Northern Local Division http://namiblii.org/index.php/ en Magic Builders Centre (Pty) Ltd v Fysal Fresh Produce (HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON 303 of 2020) [2021] NAHCNLD 49 (31 May 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/49 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Magic Builders Centre (Pty) Ltd v Fysal Fresh Produce (HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON 303 of 2020) [2021] NAHCNLD 49 (31 May 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/19/2021 - 13:42</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/49/2021-nahcnld-49.doc" type="application/msword; length=96256">2021-nahcnld-49.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MAGIC BUILDERS CENTRE PTY (LTD) <span style="background:white">vs FYSAL FRESH PRODUCE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/00303</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT (NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HONOURABLE MR JUSTICE GEIER</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date reserved:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">29 APRIL 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">31 MAY 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:61px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></b><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Magic Builders Centre (Pty) Ltd v Fysal Fresh Produce </span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/00303)<b> </b>[2021] NAHCNLD 49 (31 May 2021)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:9px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The application for summary judgment is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The resultant costs are to be costs in the cause.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The defendant is granted leave to defend the action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The case is postponed to 7 June 2021 at 09h00 for a Case Planning Conference hearing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:30px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Following below are the reasons for the above order:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        I have not considered an application for summary judgment for some time. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        I was thus more than astounded not to find the customary/standard affidavit - which I expected to find - and which is usually delivered in support of such an application – and - where it used to be sufficient for a plaintiff – or another person that can swear positively to the facts - to verify the cause of action and the amount claimed in the summons and particulars of claim and where the plaintiff merely had to state that in his belief/opinion the defendant had no bona fide defence to the action that had been instituted and that thus the notice to defend, which had been delivered, was delivered solely for the purpose of delay. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        In this instance the plaintiff has deposed to an affidavit which is akin to the type of affidavit, which one would have expected to find in motion proceedings, where the affidavits constitute the pleadings and evidence - and - with reference to which such application would then have to be determined. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        All this is highly irregular, unless the tried and tested practice has changed in the Northern Local Division of this court, which I doubt. Summary judgment proceedings are not determined with reference to the principles pertaining to the resolution of disputes in motion proceedings – i.e. where the court is to determine the outcome, on a comparison of the affidavits, filed by the parties, with reference to those principles – but merely and mainly - with reference to the content of the defendant’s opposing affidavits - which should disclose a <i>bona fide</i> defence and the material facts relied upon therefore, in order to determine whether or not summary judgment is to be granted or refused.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        Also the opposing affidavit filed in this instance is not beyond criticism. Save for a standard general denial contained in the introductory portion of the affidavit it is not even expressly denied that the notice to defend was delivered solely for the purpose of delay. Be that as it may.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        More importantly and in any event it also seems inexplicable why these summary judgment proceedings still require the determination of the court, when the opposing affidavit, filed in the quest to ward off these proceedings – clearly – and at a cursory glance already – discloses that summary judgment should be refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        I say so because the threshold to ward off summary judgment proceedings is very low. In the words of the Supreme Court :</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">          <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> ‘What the court enquires into is whether the defendant has put forward a triable and arguable issue in the sense that there is a reasonable possibility that the interpretation contended for by the defendant may succeed at trial, and, if successful, will establish a defence that is good in law.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a>  Similarly, where the defendant relies upon a point of law, the point raised must be arguable and establish a defence that is good in law.<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a>’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        It so appears that all that requires determination is whether or not the defendant has shown a triable issue or a point of law that is arguable and that will establish a defence that is good in law.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        In this regard one need to look no further than the defence of misjoinder that was raised in this instance, which was also the first line of defence and in respect of which it is contended that the plaintiff has sued the wrong entity, that is an entity which operates a service station, an unrelated business, and that this entity had no agreement or dealings with the plaintiff at all.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      It does not take much to fathom that, if these facts would be established at a trial, the plaintiff’s claim cannot succeed, or, in the words of the Supreme Court, the defendant would have established a defence good in law.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      It so becomes clear that the other grounds of defence raised do not even have to be considered and that summary judgment must be refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      In the result :</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The application for summary judgment is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The resultant costs are to be costs in the cause.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The defendant is granted leave to defend the action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The case is postponed to 7 June 2021 at 09h00 for a Case Planning Conference hearing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:5px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">GEIER</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge </span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                          Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondent</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">M Amupolo</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">of</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Jacobs Amupolo Lawyers &amp; Conveyancer</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">W Horn </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">of</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">W Horn Attorneys </span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Compare for instance :</span><i> </i><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Di Savino v Nedbank Namibia Ltd</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> 2012 (2) NR 507 (SC) at [23] and [26]. </span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> <i>Shingadia v Shingadia</i> 1966 (3) SA 24 (R) at 26A – B; <i>Tesven CC and Another v South African Bank of Athens </i>2000 (1) SA 268 (SCA) ([1999] 4 All SA 396) at para 26; <i>Shepstone v Shepstone</i> 1974 (2) SA 462 (N) at 467A; <i>Marsh and Another v Standard Bank of SA Ltd</i> 2000 (4) SA 947 (W) at 949.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Di Savino v Nedbank Namibia Ltd </span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">at [26].</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-04468e75c09e050e81ded44c89d08d49962787c74c37bd7509ab3d8f8a286919"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA </span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MAGIC BUILDERS CENTRE PTY (LTD) <span style="background:white">vs FYSAL FRESH PRODUCE</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/00303</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT (NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HONOURABLE MR JUSTICE GEIER</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date reserved:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">29 APRIL 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">31 MAY 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:61px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></b><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Magic Builders Centre (Pty) Ltd v Fysal Fresh Produce </span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/00303)<b> </b>[2021] NAHCNLD 49 (31 May 2021)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:9px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The application for summary judgment is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The resultant costs are to be costs in the cause.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The defendant is granted leave to defend the action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The case is postponed to 7 June 2021 at 09h00 for a Case Planning Conference hearing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:30px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Following below are the reasons for the above order:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        I have not considered an application for summary judgment for some time. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        I was thus more than astounded not to find the customary/standard affidavit - which I expected to find - and which is usually delivered in support of such an application – and - where it used to be sufficient for a plaintiff – or another person that can swear positively to the facts - to verify the cause of action and the amount claimed in the summons and particulars of claim and where the plaintiff merely had to state that in his belief/opinion the defendant had no bona fide defence to the action that had been instituted and that thus the notice to defend, which had been delivered, was delivered solely for the purpose of delay. