arbitrator was justified in ordering reinstatement. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8. The Arbitrator was justified in awarding compensation for damages as the law in this respect is settled. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9. There was no breach of trust by the Respondent. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">10. There was no conflict of interest. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">11. In the event that the Court holds that there was a policy, it is submitted that there was inconsistent application of the policy as other senior employees in similar situations were treated differently. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">12. There was no fair and valid reason for dismissal.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">13. Charges were impermissibly split.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Brief background giving rise to this appeal</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        The first respondent was employed by the appellant and he was dismissed for misconduct. An internal disciplinary hearing was conducted by the appellant which resulted in the first respondent being dismissed from his employment. The first respondent referred the dispute to the Labour Commissioner’s office. On 19 February 2019, the arbitrator found in favour of the first respondent and ordered that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            1)         First respondent be reinstated; and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            2)         First respondent be paid compensation in the amount of N$672,000.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        During 2020, the appellant brought an application for stay of execution of the arbitration award pending the finalization of the appeal. The first respondent, believing that the appellant was genuine with its intention to note and prosecute its appeal, agreed to a settlement in terms whereof he was only going to receive 50% of the monetary compensation for now and to await the finalization of the appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      On 18 March 2019, the appellant filed a notice of appeal on the eJustice system along with its application to stay the award of the arbitrator. The appellant thereafter, on 19 March 2019, caused the notices of appeal to be served on the respondents. The application to stay the award was settled between the parties and the settlement was made an order of court on 20 March 2019. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      At that time, both the appellant and the first respondent believed the appellant’s appeal had been properly noted and served. The first respondent filed his notice of intention to oppose the appeal, Form 12, on the appellant on 15 April 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      It was only on 10 May 2019 that it came to the attention of appellant’s legal representative, Mr. Kutzner, that the notices of appeal had only been uploaded on eJustice under case no HC-MD-LAB-MOT-GEN-2019/00080 (the stay application) and not also to a newly registered appeal with its own case number. This oversight occurred because of the inexperience, particularly in labour matters, of the candidate legal practitioner tasked with the eJustice filing. Therefore, although the notices of appeal had been uploaded and served timeously, they had only been uploaded to a related matter, and not also under an appeal case number.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      With the appellant realizing the error as depicted above, the first respondent took the stance that the appellant only annexed a notice of appeal to its application for stay to help strengthen its chances of success on the application for stay but never noted any appeal at all. To this, the first respondent formed the view that there is no appeal before court as the appellant only gave notice of appeal on 23 May 2019 which was about 64 days out of time and without obtaining condonation. The first respondent further formed the view that the appellant brought the condonation application nine (9) months after the award, which was prejudicial to the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      The appellant, on the other hand, took the stance that the first respondent’s opposition is without substance and in the circumstances, unnecessary. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]      On 27 July 2020, this court handed down a judgment in which it granted condonation to the appellant for the irregular filing and or late noting of the appeal and the non-compliance with rule 17 (10) to (15) of the Labour Court rules, and reinstated the appeal. The court also ordered that the period for the prosecution of the appeal be extended to seven (7) days after the date of judgment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Background facts pertaining to the merits of the appeal.</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]      During 2017, the appellant experienced difficulty in collecting N$120,000 from a client, a Jose Otero. The client informed the appellant that he was unable to pay the appellant because he was bankrupt as a result of a fraudulent scam that caused him financial losses, which involved the first respondent. The scam took place as follows as narrated by the appellant in the following paragraphs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]      It transpired that the first respondent approached Jose Otero with an offer to share in monk fish and crab fishing quotas in exchange for payment /investment in the sum of N$1,272 million and to make use of Jose Otero’s fishing vessels. The sum of N$1,272 million was then transferred to the account of one Gustav Kaitjirokere by Jose Otero and his partner, Erna Loch, whereafter Jose Otero, the first respondent and one Zsa Zsa Paulsen (the daughter of Gustav Kaitjirokere) entered into a partnership agreement. In terms of the partnership, comprising of the aforementioned three persons, would trade under the name of Shamrock Investments Fifty-Two CC.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]      According to Jose Otero, the first respondent was responsible for obtaining commercial fishing licenses for the partnership, Shamrock Investments Fifty-Two CC. Such licenses however, never materialized and Jose Otero, being the appellant’s client, lost his investment of N$1,272 million and further incurred docking fees of N$4,5 million in respect of his vessels being laid up as from May 2019. With this information and by launching an investigation, the appellant uncovered that the first respondent was involved in two further close corporations, both of which have listed its business activities as “Fishing and Marine Consultancy”. The appellant submitted that these were further not declared and disclosed by first respondent as required by the appellant’s rules and regulations.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]      Investigations further revealed that Shamrock Investments Fifty-Two CC had been incorporated in 2015 already and further that this was not declared by first respondent. To add on this, the appellant submitted that the investigations further revealed that the first respondent had been conducting Shamrock Investments Fifty-Two CC’s business, during office hours of the appellant and further that the first respondent had been sending private company information and documentation from his work email address, to his personal yahoo address and from there to his partners. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]      With that said, I will now proceed to briefly summarize the arguments advanced by both parties, commencing with those of the appellant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Appellant’s argument on appeal</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]      Counsel submitted that it is common cause that the first respondent was aware of the aforementioned policies, the terms of his contract of employment and the appellant’s stance towards conflicts of interest. Counsel further submitted that, it is also common cause that when first respondent joined the company in 2014 he declared his existing businesses to the appellant, namely a business dealing in scrap steel (EMS) and another in construction (Great Africa).  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[22]      Counsel went on to submit that, the appellant was entirely unaware that the respondent had registered Shamrock Investment CC and had applied for and had been granted fishing quotas for crab and monk fish. There were no declarations made in respect of this close corporation (Shamrock Investment CC) for the years 2015, 2016, 2017 or 2018. It is the practise that such declarations be made to the employee’s line manager (in this case Eugene Louw), whereafter it goes to the Managing Director for approval, whereafter it is provided to Human Capital, which then sends it to the Company Secretary for record keeping purposes. The appellant was entirely unaware of the existence of this close corporation and the first respondent’s outside business and conflict of interest. This was only discovered after first respondent’s business dealings with the shareholder of Wynnic came to light. So the argument went. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[23]      During the disciplinary hearing it transpired that the first respondent holds an interest in two further close corporations, namely Tses Fishing CC and Aruab Fishing CC.  He holds a 20% members’ interest in each of these close corporations. The description of their principal business is “Fishing and Marine Consultancy”. Each of these close corporations were incorporated and registered on 1 June 2017. Tses Fishing CC and Aruab Fishing CC were also not declared to the appellant, so counsel further argued.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[24]      In further bolstering his argument, counsel submitted that instead of 18 declarations of interest by the first respondent, the appellant only had the declarations in respect of EMS and Great Africa of 2014, when the first respondent commenced his employment. In respect of EMS and Great Africa he stated that he declared such interest in 2014 and thereafter annually in 2015, 2016 and 2017. However, the first respondent subsequently testified that both EMS and Great Africa were dissolved in 2015. His evidence in this regard is therefore highly questionable.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[25]      Counsel further submitted that, the first respondent’s undeclared and unapproved outside business interests were with the shareholder of a company which was a client of the appellant. This not only resulted in embarrassment for the appellant, but also that the mooring fees of N$120,000.00 were not paid, which constitutes a loss for the appellant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[26]      Considering the first respondent’s conduct and the manner in which he (repeatedly) breached the trust relationship, counsel submitted that the arbitrator erred in reinstating him to his previous position. It cannot be expected of the appellant to ever trust the first respondent again.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[27]      Regarding the aspect for prospects of success, the appellant submitted that by highlighting its policies and procedures relating to conflicts of interest, unlawful competition and breach of trust and further setting out serious misconduct of the first respondent, it is evident that the first respondent admits same, due to the position that he does not deny his misconduct at all. The appellant further submitted that the first respondent cannot deny that he conducted business in conflict of interest with a client of the appellant, which caused the client severe financial harm.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[28]      The appellant further formed the view that, the first respondent cannot deny that he was unlawfully competing with the appellant and that, contrary to its policies and procedures, he did not declare his interest in at least three separate close corporations involved in the fishing industry.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">First respondent’s argument on appeal</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[29]      First respondent maintains that there is still no appeal before court. Counsel submitted that the internal procedures of the appellant were flawed as fully set out hereunder.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">a)         Ad the charges</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The respondent was charged as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">i)          Dishonest and or Gross Negligence – It is alleged that you have neglected to report your involvement in external business interest as required; </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ii)         Breach of Trust- It is alleged that you did not report your external business interest as you were required.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[30]      Counsel argued that the charges were not detailed to enable the first respondent to know the case he was expected to meet and to thoroughly prepare himself. First respondent’s request for more information was simply ignored. With respect to the issue of representation, counsel argued that, while the appellant made use of an external chairperson and external initiator, the first respondent was denied external representation. When the first respondent, given the circumstances, requested for a short postponement the request was turned down.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[31]      Counsel submitted further that for the reasons set out in the preceding paragraphs, the procedures were fatally flawed and the arbitrator was justified in her finding that the procedures followed were unfair. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[32]      Counsel went on to argue that the charges were impermissibly split because in both instances the basis or substratum is “It is alleged that you did not report your external business interest as you were required’’. The splitting of charges resulted in the first respondent being found guilty of both charges on the same facts and basis. Counsel was of the view that in the premise, the finding of the arbitrator that the charges were vague cannot be faulted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[33]      Counsel argued that reliance was placed on a wrong policy. In that the first respondent was charged and dismissed in terms of the O &amp; L Group of Companies policy and no reason was tendered as to how such policy found application. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[34]      With respect to section 33 (4) of the Labour Act, counsel submitted that this section provides, </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Section 33(4) of the Labour Act provides that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">In any proceedings concerning a dismissal - (a) if the employee establishes the existence of the dismissal; (b) it is presumed, unless the contrary is proved by the employer, that the dismissal is unfair</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[35]      Counsel is of the view that there is a rebuttable presumption in favour of the employee (first respondent) and it is for the appellant to rebut same. It is further submitted that in determining whether or not the appellant has rebutted this presumption regard must only be had to the charges proffered against the first respondent and the evidence tendered in support as well as the procedures followed. Counsel emphasised that it is imperative that the charges should be repeated namely:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">a)         Dishonest and or Gross Negligence – It is alleged that you have neglected to report your involvement in external business interest as required; </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">b)         Breach of Trust- It is alleged that you did not report your external business interest as you were required.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[36]      Counsel argued that a close look at the charges reveal that the transaction with Wynnic Maritime Services and its inability to pay its debt to the appellant do not form part of the charges and are thus irrelevant. If the appellant believed the converse then they should have charged the first respondent with same. The same argument is equally valid in respect of Mr. Jose Luis Otero and the alleged 1.2 Million transaction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[37]      Counsel argued that it is common cause that as Shamrock Invest Number Fifty-Two CC never traded even for a day, first respondent could not have competed with the appellant. It is common cause that except for the quota no license was ever issued and it never traded. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[38]      In amplification of his argument, counsel submitted that, the appellant only has a quota for the commercial harvesting of hake and not for monk or crab. Appellant by law can thus not harvest monk and crab. The quota granted to Shamrock Invest Number Fifty-Two CC was exclusively for monk and crab and there could thus not have been any competition between the appellant and Shamrock Invest Number Fifty-Two CC and for that reason the first respondent never competed with the appellant. In the premise the allegations of dishonesty, gross negligence and breach of trust were never proven.