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        In this instance the plaintiff has deposed to an affidavit which is akin to the type of affidavit, which one would have expected to find in motion proceedings, where the affidavits constitute the pleadings and evidence - and - with reference to which such application would then have to be determined. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        All this is highly irregular, unless the tried and tested practice has changed in the Northern Local Division of this court, which I doubt. Summary judgment proceedings are not determined with reference to the principles pertaining to the resolution of disputes in motion proceedings – i.e. where the court is to determine the outcome, on a comparison of the affidavits, filed by the parties, with reference to those principles – but merely and mainly - with reference to the content of the defendant’s opposing affidavits - which should disclose a <i>bona fide</i> defence and the material facts relied upon therefore, in order to determine whether or not summary judgment is to be granted or refused.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        Also the opposing affidavit filed in this instance is not beyond criticism. Save for a standard general denial contained in the introductory portion of the affidavit it is not even expressly denied that the notice to defend was delivered solely for the purpose of delay. Be that as it may.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        More importantly and in any event it also seems inexplicable why these summary judgment proceedings still require the determination of the court, when the opposing affidavit, filed in the quest to ward off these proceedings – clearly – and at a cursory glance already – discloses that summary judgment should be refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        I say so because the threshold to ward off summary judgment proceedings is very low. In the words of the Supreme Court :</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">          <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> ‘What the court enquires into is whether the defendant has put forward a triable and arguable issue in the sense that there is a reasonable possibility that the interpretation contended for by the defendant may succeed at trial, and, if successful, will establish a defence that is good in law.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a>  Similarly, where the defendant relies upon a point of law, the point raised must be arguable and establish a defence that is good in law.<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a>’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        It so appears that all that requires determination is whether or not the defendant has shown a triable issue or a point of law that is arguable and that will establish a defence that is good in law.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        In this regard one need to look no further than the defence of misjoinder that was raised in this instance, which was also the first line of defence and in respect of which it is contended that the plaintiff has sued the wrong entity, that is an entity which operates a service station, an unrelated business, and that this entity had no agreement or dealings with the plaintiff at all.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      It does not take much to fathom that, if these facts would be established at a trial, the plaintiff’s claim cannot succeed, or, in the words of the Supreme Court, the defendant would have established a defence good in law.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      It so becomes clear that the other grounds of defence raised do not even have to be considered and that summary judgment must be refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      In the result :</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The application for summary judgment is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The resultant costs are to be costs in the cause.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The defendant is granted leave to defend the action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The case is postponed to 7 June 2021 at 09h00 for a Case Planning Conference hearing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:5px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">GEIER</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge </span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                          Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondent</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">M Amupolo</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">of</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Jacobs Amupolo Lawyers &amp; Conveyancer</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">W Horn </span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">of</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">W Horn Attorneys </span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Compare for instance :</span><i> </i><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Di Savino v Nedbank Namibia Ltd</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> 2012 (2) NR 507 (SC) at [23] and [26]. </span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> <i>Shingadia v Shingadia</i> 1966 (3) SA 24 (R) at 26A – B; <i>Tesven CC and Another v South African Bank of Athens </i>2000 (1) SA 268 (SCA) ([1999] 4 All SA 396) at para 26; <i>Shepstone v Shepstone</i> 1974 (2) SA 462 (N) at 467A; <i>Marsh and Another v Standard Bank of SA Ltd</i> 2000 (4) SA 947 (W) at 949.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Di Savino v Nedbank Namibia Ltd </span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">at [26].</span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 19 Jul 2021 13:42:01 +0000 Mariana 25449 at http://namiblii.org S v Matheus (CRIMINAL 10 of 2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 18 (04 March 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/18 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">S v Matheus (CRIMINAL 10 of 2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 18 (04 March 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/19/2021 - 11:32</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/18/2021-nahcnld-18.doc" type="application/msword; length=74240">2021-nahcnld-18.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HELD AT OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:660px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The State v Jeremia Matheus and Moses Matheus</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR No.:10 /2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No.: 47/2020</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice  Salionga J et</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice Munsu AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:660px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Matheus </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CR 10/2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 18 ( 4 March 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:660px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:19px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1. The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:19px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2. The sentence is amended to read; The convictions on both count one and two are taken together for purpose of sentencing and <b><u>each</u></b> accused is sentenced to 18 months imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:660px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:660px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (Munsu AJ concurring):</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The matter came before this court on automatic review in terms of section 304 of Act 51 of 1977. Two accused persons were charged and correctly convicted on the charge of robbery and malicious damage to property. Both counts were taken together for sentencing purpose and they were sentenced to 18 months imprisonment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The reviewing judge has no issue with the conviction but with the way in which the sentence was framed regard must be had that two accused persons were convicted and sentenced. Thus a query was directed to the magistrate to clarify how both accused were going to serve the sentence of 18 months imposed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The magistrate in her reply stated that the sentencing part is confusing and it was just a human error. She conceded that the court was supposed to indicate the word “each” on the sentence. However in her opinion that is a minor error which can be corrected on review.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is trite law that where more than one accused persons are sentenced for the same offence the sentence must clearly and specifically be framed to reflect that “each” and not “both” accused have to serve the sentence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">From the record it is apparent that the sentence is not properly framed as it is not clear how both accused persons were going to serve the sentence of 18 months imprisonment imposed. In view of the magistrate’s concession, the sentence has to be corrected to reflect the missing word.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the result:</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:27px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The convictions are confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:27px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence is amended to read; The conviction on both count one and two are taken together for purpose of sentencing and <b><u>each</u></b> accused is sentenced to 18 months imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">  </span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:329px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                      J T SALIONGA                       </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                             JUDGE                          </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:329px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                           D C MUNSU                          </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                         ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:310px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:329px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-a2db24a29179d1af9620d6f0dbbceff367a7f29249b36678c8c6ef13bae60193"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HELD AT OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:660px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The State v Jeremia Matheus and Moses Matheus</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR No.:10 /2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No.: 47/2020</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice  Salionga J et</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice Munsu AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:660px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Matheus </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CR 10/2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 18 ( 4 March 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:660px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:19px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1. The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:19px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2. The sentence is amended to read; The convictions on both count one and two are taken together for purpose of sentencing and <b><u>each</u></b> accused is sentenced to 18 months imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:660px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:660px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-left:38px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (Munsu AJ concurring):</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The matter came before this court on automatic review in terms of section 304 of Act 51 of 1977. Two accused persons were charged and correctly convicted on the charge of robbery and malicious damage to property. Both counts were taken together for sentencing purpose and they were sentenced to 18 months imprisonment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The reviewing judge has no issue with the conviction but with the way in which the sentence was framed regard must be had that two accused persons were convicted and sentenced. Thus a query was directed to the magistrate to clarify how both accused were going to serve the sentence of 18 months imposed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The magistrate in her reply stated that the sentencing part is confusing and it was just a human error. She conceded that the court was supposed to indicate the word “each” on the sentence. However in her opinion that is a minor error which can be corrected on review.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is trite law that where more than one accused persons are sentenced for the same offence the sentence must clearly and specifically be framed to reflect that “each” and not “both” accused have to serve the sentence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">From the record it is apparent that the sentence is not properly framed as it is not clear how both accused persons were going to serve the sentence of 18 months imprisonment imposed. In view of the magistrate’s concession, the sentence has to be corrected to reflect the missing word.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the result:</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:27px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The convictions are confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:27px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence is amended to read; The conviction on both count one and two are taken together for purpose of sentencing and <b><u>each</u></b> accused is sentenced to 18 months imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">  </span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:329px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                      J T SALIONGA                       </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                             JUDGE                          </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:329px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                           D C MUNSU                          </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                         ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:310px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:329px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 19 Jul 2021 11:32:34 +0000 Mariana 25441 at http://namiblii.org S v Shapange (CRIMINAL 5 of 2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 6 (29 January 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/6 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">S v Shapange (CRIMINAL 5 of 2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 6 (29 January 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/19/2021 - 11:27</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/6/2021-nahcnld-6.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=51363">2021-nahcnld-6.docx</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:662px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Jason Shapange</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i> </i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR NO: 5 /2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CASE NO: 93/2019</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:140px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J <i>et</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice Munsu A J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:140px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 29 January  2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> S v</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Shapange (CR 5/2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 06 ( 29 January 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The sentence is set aside.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> On each count, accused is sentenced to a fine of N$ 3000 or 90 days imprisonment of which N$1000 or 30 days imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that the accused is not convicted of <u>assault</u> committed during the period of suspension. It is ordered that the sentence imposed on count one is to run concurrently with the sentence on count two and the sentence imposed on count three is to run concurrently with the sentence imposed on count four.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentences are backdated to 14 June 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:28px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:19px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the above order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (MUNSU AJ concurring):</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p class="CxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The accused pleaded guilty to two counts of assault and two counts of crimen injuria. Section 112 (1) (a) of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 was applied and was convicted as charged. He was sentenced to N$3000.00 alternatively 90 days imprisonment of which N$1000.00 and 30 days is suspended for 5 years on condition the accused is not convicted of any offence contravening the Domestic Violence Act 4 of 2003 committed during the period of suspension. The magistrate ordered the sentence to apply to each count and to run consecutively.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">On review </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the reviewing judge has no issue with the conviction and sentence imposed. However it is the formulation of the condition that prompted this court to direct the following query</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> to the learned magistrate; whether the condition of suspension was not vague. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]         The learned magistrate rightfully conceded that the condition is wide and might lead to uncertainty as it is too vague. She sought directives and guidance from the Honourable Reviewing Judge.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]         The condition that the accused is not convicted of any offence in contravening the Domestic Violence Act, Act 4 of 2003 is too wide and accused would not know which offence under the Act he is prohibited from committing. This court had on numerous occasions reiterated that the condition of suspension must be clear, specific and certain. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]         Another issue which was only detected while preparing this judgement is where the magistrate had ordered</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> the sentence to apply to each count and to run consecutively. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#242121">I am alive that sentencing falls within the discretion of a trial court and the review or appeal court can only interfere in exceptional cases. However in my view where multiple offences committed are closely connected in terms of time, common facts and in respect whereof the individual sentences may cumulatively amount to a sentence that induces a sense of shock it is appropriate for that court to consider ordering sentences to run concurrently and not consecutively.</span></span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> See <i>S v Young </i><span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-underline:none"><a href="http://www.saflii.org/cgi-bin/LawCite?cit=1977%20%281%29%20SA%20602" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline" title="View LawCiteRecord"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-underline:none">1977 (1) SA 602</span></span></a></span></span></span></span> (A) at 610E-H.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#242121">[6]      In the instant matter count one and two are relatively connected as they were committed on the same day, same place and</span></span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> against his grandmother Olivia Johannes. Whilst count three and four were also committed </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#242121">on the same day, same place and</span></span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> against his sister Hileni Jonas. It appears the accused used obscene language before threatening to assault both complainants. It is thus proper when justice demands that the incident be viewed as one whole, a composite sentence should be imposed so as to avoid duplication and resultant undue harshness. See <i>Fourie v S</i> [2001] 4 All SA 365 (SCA) par [20] or convictions should be taken together for sentencing purposes. Since the offences are relatively connected the latter option ought to be considered.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]     The magistrate further framed the suspended part of the sentence as follows</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> …‘of which N$1000 <u>and </u>30 days is suspended…’ It is not clear what she meant  because if the conditions are substantive and breach of only one of them exposes the accused to implementation then “or” must be used, not “and.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">]        For the reasons stated above </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">I find the sentences too harsh and</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#242121"> induce a sense of shock</span></span></span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">warranting interference by this court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        In the result, the following orders are made: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The sentence is set aside.