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[39]      Having considered the findings and the award by the arbitrator, the grounds of appeal, the issues raised in the heads of argument, I understand the following to be the questions that I am called upon to determine:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(a)       Could the arbitrator, on the evidence that was before her, find that the appellant had a fair and valid reason to dismiss the first respondent?</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(b)       Was the first respondent’s dismissal procedurally fair? </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(c)        If the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally unfair, did the arbitrator err in ordering the appellant to reinstate the first respondent? </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[40]      I find it appropriate to, before I consider the issues which I am called upon to decide in this appeal briefly set out the legal principles governing those issues.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The applicable legal principles</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[41]      The termination of contracts of employment in Namibia is governed by the Labour Act, 2007. The Supreme Court and this court have stated that s 33 of the Labour Act, 2007 simply reinforces the well-established principle that dismissals of employees must be both substantively and procedurally fair.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> Unfair disciplinary action against an employee is regulated by s 48 of the Labour Act. That section provides that the provisions of s 33 of the Act, which apply to unfair dismissal, shall, ‘read with the necessary changes, apply to all other forms of disciplinary action against an employee by an employer’ and s 48(2) states that disciplinary action taken against an employee in contravention of s 33 constitutes an unfair labour practice.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[42]      An arbitrator who is tasked with a duty to determine a dispute concerning alleged unfair disciplinary action or unfair dismissal must accordingly make a finding of whether or not the employer had a valid and fair reason for the disciplinary action and whether a fair procedure was followed in imposing the disciplinary action. If the arbitrator finds that there was no valid or fair reason for the disciplinary action, or that the process followed was unfair, the arbitrator must uphold the unfair labour practice or the unfair dismissal challenge. If on the other hand the arbitrator finds that there was a valid and fair reason for the disciplinary action and that a fair procedure was followed in imposing the disciplinary action the arbitrator must dismiss the complaint.<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[43]      The first point of departure in answering the issues this court is tasked to determine is to consider the provisions contained in the Contract of Employment also referred to as the Memorandum of Agreement of Employment as entered into between Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd, (the appellant) and Justy Moses (the first respondent). This agreement was signed by both parties on 6 August 2014. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[44]      The appellant’s contract of employment contains, amongst other, the following terms: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘<b>11.      Protection of company interests</b><a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee agrees not to divulge any of the secrets of the company, nor do anything likely to damage its business in any way.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.....</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee agrees to devote his/her whole time during the working hours to the business of the Company and shall do all in his/her power to promote, develop and extend the business of the Company. The Employee agrees to maintain trust and good faith and shall not enter into competition with the company in any capacity whilst in employment.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">14. Restraint of Trade Agreement</span></b><a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">It is acknowledged that whilst in the employ of the Company, the Employee will have access to information that sets apart the operating procedures from others operating in the same field. Without limiting the generality hereof, some of the information the Employee will have access to will be inter alia.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Customer and Supply contracts;</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Pricing policies;</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Product lines;</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Financial structure;</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Contractual commitments. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee admits and acknowledges that this information is not readily available to competitors of the Company and therefore a protectable interest for the Company. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. . . </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee further undertakes not to utilize or directly divulge any confidential information, trade secrets, date, know-how, which relates to the Company’s business. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">. . . </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">17. Disclosure</span></b><a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee agrees to disclose to his/her direct superior any potential conflict of interest or other interests that might be relevant to the employment relationship.  Conflict of interest is defined as any circumstance that could cast doubt on the Employee’s ability to act with total objectivity with regard to the Company’s interest.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">It is agreed that the Employee may not engage in private work either for a separate enterprise or a self-owned enterprise without the written permission of the Managing Director, if such work:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">            17.1     In nature is directly or indirectly related to the business of the Company and/or;  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">            17.2     Is conducted during working hours and/or;</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">            17.3     Utilizes Company information which may be deemed of a confidential nature.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">All private business interests, whether deemed a conflict of interest or not, must be disclosed in writing to the Managing Director.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[45]      The following is stated under the appellant’s Declarations Procedure:<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7" title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘In order to protect the interest of the O &amp; L Group of Companies in the best possible manner, Customers / Clients and Employees, the O &amp; L Group will not entertain any situation that may lead to an actual, potential or perceived conflict of interest.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">A conflict of interest in terms of this policy will be deemed as any circumstance that could cost doubt on an Employee’s ability to act with total objectivity with regard to the Company’s interest.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[46]      Furthermore, the following is stated in clause 6.5 of the appellant’s Declarations Policy:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘6.3.2   Private Business</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Employees who engage in private work may only do so upon successfully applying to the Office of the Chairman / CEO or Managing Director (if it is an Operating Company) to engage in such private work and if such an application has been approved. Upon approval the employee must complete the Declaration Form and forward this to his / her Human Capital Manager for filing on his / her personal file.  A copy of the said Declaration should be sent to the Company Secretary for record purposes.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.....</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">6.5       Renewal of Declarations</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">All Employees who have applied for and declared private business interests, will be required to renew such declarations on an annual basis and submit it to their Human Capital Manager for record purposes at the beginning of a financial year. A copy of all declarations should be forwarded to the Company Secretary</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’<a href="#_ftn8" name="_ftnref8" title="" id="_ftnref8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[47]      In the matter <i>E. Ebert &amp; Co v Geo. H. Edy</i><a href="#_ftn9" name="_ftnref9" title="" id="_ftnref9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></a> the headnote reads as follows:  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘DISMISSAL – summary - Held, that an employer was justified in summarily dismissing a manager who had made use of his position to make arrangements for starting a business in opposition to, and to the detriment of, that which he was managing, and had neglected his duties to his employers, while acting as manager</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[48]      In the matter <i>Premier Medical and Industrial Equipment (Pty) Ltd v Winkler and another.</i><a href="#_ftn10" name="_ftnref10" title="" id="_ftnref10"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hiemstra J, with reference to authority dating back to 1895, stated the following:  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘There can be no doubt that during the currency of his contract of employment the servant owes a fiduciary duty to his master which involves an obligation not to work against his master's interests. It seems to be a self-evident proposition which applies even though there is not an express term in the contract of employment to that effect. It is stated thus in the leading case of Robb v Green, (1895) 2 Q.B.1, per HAWKINS, J., at pp. 10 - 11:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">“... I have a very decided opinion that, in the absence of any stipulation to the contrary, there is involved in every contract of service an implied obligation, call it by what name you will, on the servant that he shall perform his duty, especially in these essential respects, namely that he shall honestly and faithfully serve his master; that he shall not abuse his confidence in matters appertaining to his service, and that he shall, by all reasonable means in his power, protect his master's interests in respect to matters confided to him in the course of his service”.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[49]      In the matter of <i>Foodcon (Pty) Ltd v Amoyre Schwartz</i><a href="#_ftn11" name="_ftnref11" title="" id="_ftnref11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]</span></span></span></span></span></a><i> </i>the court held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            <span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘Employer should feel confident that it can trust its employee not to steal or in any way to be dishonest. An employee's dishonesty destroys or substantially diminishes confidence in the employer/employee relationship and has the effect of rendering the continuation of such relationship intolerable. Theft is theft regardless of value of item stolen. Trust is the core of employment relationship and dishonest conduct is breach of such trust. It is immaterial that the employee has hitherto been a person of good character or that his/her breach of trust is a solitary act and such breach will justify dismissal</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[50]      In <i>Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa<a href="#_ftn12" name="_ftnref12" title="" id="_ftnref12"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> Ueitele J held that: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            ‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">That an arbitrator who is tasked with a duty to determine a dispute concerning alleged unfair disciplinary action or unfair dismissal must make a finding of whether or not the employer had a valid and fair reason for the disciplinary action and whether a fair procedure was followed in imposing the disciplinary sanction.  If the arbitrator finds that there was no valid or fair reason for the disciplinary sanction, or that the process followed was unfair, the arbitrator must uphold the unfair labour practice or the unfair dismissal challenge. But if on the other hand the arbitrator finds that there was a valid and fair reason for the disciplinary sanction and that a fair procedure was followed in imposing the disciplinary action the arbitrator must dismiss the complaint.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Was the dismissal of the respondent procedurally unfair?</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[51]      </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is not in dispute in this matter that after concluding the internal disciplinary hearing the appellant dismissed the respondent. Apart from complying with the guide-lines for substantive fairness, an employee must be dismissed after a fair pre-dismissal enquiry or hearing was conducted. In the South African case of <i>Mahlangu v CIM Deltak<a href="#_ftn13" name="_ftnref13" title="" id="_ftnref13"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the requirements of a fair pre-dismissal hearing were identified as follows: the right to be told of the nature of the offence or misconduct with relevant particulars of the charge; the right of the hearing to take place timeously; the right to be given adequate notice prior to the enquiry; the right to some form of representation; the right to call witnesses; the right to an interpreter; the right to a finding (if found guilty, he or she should be told the full reasons why); the right to have previous service considered; the right to be told of the penalty imposed (for instance, termination of employment); and the right of appeal (usually to a higher level of management).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[52]      In the matter of <i>Management Science for Health v Kandungure</i><a href="#_ftn14" name="_ftnref14" title="" id="_ftnref14"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]</span></span></span></span></span></a> [Parker JA opined that in order for an employer to find that a valid and fair reason exists for the dismissal of his or her employee, the employer must conduct a proper domestic enquiry – popularly known as disciplinary hearing in Labour Law. And in that regard, the procedure followed need not be in accordance with standards applied by a court of law, but certain minimum standards must be satisfied. The minimum standards that must be satisfied: (a) The employer must give to the employee in advance of the hearing a concise charge or charges to able him or her to prepare adequately to challenge and answer it or them. (b) The employee must be advised of his or her right of representation by a member of his or her trade union or a co-employee. (c) The chairperson of the hearing must be impartial. (d) At the hearing, the employee must be given an opportunity to present his or her case in answer to the charge brought against him or her and to challenge the assertions of his or her accusers and their witnesses. (e) There should be a right of appeal and the employee must be informed about it. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[53]      Parker has argued that in view of the clear and unambiguous words of s 33(1)(a) and (b) of the Labour Act, 2007 even where an employer succeeds in proving that he had a valid and fair reason to dismiss an employee, the dismissal is unfair if the employer fails to prove that it followed a fair procedure.<a href="#_ftn15" name="_ftnref15" title="" id="_ftnref15"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]</span></span></span></span></span></a> Also see the case of <i>Rossam v Kraatz Welding Engineering (Pty) Ltd<a href="#_ftn16" name="_ftnref16" title="" id="_ftnref16"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a> </i>where Karuaihe J said:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘It is trite law that in order to establish whether the dismissal of the complainant was in accordance with the law this Court has to be satisfied that such dismissal was both procedurally and substantively fair.