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> On each count, accused is sentenced to a fine of N$ 3000 or 90 days imprisonment of which N$1000 or 30 days imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that the accused is not convicted of <u>assault</u> committed during the period of suspension. It is ordered that the sentence imposed on count one is to run concurrently with the sentence on count two and the sentence imposed on count three is to run concurrently with the sentence imposed on count four.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentences are backdated to 14 June 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b> </b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">J T SALIONGA </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">D C MUNSU</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:310px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:331px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-bd901b5c71e3b337b27bca32c536aae12606ee7c6bb6dc19f100a48474a28bee"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:662px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Jason Shapange</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i> </i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR NO: 5 /2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CASE NO: 93/2019</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:140px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J <i>et</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice Munsu A J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:140px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 29 January  2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> S v</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Shapange (CR 5/2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 06 ( 29 January 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The sentence is set aside.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> On each count, accused is sentenced to a fine of N$ 3000 or 90 days imprisonment of which N$1000 or 30 days imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that the accused is not convicted of <u>assault</u> committed during the period of suspension. It is ordered that the sentence imposed on count one is to run concurrently with the sentence on count two and the sentence imposed on count three is to run concurrently with the sentence imposed on count four.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentences are backdated to 14 June 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:28px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:19px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the above order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (MUNSU AJ concurring):</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p class="CxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The accused pleaded guilty to two counts of assault and two counts of crimen injuria. Section 112 (1) (a) of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 was applied and was convicted as charged. He was sentenced to N$3000.00 alternatively 90 days imprisonment of which N$1000.00 and 30 days is suspended for 5 years on condition the accused is not convicted of any offence contravening the Domestic Violence Act 4 of 2003 committed during the period of suspension. The magistrate ordered the sentence to apply to each count and to run consecutively.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">On review </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the reviewing judge has no issue with the conviction and sentence imposed. However it is the formulation of the condition that prompted this court to direct the following query</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> to the learned magistrate; whether the condition of suspension was not vague. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]         The learned magistrate rightfully conceded that the condition is wide and might lead to uncertainty as it is too vague. She sought directives and guidance from the Honourable Reviewing Judge.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]         The condition that the accused is not convicted of any offence in contravening the Domestic Violence Act, Act 4 of 2003 is too wide and accused would not know which offence under the Act he is prohibited from committing. This court had on numerous occasions reiterated that the condition of suspension must be clear, specific and certain. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]         Another issue which was only detected while preparing this judgement is where the magistrate had ordered</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> the sentence to apply to each count and to run consecutively. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#242121">I am alive that sentencing falls within the discretion of a trial court and the review or appeal court can only interfere in exceptional cases. However in my view where multiple offences committed are closely connected in terms of time, common facts and in respect whereof the individual sentences may cumulatively amount to a sentence that induces a sense of shock it is appropriate for that court to consider ordering sentences to run concurrently and not consecutively.</span></span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> See <i>S v Young </i><span class="MsoHyperlink" style="color:blue"><span style="text-decoration:underline"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-underline:none"><a href="http://www.saflii.org/cgi-bin/LawCite?cit=1977%20%281%29%20SA%20602" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline" title="View LawCiteRecord"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-underline:none">1977 (1) SA 602</span></span></a></span></span></span></span> (A) at 610E-H.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#242121">[6]      In the instant matter count one and two are relatively connected as they were committed on the same day, same place and</span></span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> against his grandmother Olivia Johannes. Whilst count three and four were also committed </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#242121">on the same day, same place and</span></span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> against his sister Hileni Jonas. It appears the accused used obscene language before threatening to assault both complainants. It is thus proper when justice demands that the incident be viewed as one whole, a composite sentence should be imposed so as to avoid duplication and resultant undue harshness. See <i>Fourie v S</i> [2001] 4 All SA 365 (SCA) par [20] or convictions should be taken together for sentencing purposes. Since the offences are relatively connected the latter option ought to be considered.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]     The magistrate further framed the suspended part of the sentence as follows</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> …‘of which N$1000 <u>and </u>30 days is suspended…’ It is not clear what she meant  because if the conditions are substantive and breach of only one of them exposes the accused to implementation then “or” must be used, not “and.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">]        For the reasons stated above </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">I find the sentences too harsh and</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#242121"> induce a sense of shock</span></span></span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">warranting interference by this court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        In the result, the following orders are made: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The sentence is set aside.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> On each count, accused is sentenced to a fine of N$ 3000 or 90 days imprisonment of which N$1000 or 30 days imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that the accused is not convicted of <u>assault</u> committed during the period of suspension. It is ordered that the sentence imposed on count one is to run concurrently with the sentence on count two and the sentence imposed on count three is to run concurrently with the sentence imposed on count four.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentences are backdated to 14 June 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b> </b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">J T SALIONGA </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">D C MUNSU</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:310px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:331px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 19 Jul 2021 11:27:53 +0000 Mariana 25439 at http://namiblii.org S v Immanuel (CRIMINAL 2021 of 3) [2021] NAHCNLD 4 (29 January 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/4 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">S v Immanuel (CRIMINAL 2021 of 3) [2021] NAHCNLD 4 (29 January 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/19/2021 - 11:20</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/4/2021-nahcnld-4.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=87863">2021-nahcnld-4.docx</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:662px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Bernard Immanuel</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i> </i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR NO: 3/2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CASE NO:164/2018</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:140px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J <i>et</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice Munsu  AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:140px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">  29 January  2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> S v Immanuel </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CR 3/2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 4 ( 29 January 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The convictions on both count of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm are confirmed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The sentence as indicated on review sheet and typed J15 is set aside and substituted with the sentence indicated in a handwritten judgement as follows; Twenty-four (24) months imprisonment of which four (4) months imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that accused is not convicted of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The sentence is anteceded to 27 September 2018.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:19px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the above order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (MUNSU J concurring):</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p class="CxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The accused pleaded guilty to two counts of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm and was convicted as charged. He was sentenced to 24 months imprisonment of which 4 months imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that accused is not convicted of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">When the matter was received on automatic review the reviewing judge had no disquiet with the conviction. However an explanation was requested as to why the record indicates a sentence of ‘24 months imprisonment of which 4 months imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition … but the review sheets indicates that accused was sentenced to N$5000 or 2 years imprisonment of which N$2000 or 6 months are suspended for a period of 5 years on certain condition…’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The learned magistrate in her reply conceded to have made an error and sought directives and guidance from the Honourable Reviewing Judge.