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[54]      In my view the respondent’s dismissal was procedurally unfair in that the charge sheet was lacking in details about the charges proffered against the first respondent and prejudicially affected his preparation for the hearing. There was a duplication of charges because in both charges the basis was that “you did not report your external business interests as you were required.” The refusal by the appellant to allow the first respondent to be represented by an external representative was in my respectful view procedurally unfair given the fact that the initiator and the chairperson were external persons, first respondent should’ve been allowed to be represented by an external person. However, in my view the appellant had a fair and valid reason to dismiss the first respondent. In the matter of <i>Kahoro and Another v Namibian Breweries Ltd</i><a href="#_ftn17" name="_ftnref17" title="" id="_ftnref17"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]</span></span></span></span></span></a><i> </i>the Supreme Court held that: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">41.      This principle that an arbitrator may refuse to order reinstatement, re-employment or compensation where it finds that no fair procedure was followed but is satisfied that the employer proved before it a fair reason for this dismissal, has been followed in the Supreme Court and numerous subsequent cases in the Labour Court.’ </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Discussion</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[55]      From the record it is evident that the first respondent has several undeclared registered companies/close corporations in which he has/had shares/interests, namely: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.1 EMS:      2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.2 Great Africa:     2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.3 Shamrock Investments Number Fifty Two CC:      2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018;  </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.4 Tses Fishing CC:        2017 and 2018;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.5 Aruab Fishing CC:      2017 and 2018.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[56]      Instead of having submitted 18 declarations of interests, the first respondent only submitted the declarations in respect of EMS and Great Africa of 2014, to the appellant when the first respondent commenced his employment and subsequent to that according to the appeal record and the evidence before this court. The first respondent did not deny his involvement with Shamrock, and also with Tses Fishing CC and Aruab Fishing CC when these close corporations were discovered by the appellant. The entire dispute between the parties during the disciplinary hearing as well as the arbitration hearing before the Labour Commissioner was therefore whether or not the first respondent had declared his outside business interests to the appellant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[57]      In line with the terms of the contract of employment as well as with the procedures and declarations of the appellant, the first respondent had an obligation to be transparent and must have complied with his terms of employment and company policies. As postulated above, the first respondent ought to have made no less than 18 declarations of interests to the appellant by 31 January 2018. The first respondent failed to do so and thus was in breach of the</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">terms of the contract of employment and company policies relating to disclosure and declarations. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[58]      Approximately six months after his employment with the appellant, the first respondent caused Shamrock Investments Number Fifty Two CC (“Shamrock”) to be incorporated and registered. This occurred on 28 January 2015. Included in the description of its principal business is “MARITIME”. The first respondent held 100% of the members’ interest in the close corporation. Shamrock was registered for tax purposes and with the Social Security Commission. It had a Certificate of Good Standing for “Tender Purposes” from the Receiver of Revenue. The close corporation was registered with the Walvis Bay Municipality and the Employment Equity Commissioner. It also held a Certificate of Registration as an SME with the Ministry of Industrialisation, Trade and SME development.<a href="#_ftn18" name="_ftnref18" title="" id="_ftnref18"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[59]      On 21 May 2017 the respondent had entered into a partnership agreement with José Luis Otero and one Zsa-Zsa Paulsen. The partnership would operate under the name Lochmar Fishing CC.<a href="#_ftn19" name="_ftnref19" title="" id="_ftnref19"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]</span></span></span></span></span></a> It appears from the agenda for the board meeting of the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources held on 29 May 2017 that Shamrock was awarded a crab fishing quota of 800 metric tons and a monk fish quota of 800 metric tons. Lochmar Fishing CC which is the name under which the partnership traded, also received a crab fishing and monk fish quota of 800 metric tons each.<a href="#_ftn20" name="_ftnref20" title="" id="_ftnref20"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[60]      During January 2017 the first respondent had been in contact with Wynnic regarding a joint venture to exploit a crab fishing quota. Further emails were addressed to Arina Paulsen and Wynnic in this regard. It is pointed out that these emails were written during working hours.<a href="#_ftn21" name="_ftnref21" title="" id="_ftnref21"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[61]      To illustrate that the first respondent was in breach of the appellants’ company policies, during the disciplinary hearings in his closing arguments, the first respondent stated the following: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">            ‘I am not experience (sic) in this area. But to me, my private business interest are not a secret. …it is true that I own Shamrock Investment. However, it is not in any way in direct competition with Hangana…why is it a harm to send an email here and there?’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[62]      It is crystal clear from the aforegoing that the appellant regards conflicts of interest and competition by employees in its business in a very serious light. It is common cause that the first respondent was aware of the aforementioned policies, the terms of his contract of employment and the appellant’s stance towards conflicts of interest. Nowhere in the record is it reflected that the first respondent was unaware or had no knowledge of the appellant’s aforementioned policies. In fact, it is also common cause that when he joined the company in 2014 he declared his existing businesses to the appellant, namely a business dealing in scrap steel (EMS) and another in construction (Great Africa). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[63]      In the words of Silungwe J, in the <i>Foodcon</i> judgment referred to above. ‘The confidence that the appellant had in the respondent was destroyed or substantially diminished on a realization that the respondent was a dishonest person and, as such, the respondent's relationship with the appellant became intolerable in the eyes of the appellant.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[64]      The evidence presented by the appellant during the hearing was on a balance of probabilities true and correct and the first respondent’s denials were false. The court is therefore satisfied that the first respondent’s conduct was dishonest and in conflict with the interest of the appellant and that the appellant had a fair and valid reason to dismiss the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[65]      For the reasons set out in this judgement, I hand down the following order: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The appeal succeeds. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">There is no order as to costs. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 446.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">__________________</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:240px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">G N NDAUENDAPO</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:240px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">APPEARANCES:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">APPLICANT:                                  <span style="background:white">Adv. G Dicks</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="HCR-Numberingprayers" style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="color:black">                                                         Instructed by Engling, Stritter &amp; Partners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="HCR-Numberingprayers" style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="color:black">                                                         Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">1<sup>st </sup>RESPONDENT:                       Adv. R Rukoro </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">                                                         Instructed by </span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">Pack Law Chambers</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                                         <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">2<sup>nd</sup> RESPONDENT:                      No Appearance</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> See<i>: Leon Janse Van Rensburg v Wilderness Air Namibia (Pty) Ltd,</i> an unreported judgment of the Supreme Court of Namibia delivered on 11 April 2016 under case number SA 33/2013 at para [28].  And also the unreported judgment of the Labour Court of Namibia of <i>ABB Maintenance Services Namibia (Pty) Ltd v Moongela </i>(LCA 11/2016) [2017] NAHCMD 18 (07 June 2017) at para [20].</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> <i>Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa</i> (LCA 62/2013) [2017] NALCMD 27 (14 August 2017)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa</span></span></span></i><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> (LCA 62/2013) [2017] NALCMD 27 (14 August 2017)</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">pages </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">107-108</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn5"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title="" id="_ftn5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See Record page 109. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn6"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6" title="" id="_ftn6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">page </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">110</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn7"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7" title="" id="_ftn7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">page </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">117</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn8"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref8" name="_ftn8" title="" id="_ftn8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> Record 720-721. The Ohlthaver &amp; List Group of Companies consist of numerous subsidiaries, including the appellant and companies such as Namibia Dairies (Pty) Ltd, <i>Namibia Breweries (Pty) Ltd, Kraatz</i> Engineering (Pty) Ltd, Pick ‘n Pay etc.  These companies are all wholly owned subsidiaries of the O &amp; L Group of Companies. Functions such as internal industrial relations, finance functions and IT are</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> centralised and outsourced to the holding company. Such functions are standardized across the group for cost saving purposes and for purposes of efficiency. This was explained to the arbitrator by the witness Dawid Welmann as well as the witness Happy Amadila. See Record 622-623; Record 616-619. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn9"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref9" name="_ftn9" title="" id="_ftn9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">E. Ebert &amp; Co v Geo. H. Edy</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">(1893–1894) 8 EDC 32</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn10"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref10" name="_ftn10" title="" id="_ftn10"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Premier Medical and Industrial Equipment (Pty) Ltd v Winkler and another</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">1971 (3) SA 866 (W) at 867H-868A. This case was cited with approval by Prinsloo J in <i>Shoprite Namibia (Pty) Ltd v Petrus</i> 2019 (1) NR 175 (HC) at par [61]</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn11"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref11" name="_ftn11" title="" id="_ftn11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Foodcon (Pty) Ltd v Amoyre Schwartz</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">LCA 23/98</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn12"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref12" name="_ftn12" title="" id="_ftn12"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa</span></i><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> LCA 62/2013 [2017] NALCMD 27 (14 August 2017)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn13"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref13" name="_ftn13" title="" id="_ftn13"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Mahlangu v CIM Deltak</span></i> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(</span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">1986) 7 ILJ 346 (IC).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn14"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref14" name="_ftn14" title="" id="_ftn14"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Management Science for Health v Kandungure</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">An unreported judgment of the Labour Court Case No. (LCA 8/2012) [2012] NALCMD 6 (delivered on 15 November 2012) at para [5] and [6].</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn15"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref15" name="_ftn15" title="" id="_ftn15"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> Collins Parker: Labour Law in Namibia, University of Namibia Press, at p 156.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn16"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref16" name="_ftn16" title="" id="_ftn16"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Rossam v Kraatz Welding Engineering (Pty) Ltd</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">1998 NR 90 (LC).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn17"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref17" name="_ftn17" title="" id="_ftn17"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Kahoro and Another v Namibian Breweries Ltd</span></i> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">2008 (1) NR 382 (SC) at 390; <i>HS Limbo v Ministry of Labour</i>, unreported judgment by Swanepoel J in LCA 01/2008 delivered on 10 February 2010 at para [28]. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn18"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref18" name="_ftn18" title="" id="_ftn18"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">pages </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">128-134</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn19"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref19" name="_ftn19" title="" id="_ftn19"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> See Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">pages </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">135-145</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn20"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref20" name="_ftn20" title="" id="_ftn20"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See</span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">pages </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">136 par 2</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">; </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record 325; Record 146</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn21"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref21" name="_ftn21" title="" id="_ftn21"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record 363 l 508; 366 l 13-15</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">; </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record 146; Record 372 l 14-25</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-d216d2624cdf676101f45abf99b3a57dd1862c13c9f24c5e33f1309b17aab640"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">LABOUR COURT OF NAMIBIA, MAIN DIVISION, WINDHOEK</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CASE NO: HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA-2019/00026</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the matter between:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:369.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HANGANA SEAFOOD (PTY) LTD                                                                      APPELLANT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:360.0pt"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUSTY MOSES                                                                                           1<sup>ST</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MAXINE KRöHNE                                                                                      2<sup>nd</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral Citation:     </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd v Moses </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-MD-LAB-APP-AAA-2019/00026) [2021] NALCMD 15 (16 April 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:144.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Coram</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:                    Ndauendapo J</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard:                       21 October 2020</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered:                 16 April 2021</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons:                  22 April 2021</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Flynote:         Labour Law</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> – Dismissal - Employer/employee relationship - Dishonest conduct - Employer should feel confident it can trust an employee not to be in any way dishonest - Employee's dishonesty destroys or substantially diminishes confidence in the employer/employee relationship and has the effect of rendering the continuation of such relationship intolerable - Trust is the core of employment relationship - Dishonest conduct is breach of such trust - Such breach will justify dismissal.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpLast" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Summary:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">     This is an appeal against the award of the arbitrator, Maxine Kröhne, who found in favour of the first respondent, (Justy Moses) and handed down her award on 19 February 2019. The arbitrator found that the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally and substantively unfair and ordered that the first respondent be reinstated and remunerated for the period which he remained unfairly dismissed (that is from March 2018 to February 2018). The amount equals to N$ 56 000 (Total Cost to company) x 12 months – N$672 000. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:93.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                               </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The first respondent was dismissed from the appellant’s employment on allegations of misconduct involving conflict of interest. The appellant aggrieved by the arbitrator’s award noted an appeal with this court on 23 May 2019. The first respondent opposes the appeal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">that the appellant had a fair and valid reason to dismiss the first respondent within the meaning of s 33(1) of the Labour Act, 2007. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> further that the dismissal was based on reasonable grounds in that the first respondent committed a serious breach that goes to the root of the contract of employment and company policies. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that conflict of interest and failure by the first respondent to declare his outside interest/companies/close corporations is a dismissible offence as contemplated in the appellant’s contract of employment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that due to the breach of trust between the appellant and the first respondent, the relationship between the appellant and the first respondent has irretrievably broken down and as such reinstatement is not feasible. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally unfair. However, the appellant had a valid reason to dismiss the first respondent. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> that the appeal succeeds. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ORDER</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         The appeal succeeds. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         There is no order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle"> </p> <p align="center" class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:center"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ndauendapo J</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        This is an appeal against the award of the arbitrator, Maxine Kröhne, who found in favour of the respondent, (Justy Moses) and handed down her award on 19 February 2019. The arbitrator found that the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally and substantively unfair and made the following award:  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘[96]     I therefore do not hesitate to make the following order:  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">1)         The Respondent is ordered to reinstate the Applicant effective as of the 1st day of March 2019 and;  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">2)         To compensate the Applicant the remuneration that he would have received over the period which he remained unfairly dismissed (that is from March 2018 to February 2018). The amount equals to N$ 56 000 (Total Cost to company) x 12 months – N$672 000.00 ON OR BEFORE THE 20th DAY OF MARCH 2019</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        On 23 May 2019 the appellant, who is Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd a private company with limited liability noted an appeal against the award handed down by the arbitrator, on 19 February 2019. The grounds of appeal are listed in the notice of appeal as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘The grounds of appeal (and further questions of law) on points of law only are the following:  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         The arbitrator erred in finding, based on the evidence, that the charges were vague and <b>lacked</b> sufficient information considering that the respondent must have known (and knew, and the appellant did not know):  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.1.      which of his many external business interests he had neglected to report his involvement in to the appellant, and when exactly this had occurred;  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.2.      in which year and on which date he did not declare or report his external business interests to the appellant;  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">when the arbitrator herself found that it was common knowledge that the respondent had more than one external business, being Aruab Fishing CC, Tses Fishing CC and Shamrock Investments CC (and the evidence showed that none of these were declared to the appellant).  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         The arbitrator erred in finding, in the face of the overwhelming evidence presented and policies and clauses of the employment contract referred to (and even quoted in the award) that the rule or policy that was contravened was not referred to.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         The arbitrator further erred in finding that before the respondent could be found guilty of breach of trust, the charge must make reference to “what rule, cause, policy, employment condition was contravened or not adhered to which can result in a breach of trust”.  There is no such requirement in law.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4.         The chairperson erred in finding that the chairperson did not consider or pronounce herself on the respondent’s preliminary points, i.e. that he sought outside representation and a postponement, whereas the evidence clearly was that she considered the application for a postponement and refused same, and furthermore (as the arbitrator herself found) that the respondent had access to outside representation (just as the appellant had) from the appellant’s holding company, but did not make use thereof.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5.         The arbitrator erred in ignoring completely the evidence that the respondent had not only failed to declare competing outside businesses, but involved a client of the appellant in a fraudulent scheme, to the embarrassment and financial detriment of the appellant.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6.         The arbitrator further erred in failing to consider that the respondent’s only defence to the serious allegations against him was that he had declared all his outside businesses, which obviously was not the case and was disproved.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.         The arbitrator further erred in finding that the respondent’s dismissal was substantively unfair because:  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.1       he was not charged with breach of his employment contract or failure to adhere to the declaration policy, or conflict of interest, but with dishonesty and/or gross negligence and breach of trust in that the respondent did not report his external business interests as required;  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.2       reporting and declaring “are two different actions” and “reporting one’s business interest .... would not be sufficient”.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8.         The arbitrator erred in finding that the appellant had no valid reason for charging the respondent with dishonesty and/or gross negligence and breach of trust, when the respondent’s conduct clearly justified all of these charges.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9.         The arbitrator further erred in finding that the appellant failed to prove on the balance of probabilities that the respondent’s failure to report his businesses was intentional or careless, when the evidence overwhelmingly showed the contrary, namely that it was intentionally concealed from the appellant because such businesses were in direct competition.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">10.       The arbitrator erred in making (contrary to all available evidence) the following astounding finding:  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">“ .... for breach of trust to be proven on a balance of probabilities, one needs to prove a breakdown in the relationship of trust between the concerned employee and the company.  This will include a situation where the conduct of the employee has created mistrust which is counterproductive to the company’s commercial activities or the public interest thereby making the continued employment relationship intolerable.  There is no evidence before me that the Applicants conduct created a mistrust to such an extent that the Respondent was harmed in anyway.”  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">11.       The arbitrator erred in finding that reinstatement was an appropriate remedy under the circumstances of the case and considering the egregious conduct of the respondent.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">12.       The arbitrator further erred in law in finding that the respondent had proven losses of N$672,000.00.’ </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The Parties </span></span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        The appellant is Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd, (I will, for ease of reference refer to the appellant as “the appellant”) a company with limited liability duly registered in terms of the Companies Act  28 of 2004 which operates a fishing fleet and a land-based fish processing factory. The appellant conducts business in Walvis Bay as a quota rights holder for the commercial harvesting of hake and by-catch, which includes crab and monk fish. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        The first respondent is Justy Moses, who was employed by the appellant as Assistant Fleet Manager as from 1 August 2014. (I will for ease of reference refer to Justy Moses as the “first respondent”). During 2017 the first respondent was promoted to the position of Operations Manager of the appellant’s fleet. The first respondent opposes the appeal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        The second respondent is Maxine Kröhne, an arbitrator who is in the employ of the Ministry of Labour at the Labour Commissioners office. The second respondent did not oppose the appeal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        The appellant is represented by Adv. G Dicks whereas the first respondent is represented by Adv. R. Rukoro. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The first respondent’s grounds of opposition</span></span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        The first respondent summarised his grounds of opposition as follows; I quote verbatim from the notice of opposition. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘1 Respondent maintains that there is still no appeal before court; and </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2. Regard being had to the evidence tendered and the nature of the operations of the Appellant, the Arbitrator was justified in finding that: </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.1 The charges were vague and that the Respondent was as a result    prejudiced; and</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.2 The Appellants conducts in dismissing Respondent was inconsistent as other employees in similar position were not disciplined at all. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3. The Arbiter was justified on holding that the Appellant failed to refer to any policy provision of the Appellant Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd but instead referred to policies of other entities not party to the dispute. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 4. The Arbitrator was justified in holding that the disciplinary hearing was not conducted in a fair manner because the Respondent was refused external representation while the Appellant made use of an external person. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5. Regard being had to the totality of the evidence tendered the Arbitrator was justified in holding that the dismissal was unfair.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6. The Arbitrator was justified in holding that the employment relationship had not been irretrievably broken down.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7. Regard being had to the position and duties of the Respondent as well as all the evidence tendered, the Arbitrator was justified in ordering reinstatement. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8. The Arbitrator was justified in awarding compensation for damages as the law in this respect is settled. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9. There was no breach of trust by the Respondent. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">10. There was no conflict of interest. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">11. In the event that the Court holds that there was a policy, it is submitted that there was inconsistent application of the policy as other senior employees in similar situations were treated differently. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">12. There was no fair and valid reason for dismissal.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">13. Charges were impermissibly split.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Brief background giving rise to this appeal</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        The first respondent was employed by the appellant and he was dismissed for misconduct. An internal disciplinary hearing was conducted by the appellant which resulted in the first respondent being dismissed from his employment. The first respondent referred the dispute to the Labour Commissioner’s office. On 19 February 2019, the arbitrator found in favour of the first respondent and ordered that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            1)         First respondent be reinstated; and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            2)         First respondent be paid compensation in the amount of N$672,000.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        During 2020, the appellant brought an application for stay of execution of the arbitration award pending the finalization of the appeal. The first respondent, believing that the appellant was genuine with its intention to note and prosecute its appeal, agreed to a settlement in terms whereof he was only going to receive 50% of the monetary compensation for now and to await the finalization of the appeal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      On 18 March 2019, the appellant filed a notice of appeal on the eJustice system along with its application to stay the award of the arbitrator. The appellant thereafter, on 19 March 2019, caused the notices of appeal to be served on the respondents. The application to stay the award was settled between the parties and the settlement was made an order of court on 20 March 2019. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      At that time, both the appellant and the first respondent believed the appellant’s appeal had been properly noted and served. The first respondent filed his notice of intention to oppose the appeal, Form 12, on the appellant on 15 April 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      It was only on 10 May 2019 that it came to the attention of appellant’s legal representative, Mr. Kutzner, that the notices of appeal had only been uploaded on eJustice under case no HC-MD-LAB-MOT-GEN-2019/00080 (the stay application) and not also to a newly registered appeal with its own case number. This oversight occurred because of the inexperience, particularly in labour matters, of the candidate legal practitioner tasked with the eJustice filing. Therefore, although the notices of appeal had been uploaded and served timeously, they had only been uploaded to a related matter, and not also under an appeal case number.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      With the appellant realizing the error as depicted above, the first respondent took the stance that the appellant only annexed a notice of appeal to its application for stay to help strengthen its chances of success on the application for stay but never noted any appeal at all. To this, the first respondent formed the view that there is no appeal before court as the appellant only gave notice of appeal on 23 May 2019 which was about 64 days out of time and without obtaining condonation. The first respondent further formed the view that the appellant brought the condonation application nine (9) months after the award, which was prejudicial to the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      The appellant, on the other hand, took the stance that the first respondent’s opposition is without substance and in the circumstances, unnecessary. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]      On 27 July 2020, this court handed down a judgment in which it granted condonation to the appellant for the irregular filing and or late noting of the appeal and the non-compliance with rule 17 (10) to (15) of the Labour Court rules, and reinstated the appeal. The court also ordered that the period for the prosecution of the appeal be extended to seven (7) days after the date of judgment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Background facts pertaining to the merits of the appeal.</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]      During 2017, the appellant experienced difficulty in collecting N$120,000 from a client, a Jose Otero. The client informed the appellant that he was unable to pay the appellant because he was bankrupt as a result of a fraudulent scam that caused him financial losses, which involved the first respondent. The scam took place as follows as narrated by the appellant in the following paragraphs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]      It transpired that the first respondent approached Jose Otero with an offer to share in monk fish and crab fishing quotas in exchange for payment /investment in the sum of N$1,272 million and to make use of Jose Otero’s fishing vessels. The sum of N$1,272 million was then transferred to the account of one Gustav Kaitjirokere by Jose Otero and his partner, Erna Loch, whereafter Jose Otero, the first respondent and one Zsa Zsa Paulsen (the daughter of Gustav Kaitjirokere) entered into a partnership agreement. In terms of the partnership, comprising of the aforementioned three persons, would trade under the name of Shamrock Investments Fifty-Two CC.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]      According to Jose Otero, the first respondent was responsible for obtaining commercial fishing licenses for the partnership, Shamrock Investments Fifty-Two CC. Such licenses however, never materialized and Jose Otero, being the appellant’s client, lost his investment of N$1,272 million and further incurred docking fees of N$4,5 million in respect of his vessels being laid up as from May 2019. With this information and by launching an investigation, the appellant uncovered that the first respondent was involved in two further close corporations, both of which have listed its business activities as “Fishing and Marine Consultancy”. The appellant submitted that these were further not declared and disclosed by first respondent as required by the appellant’s rules and regulations.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]      Investigations further revealed that Shamrock Investments Fifty-Two CC had been incorporated in 2015 already and further that this was not declared by first respondent. To add on this, the appellant submitted that the investigations further revealed that the first respondent had been conducting Shamrock Investments Fifty-Two CC’s business, during office hours of the appellant and further that the first respondent had been sending private company information and documentation from his work email address, to his personal yahoo address and from there to his partners. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]      With that said, I will now proceed to briefly summarize the arguments advanced by both parties, commencing with those of the appellant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Appellant’s argument on appeal</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]      Counsel submitted that it is common cause that the first respondent was aware of the aforementioned policies, the terms of his contract of employment and the appellant’s stance towards conflicts of interest. Counsel further submitted that, it is also common cause that when first respondent joined the company in 2014 he declared his existing businesses to the appellant, namely a business dealing in scrap steel (EMS) and another in construction (Great Africa).  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[22]      Counsel went on to submit that, the appellant was entirely unaware that the respondent had registered Shamrock Investment CC and had applied for and had been granted fishing quotas for crab and monk fish. There were no declarations made in respect of this close corporation (Shamrock Investment CC) for the years 2015, 2016, 2017 or 2018. It is the practise that such declarations be made to the employee’s line manager (in this case Eugene Louw), whereafter it goes to the Managing Director for approval, whereafter it is provided to Human Capital, which then sends it to the Company Secretary for record keeping purposes. The appellant was entirely unaware of the existence of this close corporation and the first respondent’s outside business and conflict of interest. This was only discovered after first respondent’s business dealings with the shareholder of Wynnic came to light. So the argument went. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[23]      During the disciplinary hearing it transpired that the first respondent holds an interest in two further close corporations, namely Tses Fishing CC and Aruab Fishing CC.  He holds a 20% members’ interest in each of these close corporations. The description of their principal business is “Fishing and Marine Consultancy”. Each of these close corporations were incorporated and registered on 1 June 2017. Tses Fishing CC and Aruab Fishing CC were also not declared to the appellant, so counsel further argued.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[24]      In further bolstering his argument, counsel submitted that instead of 18 declarations of interest by the first respondent, the appellant only had the declarations in respect of EMS and Great Africa of 2014, when the first respondent commenced his employment. In respect of EMS and Great Africa he stated that he declared such interest in 2014 and thereafter annually in 2015, 2016 and 2017. However, the first respondent subsequently testified that both EMS and Great Africa were dissolved in 2015. His evidence in this regard is therefore highly questionable.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[25]      Counsel further submitted that, the first respondent’s undeclared and unapproved outside business interests were with the shareholder of a company which was a client of the appellant. This not only resulted in embarrassment for the appellant, but also that the mooring fees of N$120,000.00 were not paid, which constitutes a loss for the appellant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[26]      Considering the first respondent’s conduct and the manner in which he (repeatedly) breached the trust relationship, counsel submitted that the arbitrator erred in reinstating him to his previous position. It cannot be expected of the appellant to ever trust the first respondent again.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[27]      Regarding the aspect for prospects of success, the appellant submitted that by highlighting its policies and procedures relating to conflicts of interest, unlawful competition and breach of trust and further setting out serious misconduct of the first respondent, it is evident that the first respondent admits same, due to the position that he does not deny his misconduct at all. The appellant further submitted that the first respondent cannot deny that he conducted business in conflict of interest with a client of the appellant, which caused the client severe financial harm.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[28]      The appellant further formed the view that, the first respondent cannot deny that he was unlawfully competing with the appellant and that, contrary to its policies and procedures, he did not declare his interest in at least three separate close corporations involved in the fishing industry.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">First respondent’s argument on appeal</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[29]      First respondent maintains that there is still no appeal before court. Counsel submitted that the internal procedures of the appellant were flawed as fully set out hereunder.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">a)         Ad the charges</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The respondent was charged as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">i)          Dishonest and or Gross Negligence – It is alleged that you have neglected to report your involvement in external business interest as required; </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ii)         Breach of Trust- It is alleged that you did not report your external business interest as you were required.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[30]      Counsel argued that the charges were not detailed to enable the first respondent to know the case he was expected to meet and to thoroughly prepare himself. First respondent’s request for more information was simply ignored. With respect to the issue of representation, counsel argued that, while the appellant made use of an external chairperson and external initiator, the first respondent was denied external representation. When the first respondent, given the circumstances, requested for a short postponement the request was turned down.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[31]      Counsel submitted further that for the reasons set out in the preceding paragraphs, the procedures were fatally flawed and the arbitrator was justified in her finding that the procedures followed were unfair. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[32]      Counsel went on to argue that the charges were impermissibly split because in both instances the basis or substratum is “It is alleged that you did not report your external business interest as you were required’’. The splitting of charges resulted in the first respondent being found guilty of both charges on the same facts and basis. Counsel was of the view that in the premise, the finding of the arbitrator that the charges were vague cannot be faulted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[33]      Counsel argued that reliance was placed on a wrong policy. In that the first respondent was charged and dismissed in terms of the O &amp; L Group of Companies policy and no reason was tendered as to how such policy found application. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[34]      With respect to section 33 (4) of the Labour Act, counsel submitted that this section provides, </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Section 33(4) of the Labour Act provides that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">In any proceedings concerning a dismissal - (a) if the employee establishes the existence of the dismissal; (b) it is presumed, unless the contrary is proved by the employer, that the dismissal is unfair</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[35]      Counsel is of the view that there is a rebuttable presumption in favour of the employee (first respondent) and it is for the appellant to rebut same. It is further submitted that in determining whether or not the appellant has rebutted this presumption regard must only be had to the charges proffered against the first respondent and the evidence tendered in support as well as the procedures followed. Counsel emphasised that it is imperative that the charges should be repeated namely:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">a)         Dishonest and or Gross Negligence – It is alleged that you have neglected to report your involvement in external business interest as required; </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">b)         Breach of Trust- It is alleged that you did not report your external business interest as you were required.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[36]      Counsel argued that a close look at the charges reveal that the transaction with Wynnic Maritime Services and its inability to pay its debt to the appellant do not form part of the charges and are thus irrelevant. If the appellant believed the converse then they should have charged the first respondent with same. The same argument is equally valid in respect of Mr. Jose Luis Otero and the alleged 1.2 Million transaction.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[37]      Counsel argued that it is common cause that as Shamrock Invest Number Fifty-Two CC never traded even for a day, first respondent could not have competed with the appellant. It is common cause that except for the quota no license was ever issued and it never traded. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[38]      In amplification of his argument, counsel submitted that, the appellant only has a quota for the commercial harvesting of hake and not for monk or crab. Appellant by law can thus not harvest monk and crab. The quota granted to Shamrock Invest Number Fifty-Two CC was exclusively for monk and crab and there could thus not have been any competition between the appellant and Shamrock Invest Number Fifty-Two CC and for that reason the first respondent never competed with the appellant. In the premise the allegations of dishonesty, gross negligence and breach of trust were never proven.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[39]      Having considered the findings and the award by the arbitrator, the grounds of appeal, the issues raised in the heads of argument, I understand the following to be the questions that I am called upon to determine:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(a)       Could the arbitrator, on the evidence that was before her, find that the appellant had a fair and valid reason to dismiss the first respondent?</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(b)       Was the first respondent’s dismissal procedurally fair? </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(c)        If the first respondent’s dismissal was procedurally unfair, did the arbitrator err in ordering the appellant to reinstate the first respondent? </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[40]      I find it appropriate to, before I consider the issues which I am called upon to decide in this appeal briefly set out the legal principles governing those issues.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The applicable legal principles</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[41]      The termination of contracts of employment in Namibia is governed by the Labour Act, 2007. The Supreme Court and this court have stated that s 33 of the Labour Act, 2007 simply reinforces the well-established principle that dismissals of employees must be both substantively and procedurally fair.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> Unfair disciplinary action against an employee is regulated by s 48 of the Labour Act. That section provides that the provisions of s 33 of the Act, which apply to unfair dismissal, shall, ‘read with the necessary changes, apply to all other forms of disciplinary action against an employee by an employer’ and s 48(2) states that disciplinary action taken against an employee in contravention of s 33 constitutes an unfair labour practice.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[42]      An arbitrator who is tasked with a duty to determine a dispute concerning alleged unfair disciplinary action or unfair dismissal must accordingly make a finding of whether or not the employer had a valid and fair reason for the disciplinary action and whether a fair procedure was followed in imposing the disciplinary action. If the arbitrator finds that there was no valid or fair reason for the disciplinary action, or that the process followed was unfair, the arbitrator must uphold the unfair labour practice or the unfair dismissal challenge. If on the other hand the arbitrator finds that there was a valid and fair reason for the disciplinary action and that a fair procedure was followed in imposing the disciplinary action the arbitrator must dismiss the complaint.