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]<b>        </b>It is apparent from the record that the learned magistrate certified the record without first verifying and proof-reading the record. The review sheet has to be corrected in</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> terms of section 304 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> to reflect the sentence that was imposed on the accused person</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. In preparing this judgment I also noticed that the magistrate sentenced the accused to ‘24 months’ imprisonment for both counts’. I understood same to mean both convictions were taken together for sentencing purposes and I am satisfied with that.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5] </span></span></span><b>       </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the result:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-30.05pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.    The convictions on both count of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm are confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:40px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-30.05pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.    The sentence as indicated on review sheet and typed J15 is set aside and substituted with the sentence indicated in a handwritten judgement as follows; Twenty-four (24) months imprisonment of which four (4) months imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that accused is not convicted of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-30.05pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.     The sentence is anteceded to 27 September 2018.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpLast" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">   </span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">J T SALIONGA </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">D C MUNSU</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:310px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:331px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-a6f7fcc104f3bfd2bc88ec0fd62011fa1bd2264500958acf42378dab9a1403c8"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:662px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Bernard Immanuel</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i> </i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR NO: 3/2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CASE NO:164/2018</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:140px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J <i>et</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice Munsu  AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:140px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">  29 January  2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> S v Immanuel </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CR 3/2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 4 ( 29 January 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The convictions on both count of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm are confirmed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The sentence as indicated on review sheet and typed J15 is set aside and substituted with the sentence indicated in a handwritten judgement as follows; Twenty-four (24) months imprisonment of which four (4) months imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that accused is not convicted of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The sentence is anteceded to 27 September 2018.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:19px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the above order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (MUNSU J concurring):</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p class="CxSpFirst" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The accused pleaded guilty to two counts of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm and was convicted as charged. He was sentenced to 24 months imprisonment of which 4 months imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that accused is not convicted of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">When the matter was received on automatic review the reviewing judge had no disquiet with the conviction. However an explanation was requested as to why the record indicates a sentence of ‘24 months imprisonment of which 4 months imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition … but the review sheets indicates that accused was sentenced to N$5000 or 2 years imprisonment of which N$2000 or 6 months are suspended for a period of 5 years on certain condition…’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span><b>        </b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The learned magistrate in her reply conceded to have made an error and sought directives and guidance from the Honourable Reviewing Judge.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]<b>        </b>It is apparent from the record that the learned magistrate certified the record without first verifying and proof-reading the record. The review sheet has to be corrected in</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> terms of section 304 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> to reflect the sentence that was imposed on the accused person</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. In preparing this judgment I also noticed that the magistrate sentenced the accused to ‘24 months’ imprisonment for both counts’. I understood same to mean both convictions were taken together for sentencing purposes and I am satisfied with that.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5] </span></span></span><b>       </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the result:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-30.05pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.    The convictions on both count of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm are confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:40px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-30.05pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.    The sentence as indicated on review sheet and typed J15 is set aside and substituted with the sentence indicated in a handwritten judgement as follows; Twenty-four (24) months imprisonment of which four (4) months imprisonment is suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that accused is not convicted of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:40px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-30.05pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.     The sentence is anteceded to 27 September 2018.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpLast" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">   </span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">J T SALIONGA </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">D C MUNSU</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:310px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:331px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 19 Jul 2021 11:20:21 +0000 Mariana 25436 at http://namiblii.org S v Haufiku (CRIMINAL 4 of 2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 5 (29 January 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/5 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">S v Haufiku (CRIMINAL 4 of 2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 5 (29 January 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/19/2021 - 11:17</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/5/2021-nahcnld-5.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=46882">2021-nahcnld-5.docx</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:662px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Bertha Haufiku</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR NO: 4/2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b> </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CASE NO: 135 /2020</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:107px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J <i>et</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr Justice Munsu  AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:107px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">  29 January 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> S v</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Haufiku (CR 4 /2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 05 ( 29 January 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The conviction of arson is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence is confirmed but the condition of suspension is amended as follows: 18 months imprisonment of which eight (8) months imprisonment are suspended for a period of five (5) years on condition accused is not convicted of a crime of arson in a domestic or non-domestic set up committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the above order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:662px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (MUNSU A J concurring):</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p class="CxSpFirst" style="margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]   The accused was convicted of arson read with the provision of the Combating of Domestic Violence Act, Act 4 of 2003 and sentenced to 18 months imprisonment of which eight (8) months imprisonment are suspended for a period of five (5) years on condition accused is not convicted of a crime relating to domestic or none-domestic violence (sic) committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]    I do not have a problem with the conviction and sentence imposed. However it is the formulation of the condition that this court is not satisfied with. The condition of suspension should be worded in such a manner that accused is not convicted of a specific or particular offence. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]    In casu the condition that the accused is not convicted of any offence or crime relating to domestic and non-domestic violence is too broad and has to be amended or altered.