<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[43]      The first point of departure in answering the issues this court is tasked to determine is to consider the provisions contained in the Contract of Employment also referred to as the Memorandum of Agreement of Employment as entered into between Hangana Seafood (Pty) Ltd, (the appellant) and Justy Moses (the first respondent). This agreement was signed by both parties on 6 August 2014. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[44]      The appellant’s contract of employment contains, amongst other, the following terms: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘<b>11.      Protection of company interests</b><a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee agrees not to divulge any of the secrets of the company, nor do anything likely to damage its business in any way.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.....</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee agrees to devote his/her whole time during the working hours to the business of the Company and shall do all in his/her power to promote, develop and extend the business of the Company. The Employee agrees to maintain trust and good faith and shall not enter into competition with the company in any capacity whilst in employment.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">14. Restraint of Trade Agreement</span></b><a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">It is acknowledged that whilst in the employ of the Company, the Employee will have access to information that sets apart the operating procedures from others operating in the same field. Without limiting the generality hereof, some of the information the Employee will have access to will be inter alia.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Customer and Supply contracts;</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Pricing policies;</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Product lines;</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Financial structure;</span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Contractual commitments. </span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee admits and acknowledges that this information is not readily available to competitors of the Company and therefore a protectable interest for the Company. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. . . </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee further undertakes not to utilize or directly divulge any confidential information, trade secrets, date, know-how, which relates to the Company’s business. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">. . . </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">17. Disclosure</span></b><a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">The Employee agrees to disclose to his/her direct superior any potential conflict of interest or other interests that might be relevant to the employment relationship.  Conflict of interest is defined as any circumstance that could cast doubt on the Employee’s ability to act with total objectivity with regard to the Company’s interest.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">It is agreed that the Employee may not engage in private work either for a separate enterprise or a self-owned enterprise without the written permission of the Managing Director, if such work:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">            17.1     In nature is directly or indirectly related to the business of the Company and/or;  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">            17.2     Is conducted during working hours and/or;</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">            17.3     Utilizes Company information which may be deemed of a confidential nature.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">All private business interests, whether deemed a conflict of interest or not, must be disclosed in writing to the Managing Director.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[45]      The following is stated under the appellant’s Declarations Procedure:<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7" title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘In order to protect the interest of the O &amp; L Group of Companies in the best possible manner, Customers / Clients and Employees, the O &amp; L Group will not entertain any situation that may lead to an actual, potential or perceived conflict of interest.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">A conflict of interest in terms of this policy will be deemed as any circumstance that could cost doubt on an Employee’s ability to act with total objectivity with regard to the Company’s interest.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[46]      Furthermore, the following is stated in clause 6.5 of the appellant’s Declarations Policy:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘6.3.2   Private Business</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Employees who engage in private work may only do so upon successfully applying to the Office of the Chairman / CEO or Managing Director (if it is an Operating Company) to engage in such private work and if such an application has been approved. Upon approval the employee must complete the Declaration Form and forward this to his / her Human Capital Manager for filing on his / her personal file.  A copy of the said Declaration should be sent to the Company Secretary for record purposes.  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.....</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">6.5       Renewal of Declarations</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">All Employees who have applied for and declared private business interests, will be required to renew such declarations on an annual basis and submit it to their Human Capital Manager for record purposes at the beginning of a financial year. A copy of all declarations should be forwarded to the Company Secretary</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’<a href="#_ftn8" name="_ftnref8" title="" id="_ftnref8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[47]      In the matter <i>E. Ebert &amp; Co v Geo. H. Edy</i><a href="#_ftn9" name="_ftnref9" title="" id="_ftnref9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></a> the headnote reads as follows:  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘DISMISSAL – summary - Held, that an employer was justified in summarily dismissing a manager who had made use of his position to make arrangements for starting a business in opposition to, and to the detriment of, that which he was managing, and had neglected his duties to his employers, while acting as manager</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[48]      In the matter <i>Premier Medical and Industrial Equipment (Pty) Ltd v Winkler and another.</i><a href="#_ftn10" name="_ftnref10" title="" id="_ftnref10"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hiemstra J, with reference to authority dating back to 1895, stated the following:  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘There can be no doubt that during the currency of his contract of employment the servant owes a fiduciary duty to his master which involves an obligation not to work against his master's interests. It seems to be a self-evident proposition which applies even though there is not an express term in the contract of employment to that effect. It is stated thus in the leading case of Robb v Green, (1895) 2 Q.B.1, per HAWKINS, J., at pp. 10 - 11:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">“... I have a very decided opinion that, in the absence of any stipulation to the contrary, there is involved in every contract of service an implied obligation, call it by what name you will, on the servant that he shall perform his duty, especially in these essential respects, namely that he shall honestly and faithfully serve his master; that he shall not abuse his confidence in matters appertaining to his service, and that he shall, by all reasonable means in his power, protect his master's interests in respect to matters confided to him in the course of his service”.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[49]      In the matter of <i>Foodcon (Pty) Ltd v Amoyre Schwartz</i><a href="#_ftn11" name="_ftnref11" title="" id="_ftnref11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]</span></span></span></span></span></a><i> </i>the court held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            <span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘Employer should feel confident that it can trust its employee not to steal or in any way to be dishonest. An employee's dishonesty destroys or substantially diminishes confidence in the employer/employee relationship and has the effect of rendering the continuation of such relationship intolerable. Theft is theft regardless of value of item stolen. Trust is the core of employment relationship and dishonest conduct is breach of such trust. It is immaterial that the employee has hitherto been a person of good character or that his/her breach of trust is a solitary act and such breach will justify dismissal</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[50]      In <i>Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa<a href="#_ftn12" name="_ftnref12" title="" id="_ftnref12"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> Ueitele J held that: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            ‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">That an arbitrator who is tasked with a duty to determine a dispute concerning alleged unfair disciplinary action or unfair dismissal must make a finding of whether or not the employer had a valid and fair reason for the disciplinary action and whether a fair procedure was followed in imposing the disciplinary sanction.  If the arbitrator finds that there was no valid or fair reason for the disciplinary sanction, or that the process followed was unfair, the arbitrator must uphold the unfair labour practice or the unfair dismissal challenge. But if on the other hand the arbitrator finds that there was a valid and fair reason for the disciplinary sanction and that a fair procedure was followed in imposing the disciplinary action the arbitrator must dismiss the complaint.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Was the dismissal of the respondent procedurally unfair?</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[51]      </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is not in dispute in this matter that after concluding the internal disciplinary hearing the appellant dismissed the respondent. Apart from complying with the guide-lines for substantive fairness, an employee must be dismissed after a fair pre-dismissal enquiry or hearing was conducted. In the South African case of <i>Mahlangu v CIM Deltak<a href="#_ftn13" name="_ftnref13" title="" id="_ftnref13"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the requirements of a fair pre-dismissal hearing were identified as follows: the right to be told of the nature of the offence or misconduct with relevant particulars of the charge; the right of the hearing to take place timeously; the right to be given adequate notice prior to the enquiry; the right to some form of representation; the right to call witnesses; the right to an interpreter; the right to a finding (if found guilty, he or she should be told the full reasons why); the right to have previous service considered; the right to be told of the penalty imposed (for instance, termination of employment); and the right of appeal (usually to a higher level of management).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[52]      In the matter of <i>Management Science for Health v Kandungure</i><a href="#_ftn14" name="_ftnref14" title="" id="_ftnref14"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]</span></span></span></span></span></a> [Parker JA opined that in order for an employer to find that a valid and fair reason exists for the dismissal of his or her employee, the employer must conduct a proper domestic enquiry – popularly known as disciplinary hearing in Labour Law. And in that regard, the procedure followed need not be in accordance with standards applied by a court of law, but certain minimum standards must be satisfied. The minimum standards that must be satisfied: (a) The employer must give to the employee in advance of the hearing a concise charge or charges to able him or her to prepare adequately to challenge and answer it or them. (b) The employee must be advised of his or her right of representation by a member of his or her trade union or a co-employee. (c) The chairperson of the hearing must be impartial. (d) At the hearing, the employee must be given an opportunity to present his or her case in answer to the charge brought against him or her and to challenge the assertions of his or her accusers and their witnesses. (e) There should be a right of appeal and the employee must be informed about it. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[53]      Parker has argued that in view of the clear and unambiguous words of s 33(1)(a) and (b) of the Labour Act, 2007 even where an employer succeeds in proving that he had a valid and fair reason to dismiss an employee, the dismissal is unfair if the employer fails to prove that it followed a fair procedure.<a href="#_ftn15" name="_ftnref15" title="" id="_ftnref15"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]</span></span></span></span></span></a> Also see the case of <i>Rossam v Kraatz Welding Engineering (Pty) Ltd<a href="#_ftn16" name="_ftnref16" title="" id="_ftnref16"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a> </i>where Karuaihe J said:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">‘It is trite law that in order to establish whether the dismissal of the complainant was in accordance with the law this Court has to be satisfied that such dismissal was both procedurally and substantively fair.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[54]      In my view the respondent’s dismissal was procedurally unfair in that the charge sheet was lacking in details about the charges proffered against the first respondent and prejudicially affected his preparation for the hearing. There was a duplication of charges because in both charges the basis was that “you did not report your external business interests as you were required.” The refusal by the appellant to allow the first respondent to be represented by an external representative was in my respectful view procedurally unfair given the fact that the initiator and the chairperson were external persons, first respondent should’ve been allowed to be represented by an external person. However, in my view the appellant had a fair and valid reason to dismiss the first respondent. In the matter of <i>Kahoro and Another v Namibian Breweries Ltd</i><a href="#_ftn17" name="_ftnref17" title="" id="_ftnref17"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]</span></span></span></span></span></a><i> </i>the Supreme Court held that: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">41.      This principle that an arbitrator may refuse to order reinstatement, re-employment or compensation where it finds that no fair procedure was followed but is satisfied that the employer proved before it a fair reason for this dismissal, has been followed in the Supreme Court and numerous subsequent cases in the Labour Court.’ </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Discussion</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[55]      From the record it is evident that the first respondent has several undeclared registered companies/close corporations in which he has/had shares/interests, namely: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.1 EMS:      2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.2 Great Africa:     2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.3 Shamrock Investments Number Fifty Two CC:      2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018;  </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.4 Tses Fishing CC:        2017 and 2018;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">55.5 Aruab Fishing CC:      2017 and 2018.