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]    In the result the following orders are made:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 1. The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 2. The sentence is confirmed but the condition of suspension is amended as follows: 18 months imprisonment of which eight (8) months imprisonment are suspended for a period of five (5) years on condition accused is not convicted of a crime of arson in a domestic or non-domestic set up committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">   </span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">J T  SALIONGA </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">D C MUNSU</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:310px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:331px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-95bc8a2a542949aabe3c02fba192611840bc97965f5647ad8ebf9a134aded312"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:662px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Bertha Haufiku</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR NO: 4/2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b> </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CASE NO: 135 /2020</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:310px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:107px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J <i>et</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr Justice Munsu  AJ</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:351px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:107px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">  29 January 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> S v</span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Haufiku (CR 4 /2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 05 ( 29 January 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The conviction of arson is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence is confirmed but the condition of suspension is amended as follows: 18 months imprisonment of which eight (8) months imprisonment are suspended for a period of five (5) years on condition accused is not convicted of a crime of arson in a domestic or non-domestic set up committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the above order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:662px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA J (MUNSU A J concurring):</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-indent:-36.0pt; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p class="CxSpFirst" style="margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]   The accused was convicted of arson read with the provision of the Combating of Domestic Violence Act, Act 4 of 2003 and sentenced to 18 months imprisonment of which eight (8) months imprisonment are suspended for a period of five (5) years on condition accused is not convicted of a crime relating to domestic or none-domestic violence (sic) committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]    I do not have a problem with the conviction and sentence imposed. However it is the formulation of the condition that this court is not satisfied with. The condition of suspension should be worded in such a manner that accused is not convicted of a specific or particular offence. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]    In casu the condition that the accused is not convicted of any offence or crime relating to domestic and non-domestic violence is too broad and has to be amended or altered.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]    In the result the following orders are made:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 1. The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 2. The sentence is confirmed but the condition of suspension is amended as follows: 18 months imprisonment of which eight (8) months imprisonment are suspended for a period of five (5) years on condition accused is not convicted of a crime of arson in a domestic or non-domestic set up committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">   </span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">J T  SALIONGA </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">D C MUNSU</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ACTING JUDGE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:310px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:20px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:331px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 19 Jul 2021 11:17:53 +0000 Mariana 25435 at http://namiblii.org S v Erastus (CRIMINAL 1 of 2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 2 (25 January 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/2 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">S v Erastus (CRIMINAL 1 of 2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 2 (25 January 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/19/2021 - 11:13</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/2/2021-nahcnld-2.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=46867">2021-nahcnld-2.docx</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:285px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The State v Matheus Erastus</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:414px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR No</span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.: 1/2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No.: EENHANA 430/2020</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:414px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:285px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice  January J <i>et</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:414px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">25 January 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:699px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Erastus </span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CR 1/2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 2 (25 January 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:699px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence of twenty four (24) years imprisonment without option (sic) of a fine is set aside;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The accused is sentenced to 18 months imprisonment;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence is backdated to 3 July 2020.   </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:699px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the order</span></span></span></b></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:699px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        The accused was charged with assault by threat read with the section 21 of the Domestic Violence Act, Act 4 of 2003. The accused threatened to kill his 82 year old grandma with a panga. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">He pleaded guilty and was convicted pursuant to the provisions of section 112(1)(b) of the Criminal Procedure Act, Act 51 of 1977 (the CPA). He was sentenced on 30 June 2020 to 24 month’s imprisonment without the option of a fine.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        The case was submitted for automatic review in the ordinary course in terms of section 302 of the CPA on 14 July 2020. It was not certified to be in accordance with justice because the reviewing judge was not satisfied that the accused admitted all the elements of the offence, particularly wrongfulness and unlawfulness. The conviction and sentence were set aside and the record of proceedings were remitted with a directive that the accused be properly questioned in terms of section 112(1)(b).</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        The magistrate was further directed in the event of a conviction to consider the time that the accused spent in custody since 3 July 2020.  The magistrate complied with the directive and questioned the accused afresh after he pleaded guilty again. The case is again before me for automatic review with a letter from the magistrate to the registrar.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]       The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"> </span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence </span></span></span></i></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]       In the letter to the Registrar, the magistrate stated amongst others:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:23.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"> <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘After going through the record, I realized that the sentence is incomplete in that it does not give the length of period served or the effective time to be served. Since, the accused has been in custody since 03 July 2020, the effective term of imprisonment should be Three (3) years, nine (9) and Nine (9) days.’</span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]      The magistrate sentenced the accused to ‘</span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">24 months’ imprisonment without the option of a fine with credit for time served since 03 July 2020’</span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. This is an incompetent sentence. The magistrate clearly did not understand the directive. When calculated from 03 July 2020 until the date of the new sentence on 13 October 2020, the accused served about three and a half months imprisonment. That is the period that needs consideration. Until today, the accused served about five and a half months’ imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Conclusion</span></span></span></i></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]       The accused is 18 years old and a first offender. He is not married and has no children. He schooled to grade 2. He herds cattle to generate an income. He indicated to court that he is remorseful about the crime.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]      Considering the age of the accused; that he is unsophisticated; that he is remorseful; that he pleaded guilty; that he is a first offender, I find the sentence to be harsh and shockingly inappropriate. I also considered the period that he served until today.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%">         </span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:307px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:38px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge(s) signature</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:392px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:38px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Comments:</span></span></span></b>  </span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:307px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:57px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">January J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:392px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:57px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:307px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Salionga J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:392px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:285px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:22px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:392px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-e5924be27780e855ae0329d0afdd70149fe87fd9af18dc01832c72380a4a89fd"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REVIEW JUDGMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:285px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The State v Matheus Erastus</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:414px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CR No</span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.: 1/2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No.: EENHANA 430/2020</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:414px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:285px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Mr. Justice  January J <i>et</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Ms. Justice Salionga J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:414px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">25 January 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:699px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Erastus </span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CR 1/2021) [2021] NAHCNLD 2 (25 January 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:699px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence of twenty four (24) years imprisonment without option (sic) of a fine is set aside;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The accused is sentenced to 18 months imprisonment;</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence is backdated to 3 July 2020.   </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:699px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the order</span></span></span></b></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:699px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        The accused was charged with assault by threat read with the section 21 of the Domestic Violence Act, Act 4 of 2003. The accused threatened to kill his 82 year old grandma with a panga. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">He pleaded guilty and was convicted pursuant to the provisions of section 112(1)(b) of the Criminal Procedure Act, Act 51 of 1977 (the CPA). He was sentenced on 30 June 2020 to 24 month’s imprisonment without the option of a fine.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        The case was submitted for automatic review in the ordinary course in terms of section 302 of the CPA on 14 July 2020. It was not certified to be in accordance with justice because the reviewing judge was not satisfied that the accused admitted all the elements of the offence, particularly wrongfulness and unlawfulness. The conviction and sentence were set aside and the record of proceedings were remitted with a directive that the accused be properly questioned in terms of section 112(1)(b).</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        The magistrate was further directed in the event of a conviction to consider the time that the accused spent in custody since 3 July 2020.  The magistrate complied with the directive and questioned the accused afresh after he pleaded guilty again. The case is again before me for automatic review with a letter from the magistrate to the registrar.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]       The conviction is confirmed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"> </span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The sentence </span></span></span></i></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]       In the letter to the Registrar, the magistrate stated amongst others:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify; text-indent:23.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"> <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘After going through the record, I realized that the sentence is incomplete in that it does not give the length of period served or the effective time to be served. Since, the accused has been in custody since 03 July 2020, the effective term of imprisonment should be Three (3) years, nine (9) and Nine (9) days.’</span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]      The magistrate sentenced the accused to ‘</span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">24 months’ imprisonment without the option of a fine with credit for time served since 03 July 2020’</span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. This is an incompetent sentence. The magistrate clearly did not understand the directive. When calculated from 03 July 2020 until the date of the new sentence on 13 October 2020, the accused served about three and a half months imprisonment. That is the period that needs consideration. Until today, the accused served about five and a half months’ imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Conclusion</span></span></span></i></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]       The accused is 18 years old and a first offender. He is not married and has no children. He schooled to grade 2. He herds cattle to generate an income. He indicated to court that he is remorseful about the crime.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]      Considering the age of the accused; that he is unsophisticated; that he is remorseful; that he pleaded guilty; that he is a first offender, I find the sentence to be harsh and shockingly inappropriate. I also considered the period that he served until today.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="CxSpMiddle" style="text-align:justify"><span style="line-height:150%">         </span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:307px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:38px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge(s) signature</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:392px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:38px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Comments:</span></span></span></b>  </span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:307px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:57px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">January J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:392px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:57px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:307px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Salionga J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:392px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:65px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:285px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:22px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:392px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 19 Jul 2021 11:13:39 +0000 Mariana 25433 at http://namiblii.org Amupolo v Keumbo Letu Investment CC t/a Keumbo Logistics (HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON 85 of 2020) [2021] NAHCNLD 28 (15 March 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/28 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Amupolo v Keumbo Letu Investment CC t/a Keumbo Logistics (HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON 85 of 2020) [2021] NAHCNLD 28 (15 March 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 15:50</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/28/2021-nahcnld-28.doc" type="application/msword; length=100864">2021-nahcnld-28.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:661px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MARCIA MARIA AMUPOLO // KEUMBO LETU INVESTMENT CC T/A KEUMBO LOGISTICS &amp; ANOTHER</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:312px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/00085</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:312px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT (NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HONOURABLE MR JUSTICE ANGULA, DEPUTY JUDGE-PRESIDENT</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:312px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">22 FEBRUARY 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:312px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">15 MARCH 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:73px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Amupolo v Keumbo Letu Investment CC t/a Keumbo Logistics </span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(<span style="background:white">HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/00085</span>)<b> </b>[2021] </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">NAHCNLD</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">28 (15 March 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is recorded that: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">After counsel filed their respective heads of argument they requested the court to decide the matter on papers in chambers and waived their rights to appear and make oral submissions.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Having read and considered the pleadings, notices and counsel heads of argument in chambers, now therefore:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants’ exception to the plaintiff’s particulars of claim, that it is vague and embarrassing is dismissed with costs limited to half of the costs stipulated by rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff is afforded an opportunity to amend para 12 of her particulars of claim. That amendment is to be effected on or before 26 March 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff is to pay the defendants’ costs equal to half of that stipulated by rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants are to file their plea and counterclaim, if any, on or before 9 April 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The parties are to file a joint case management report on or before 31 March 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The matter is postponed to <b>12 April 2021</b> at <b>14h15</b> for case management conference.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 484.65pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Following below are the reasons for the above order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        The defendant gave notice to the plaintiff in terms of rule 57(1), (2) and (3) alleging that the plaintiff’s particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing. The notice afforded the   plaintiff 10 days within which to remove the cause complained. The notice further informed the plaintiff that failing to remedy the cause complained, the notice ‘also serves as an Exception in terms of Rule 57(3)’ in which event defendant prays that the exception be upheld and that the plaintiff be granted leave to amend her particulars of claim within 10 days.