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[56]      Instead of having submitted 18 declarations of interests, the first respondent only submitted the declarations in respect of EMS and Great Africa of 2014, to the appellant when the first respondent commenced his employment and subsequent to that according to the appeal record and the evidence before this court. The first respondent did not deny his involvement with Shamrock, and also with Tses Fishing CC and Aruab Fishing CC when these close corporations were discovered by the appellant. The entire dispute between the parties during the disciplinary hearing as well as the arbitration hearing before the Labour Commissioner was therefore whether or not the first respondent had declared his outside business interests to the appellant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[57]      In line with the terms of the contract of employment as well as with the procedures and declarations of the appellant, the first respondent had an obligation to be transparent and must have complied with his terms of employment and company policies. As postulated above, the first respondent ought to have made no less than 18 declarations of interests to the appellant by 31 January 2018. The first respondent failed to do so and thus was in breach of the</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">terms of the contract of employment and company policies relating to disclosure and declarations. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[58]      Approximately six months after his employment with the appellant, the first respondent caused Shamrock Investments Number Fifty Two CC (“Shamrock”) to be incorporated and registered. This occurred on 28 January 2015. Included in the description of its principal business is “MARITIME”. The first respondent held 100% of the members’ interest in the close corporation. Shamrock was registered for tax purposes and with the Social Security Commission. It had a Certificate of Good Standing for “Tender Purposes” from the Receiver of Revenue. The close corporation was registered with the Walvis Bay Municipality and the Employment Equity Commissioner. It also held a Certificate of Registration as an SME with the Ministry of Industrialisation, Trade and SME development.<a href="#_ftn18" name="_ftnref18" title="" id="_ftnref18"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[59]      On 21 May 2017 the respondent had entered into a partnership agreement with José Luis Otero and one Zsa-Zsa Paulsen. The partnership would operate under the name Lochmar Fishing CC.<a href="#_ftn19" name="_ftnref19" title="" id="_ftnref19"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]</span></span></span></span></span></a> It appears from the agenda for the board meeting of the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources held on 29 May 2017 that Shamrock was awarded a crab fishing quota of 800 metric tons and a monk fish quota of 800 metric tons. Lochmar Fishing CC which is the name under which the partnership traded, also received a crab fishing and monk fish quota of 800 metric tons each.<a href="#_ftn20" name="_ftnref20" title="" id="_ftnref20"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[60]      During January 2017 the first respondent had been in contact with Wynnic regarding a joint venture to exploit a crab fishing quota. Further emails were addressed to Arina Paulsen and Wynnic in this regard. It is pointed out that these emails were written during working hours.<a href="#_ftn21" name="_ftnref21" title="" id="_ftnref21"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[61]      To illustrate that the first respondent was in breach of the appellants’ company policies, during the disciplinary hearings in his closing arguments, the first respondent stated the following: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">            ‘I am not experience (sic) in this area. But to me, my private business interest are not a secret. …it is true that I own Shamrock Investment. However, it is not in any way in direct competition with Hangana…why is it a harm to send an email here and there?’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[62]      It is crystal clear from the aforegoing that the appellant regards conflicts of interest and competition by employees in its business in a very serious light. It is common cause that the first respondent was aware of the aforementioned policies, the terms of his contract of employment and the appellant’s stance towards conflicts of interest. Nowhere in the record is it reflected that the first respondent was unaware or had no knowledge of the appellant’s aforementioned policies. In fact, it is also common cause that when he joined the company in 2014 he declared his existing businesses to the appellant, namely a business dealing in scrap steel (EMS) and another in construction (Great Africa). </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[63]      In the words of Silungwe J, in the <i>Foodcon</i> judgment referred to above. ‘The confidence that the appellant had in the respondent was destroyed or substantially diminished on a realization that the respondent was a dishonest person and, as such, the respondent's relationship with the appellant became intolerable in the eyes of the appellant.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[64]      The evidence presented by the appellant during the hearing was on a balance of probabilities true and correct and the first respondent’s denials were false. The court is therefore satisfied that the first respondent’s conduct was dishonest and in conflict with the interest of the appellant and that the appellant had a fair and valid reason to dismiss the first respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[65]      For the reasons set out in this judgement, I hand down the following order: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The appeal succeeds. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">There is no order as to costs. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 446.55pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">__________________</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:240px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">G N NDAUENDAPO</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:240px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">APPEARANCES:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">APPLICANT:                                  <span style="background:white">Adv. G Dicks</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="HCR-Numberingprayers" style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="color:black">                                                         Instructed by Engling, Stritter &amp; Partners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="HCR-Numberingprayers" style="text-indent:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height:150%" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="color:black">                                                         Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">1<sup>st </sup>RESPONDENT:                       Adv. R Rukoro </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">                                                         Instructed by </span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">Pack Law Chambers</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">                                                         <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:171.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">2<sup>nd</sup> RESPONDENT:                      No Appearance</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> See<i>: Leon Janse Van Rensburg v Wilderness Air Namibia (Pty) Ltd,</i> an unreported judgment of the Supreme Court of Namibia delivered on 11 April 2016 under case number SA 33/2013 at para [28].  And also the unreported judgment of the Labour Court of Namibia of <i>ABB Maintenance Services Namibia (Pty) Ltd v Moongela </i>(LCA 11/2016) [2017] NAHCMD 18 (07 June 2017) at para [20].</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> <i>Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa</i> (LCA 62/2013) [2017] NALCMD 27 (14 August 2017)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa</span></span></span></i><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> (LCA 62/2013) [2017] NALCMD 27 (14 August 2017)</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">pages </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">107-108</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn5"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title="" id="_ftn5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See Record page 109. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn6"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6" title="" id="_ftn6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">page </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">110</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn7"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7" title="" id="_ftn7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">page </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">117</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn8"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref8" name="_ftn8" title="" id="_ftn8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> Record 720-721. The Ohlthaver &amp; List Group of Companies consist of numerous subsidiaries, including the appellant and companies such as Namibia Dairies (Pty) Ltd, <i>Namibia Breweries (Pty) Ltd, Kraatz</i> Engineering (Pty) Ltd, Pick ‘n Pay etc.  These companies are all wholly owned subsidiaries of the O &amp; L Group of Companies. Functions such as internal industrial relations, finance functions and IT are</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> centralised and outsourced to the holding company. Such functions are standardized across the group for cost saving purposes and for purposes of efficiency. This was explained to the arbitrator by the witness Dawid Welmann as well as the witness Happy Amadila. See Record 622-623; Record 616-619. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn9"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref9" name="_ftn9" title="" id="_ftn9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">E. Ebert &amp; Co v Geo. H. Edy</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">(1893–1894) 8 EDC 32</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn10"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref10" name="_ftn10" title="" id="_ftn10"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Premier Medical and Industrial Equipment (Pty) Ltd v Winkler and another</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">1971 (3) SA 866 (W) at 867H-868A. This case was cited with approval by Prinsloo J in <i>Shoprite Namibia (Pty) Ltd v Petrus</i> 2019 (1) NR 175 (HC) at par [61]</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn11"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref11" name="_ftn11" title="" id="_ftn11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Foodcon (Pty) Ltd v Amoyre Schwartz</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">LCA 23/98</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn12"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref12" name="_ftn12" title="" id="_ftn12"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Gamatham v Norcross SA (Pty) Ltd t/a Tile Africa</span></i><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> LCA 62/2013 [2017] NALCMD 27 (14 August 2017)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn13"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref13" name="_ftn13" title="" id="_ftn13"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Mahlangu v CIM Deltak</span></i> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(</span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">1986) 7 ILJ 346 (IC).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn14"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref14" name="_ftn14" title="" id="_ftn14"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Management Science for Health v Kandungure</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">An unreported judgment of the Labour Court Case No. (LCA 8/2012) [2012] NALCMD 6 (delivered on 15 November 2012) at para [5] and [6].</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn15"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref15" name="_ftn15" title="" id="_ftn15"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> Collins Parker: Labour Law in Namibia, University of Namibia Press, at p 156.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn16"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref16" name="_ftn16" title="" id="_ftn16"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Rossam v Kraatz Welding Engineering (Pty) Ltd</span></i> <span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">1998 NR 90 (LC).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn17"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref17" name="_ftn17" title="" id="_ftn17"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Kahoro and Another v Namibian Breweries Ltd</span></i> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">2008 (1) NR 382 (SC) at 390; <i>HS Limbo v Ministry of Labour</i>, unreported judgment by Swanepoel J in LCA 01/2008 delivered on 10 February 2010 at para [28]. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn18"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref18" name="_ftn18" title="" id="_ftn18"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">pages </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">128-134</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn19"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref19" name="_ftn19" title="" id="_ftn19"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> See Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">pages </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">135-145</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">. </span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn20"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref20" name="_ftn20" title="" id="_ftn20"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See</span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"> Record </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">pages </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">136 par 2</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">; </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record 325; Record 146</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn21"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref21" name="_ftn21" title="" id="_ftn21"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="X-NONE"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">See </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record 363 l 508; 366 l 13-15</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">; </span><span lang="X-NONE" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="X-NONE">Record 146; Record 372 l 14-25</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 09:51:46 +0000 Mariana 25395 at http://namiblii.org Xoagub v Gecko Drilling & Blasting (Pty) Ltd & Others (HC-MD-LAB-MOT-REV 364 of 2019) [2021] NALCMD 24 (19 May 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/labour-court-main-division/2021/24 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Xoagub v Gecko Drilling &amp; Blasting (Pty) Ltd &amp; Others (HC-MD-LAB-MOT-REV 364 of 2019) [2021] NALCMD 24 (19 May 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 09:46</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-search-summary field--type-text-with-summary field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Search summary</div> <div class="field__item"><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Recusal - On grounds of appearance of bias - Manner in which application for recusal dealt with by presiding arbitrator disqualifying her from proceeding with the arbitration proceedings, irrespective of merits or demerits of recusal application – In such applications one is primarily concerned with perceptions of the applicant – In the current matter the arbitrator did not to disclose her past association with a former colleague and her former employer, who represented the first respondent in the matter. Such association was only disclosed in the arbitrator’s ruling on recusal in which the arbitrator also misrepresented the period during which she already held her position as arbitrator and thus the length of the period of disassociation with the former colleague and her former employer during which period also the internal grievances relevant to the arbitration fell. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> - that it is of the utmost importance that arbitrators in the Office of the Labour Commissioner make a full and frank disclosure of any potential conflict they may have to the parties. Such disclosure should be made at the earliest opportunity and the parties should then be given the opportunity to consider the issue and they would obviously also be entitled to be heard on the issue, if necessary. No such disclosure was made in this instance and thus the opportunity for the parties to consider and be heard on the issue was not given. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">On these facts and particularly on the basis of the exposed misrepresentation it was held that the applicant could reasonably harbour a apprehension of bias, ie. he could reasonably hold the perception that the fifth respondent might not be impartial or might lean in favour of her former colleague or even the party represented by her former employer.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> also: once such a suspicion was reasonably apprehended then that would be the end of the matter and that the review had to succeed on this ground alone </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> further: that in such circumstances the fifth respondent could no longer continue to preside in the arbitration serving before her and that the arbitration would have to commence afresh before another arbitrator as an arbitrator who would continue to try a matter in such circumstances would thereby 'commit(s) . . . an irregularity in the proceedings every minute she (would) remain(s) on the bench during the arbitration'. The review was accordingly upheld and the matter referred back for arbitration afresh before another arbitrator.</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-headnote-and-holding field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Headnote and holding</div> <div class="field__item"><p>The facts appear from the judgment.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nalcmd/2021/24/2021-nalcmd-24.doc" type="application/msword; length=141824">2021-nalcmd-24.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p class="text-align-center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:center 225.65pt left 411.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                     REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA                                       </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">LABOUR COURT OF NAMIBIA MAIN DIVISION, WINDHOEK</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b>                                                                                                                                                      </b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the matter between:                         Case no: HC-MD-LAB-MOT-REV-2019/00364</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">RICHELOUS XOAGUB                                                                                    APPLICANT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">GECKO DRILLING &amp; BLASTING (PTY) LTD                                 1<sup>ST</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">PINE VAN WYK                                                                                     2<sup>ND</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CHRISTY VAN DYK                                                                             3<sup>RD</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">GENERAL EMPLOYER’S ASSOCIATION </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">OF NAMIBIA (GEAN)                                                                             4<sup>TH</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MAXINE KROHNE                                                                                 5<sup>TH</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">THE LABOUR COMMISSIONER                                                       6<sup>TH</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MINISTER OF LABOUR AND SOCIAL WELFARE                        7<sup>TH</sup> RESPONDENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:      </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Xoagub v Gecko Drilling &amp; Blasting (Pty) Ltd </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-MD-LAB-MOT-REV-2019/00364) [2021] NALCMD 24 (17 May 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Coram:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">          GEIER J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reserved</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:     <b>8 September 2020</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:     <b>17 May 2021</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Flynote</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: Recusal - On grounds of appearance of bias - Manner in which application for recusal dealt with by presiding arbitrator disqualifying her from proceeding with the arbitration proceedings, irrespective of merits or demerits of recusal application – In such applications one is primarily concerned with perceptions of the applicant – In the current matter the arbitrator did not to disclose her past association with a former colleague and her former employer, who represented the first respondent in the matter. Such association was only disclosed in the arbitrator’s ruling on recusal in which the arbitrator also misrepresented the period during which she already held her position as arbitrator and thus the length of the period of disassociation with the former colleague and her former employer during which period also the internal grievances relevant to the arbitration fell. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> - that it is of the utmost importance that arbitrators in the Office of the Labour Commissioner make a full and frank disclosure of any potential conflict they may have to the parties. Such disclosure should be made at the earliest opportunity and the parties should then be given the opportunity to consider the issue and they would obviously also be entitled to be heard on the issue, if necessary. No such disclosure was made in this instance and thus the opportunity for the parties to consider and be heard on the issue was not given. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">On these facts and particularly on the basis of the exposed misrepresentation it was held that the applicant could reasonably harbour a apprehension of bias, ie. he could reasonably hold the perception that the fifth respondent might not be impartial or might lean in favour of her former colleague or even the party represented by her former employer.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> also: once such a suspicion was reasonably apprehended then that would be the end of the matter and that the review had to succeed on this ground alone </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Held</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> further: that in such circumstances the fifth respondent could no longer continue to preside in the arbitration serving before her and that the arbitration would have to commence afresh before another arbitrator as an arbitrator who would continue to try a matter in such circumstances would thereby 'commit(s) . . . an irregularity in the proceedings every minute she (would) remain(s) on the bench during the arbitration'. The review was accordingly upheld and the matter referred back for arbitration afresh before another arbitrator.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Summary</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: The facts appear from the judgment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ORDER</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">The arbitration proceedings under case CRSW 134-18 are hereby reviewed and set aside.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">The arbitration is to commence afresh before another arbitrator.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">GEIER J:  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        In essence the applicant seeks to review the decision of the 5<sup>th</sup> respondent, the arbitrator in this instance, not to recuse herself from the proceedings pending before her, in case CRSW 134-18.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        The applicant also seeks further relief, which may become relevant or not, depending on the outcome of this Court’s finding on the issue of recusal, and which relate to the correctness of certain findings made by her on the merits.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        As the competence or not of the arbitrator to continue to preside in the proceedings pending before her is a fundamental issue, which requires <i>in limine</i> determination, as it goes to the root of the fundamental constitutional requirement that also arbitrations are to be conducted before an independent and impartial tribunal, the recusal issue will have to be determined first.</span></span></span><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        The applicant’s complaint in this regard is in essence that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">the fifth respondent admitted in her ruling on recusal that the first respondent’s representative, Mr van Dyk, the third respondent, is known to her;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that the fifth respondent had, what is labelled a ‘financial relationship’ with ‘GEAN’<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a>. as an official;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that the fifth respondent does not deny that she did not disclose this fact during the arbitration proceedings;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="4" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that this was only disclosed in her ruling;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="5" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that ‘GEAN’ has a formal relationship with SEENA Labour;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="6" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that at the time of the internal grievances, which resulted from the contractual disputes with the first respondent, stemming from 29 March 2017, the fifth respondent was still engaged with the third and fourth respondents, (that is Mr van Dyk and GEAN’).;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="7" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that it was simply not true that the fifth respondent, (the arbitrator Ms Kröhne), had ceased two years back with having relations with the third respondent, (Mr van Dyk), and the fourth respondent, (GEAN) her former employer;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="8" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that these allegations were proved by the attendance record in case CSRW 114-17 dated 16/3/2018,which was annexed.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        If one then turns to the ruling made by the fifth respondent on recusal the following appears:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that the fifth respondent, (Ms Kröhne), states that she has no interest in the case;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that she has never met the respondent or had dealings with the company, (the first respondent), prior to the arbitration;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that she then discloses that she had been employed together with Mr van Dyk as a GEAN official;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="4" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that this relationship has ended and that she has been employed <u>for the past two years</u> with the Office of the Labour Commissioner;<i> (emphasis added);</i></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="5" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that she did not see the need to disclose this in the arbitration, because no concern in this regard was raised by the applicant;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="6" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that she has arbitrated in numerous cases in which Mr van Dyk was the representor;</span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="7" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif">that she has always maintained ‘partiality’ <a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a> and neutrality as expected of an arbitrator, as she also did in this matter.</span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        The fifth respondent, in her ruling, then went on to consider certain applicable authorities on the issue of recusal and then found that the applicant had not discharged his onus in this regard. She thus denied the application for recusal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Discussion and resolution</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        The applicable principles to the determination of this ground of review have recently again been set out by the Supreme Court in <i>Minister of Finance v Hollard Ins Co of Namibia Ltd</i> 2019 (3) NR 605 (SC). The court did so as follows:          </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">‘[58] A duty of recusal arises where it appears that the judicial officer has an interest in the case or where there is some other reasonable ground for believing that there will be a likelihood that the judge will not adjudicate impartially.<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">[59]      In <i>R v Bow Street Magistrate; Ex parte Pinochet Ugarte</i> (No 2) [1999] 1 All ER 577 (HL), Lord Browne-Wilkinson explained the underpinnings of the law on recusal as follows:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:47px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">“The fundamental principle is that a man may not be a judge in his own cause. This principle, as developed by the courts, has two very similar but not identical implications. First it may be applied literally: if a judge is in fact a party to the litigation or has a financial or proprietary interest in its outcome then he is indeed sitting as a judge in his own cause. In that case, the mere fact that he is a party to the action or has a financial or proprietary interest in its outcome is sufficient to cause his automatic disqualification. The second application of the principle is where a judge is not a party to the suit and does not have a financial interest in its outcome, but in some other way his conduct or behaviour may give rise to a suspicion that he is not impartial, for example because of his friendship with a party. This second type of case is not strictly speaking an application of the principle that a man must not be judge in his own cause, since the judge will not normally be himself benefitting, but providing a benefit for another by failing to be impartial.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:47px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">[60]      The House of Lords held that the sacred rule that a man may not be a judge in his own cause should not be confined to a case in which the judge is a party, but applies also to a case in which he has an interest, whether financial, proprietary or non-financial or proprietary.<a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a> Therefore, it was held, that although a judge's interest in a party to a case with which he was seized was non-pecuniary in nature, the rationale applies just as much if the judge's decision will lead to the promotion of a cause in which the judge is involved together with one of the parties.<a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">[61]      In <i>BTR Industries South Africa (Pty) Ltd and Others v Metal and Allied Workers' Union and Another</i> the South African Supreme Court of Appeal held that<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7" title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></a>:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">            'It is a hallowed maxim that if a judicial officer has any interest in the outcome of the matter before him (save an interest so clearly trivial in nature as to be disregarded under the <i>de minimis </i>principle) he is disqualified, no matter how small the interest by be . . . . The law does not seek, in such a case, to measure the amount of his interest. I venture to suggest that the matter stands no differently with regard to the apprehension of bias by a lay litigant.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">            . . .  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">            . . . a reviewing Court cannot . . . be called upon to measure in a nice balance the precise extent of the apparent risk. If suspicion is reasonably apprehended, then that is an end to the matter.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">[Emphasis added.] </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">[62]      It must be apparent from the authorities cited above that the law on recusal serves three objectives. The first is that the court system must not be paralysed by frivolous claims for recusal — hence the presumption of impartiality and the duty to hear matters. The second is that those who sit in judgment over others must not promote their own or others' interests or causes. The third is that everything possible must be done to not leave a nagging feeling in the public's mind that one party to a dispute did not get a fair hearing because of who the judge is or was.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">[63]      All three objectives serve to promote confidence in the administration of justice. No one objective is less important than the other although there are different ways in which they can be given effect to — either through open ventilation or through administrative arrangements for which the head of jurisdiction is responsible.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">[64]      The last objective presents a peculiar problem in that the facts giving rise to its application are not easy to prove and is based on perception and value judgment and in some way the thought processes of an affected judicial officer. It therefore highlights the importance of the judicial officer making full disclosure and to err on the side of caution if in doubt as explained in para [85]