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        In the same notice the defendant took an exception that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action. The defendant alleged that the plaintiff pleaded her cause of action relying interchangeably on ss 64 and 65 of the Close Corporation Act, 26 of 1988 instead of pleading in the alternative. The defendant points out that in order to rely on s 64 there must be declarator made by a competent court that the defendants acted recklessly, negligently and/or fraudulently. The defendants point out further that the plaintiff does not allege in her particulars of claim that such a declarator has been made by a competent court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        The aims or object of the two types of exceptions are mutually exclusive. So are the procedures. Therefore, the two types of exceptions should not be conflated as it happened in the present matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        The exception that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action goes to the root of the plaintiff‘s claim. It is a point of law type of exception. Its purpose is to dispose of the case without incurring unnecessary costs. For that reason, it must be taken first. In the case of the exception that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action, there is no obligation on the party giving his opponent an opportunity to remedy the defect. The exception is taken there and then without notice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        As P T Damaseb<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> says in his works the procedure for adjudication of this type of exception, that is the particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing, if not already stipulated in the case plan order, is for the party raising the exception to seek directions from the managing judge when the exception may be heard.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        The exception that the particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing by implication admits that it discloses a cause of action but the excipient feels that the cause of action is not sufficiently and precisely pleaded. The excipient entertains some apprehension that if he or she were to try to plead thereto he or she will be embarrassed by the vagueness and lack of particularity. In</span></span></span><i> </i><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Gauiseb v Minister of Home Affairs<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><sup><b><sup><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></sup></b></sup></a></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, this Court per Mtambanengwe, J held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:9px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:9px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt 476.1pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘</span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The proviso to rule 23(1) [the predecessor to rule 57(1)] is couched in peremptory terms, and the effect is clear; it is a condition precedent to the taking of an exception on the ground that a pleading is vague and embarrassing, that the would-be excipient shall by notice afford his opponent an opportunity of removing the cause of the complaint within 14 days. Where no such opportunity was afforded no such exception can be taken.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        Therefore, unlike with the law point exception with this type of exception there is an obligation on the excipient, as a condition precedent, to afford the other party an opportunity to remove the defect by giving notice to his or her opponent to remove such defect within ten days from the date of notice. It is only after the expiry of such period that the excipient may take an exception should the opponent fail to remedy the defect. An exception is a pleading and cannot substituted by the notice giving notice of exception as the excipient attempted to do in the present proceedings. Rule 57(3) requires the excipient to ‘deliver’ his or her exception after the expiry of 10 days calculated from the date of reply to or 10 days after the due to reply to notice of intention to except. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        In the present matter the excipient conflated the two distinct exceptions. This is not permissible for the reasons stated above. In respect of the exception alleging that the particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing, the excipients having given notice of their intention to except failed after the expiry of the notice period to file the exception. Rule 57(3) does not make provision for the notice to substitute the filing of the actual exception. Just like the notice of intention to amend does to substitute the filing of the real amended pleading, be it particulars of claim of plea or counter-claim, likewise the notice of intention to except does not obviates the requirement to file the exception.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        For those reasons, the failure by the defendants to file an exception is fatal to their attempt to except to the plaintiff’s particulars of claim. I found the procedure adopted to be irregular and for that reason the exception that the particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      As regards the exception that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action I agree with the defendants that the plaintiff conflated ss 64 and 65 of the Close Corporation Act, 1988 by failing to plead the alleged contravention of the two sections separately or in the alternative. In my view, each section creates its own separate and independent cause of action. Therefore, any cause of action founded on either of the said sections must be pleaded separately or in the alternative. It is correct that in the absence of a declarator the particulars of claim insofar as it relates to s 64 does not disclose a cause of action. However, if the plaintiff were to lead evidence at the trial to prove a cause of action based on s 65 she might succeed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      Having regard to the foregoing, in my view it is not a matter that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action but rather that the failure to plead the cause of action in relation to s 65, independently and separately had the effect of making the cause of action based on s 65 to be vague and embarrassing. This is because the cause of action founded on s 65 is not dependant on the existence of a declarator.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      My finding is therefore that the particulars of claim are rather vague and embarrassing as opposed to not disclosing a cause of action, particularly the cause of action founded on s 65 for the reason that it has not pleaded separately and/or in the alternative from the cause of action founded on s 64.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      Accordingly, the plaintiff is afforded an opportunity to correct the defect pointed out within the time period stipulated in the order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Costs</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      The defendants have partially failed with one part of the exception and partially succeed with the other part of exception. On the other hand the plaintiff succeeds with her opposition to part of the exception but have to amend part of her particulars of claim. Under the circumstances and in the exercise of my discretion I am prepared to award each side half of the costs prescribed by rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendants</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">I Mainga</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">of</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Inonge Mainga Attorneys, Ongwediva</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S Kahengombe</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">of</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Samuel &amp; Company Legal Practitioners, Ongwediva</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:31px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:312px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="margin-right:-46px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Petrus T Damaseb <i>Court - Managed Civil Procedure of the High Court: </i></span><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Law, Procedure and Practice,</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> p 226.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:18.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><sup><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><sup><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></sup></span></span></sup></a><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"> 1996 NR 90 (HC).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-6f3ba7a6b748f5e99746f782079d35e9c3cfaa24df3fa2804175baf44d1ed2b1"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:661px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MARCIA MARIA AMUPOLO // KEUMBO LETU INVESTMENT CC T/A KEUMBO LOGISTICS &amp; ANOTHER</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:312px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/00085</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:312px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT (NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:349px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HONOURABLE MR JUSTICE ANGULA, DEPUTY JUDGE-PRESIDENT</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:312px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">22 FEBRUARY 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:312px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">15 MARCH 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:73px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Amupolo v Keumbo Letu Investment CC t/a Keumbo Logistics </span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(<span style="background:white">HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/00085</span>)<b> </b>[2021] </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">NAHCNLD</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">28 (15 March 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is recorded that: </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">After counsel filed their respective heads of argument they requested the court to decide the matter on papers in chambers and waived their rights to appear and make oral submissions.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Having read and considered the pleadings, notices and counsel heads of argument in chambers, now therefore:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants’ exception to the plaintiff’s particulars of claim, that it is vague and embarrassing is dismissed with costs limited to half of the costs stipulated by rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff is afforded an opportunity to amend para 12 of her particulars of claim. That amendment is to be effected on or before 26 March 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff is to pay the defendants’ costs equal to half of that stipulated by rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants are to file their plea and counterclaim, if any, on or before 9 April 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The parties are to file a joint case management report on or before 31 March 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The matter is postponed to <b>12 April 2021</b> at <b>14h15</b> for case management conference.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 484.65pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Following below are the reasons for the above order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        The defendant gave notice to the plaintiff in terms of rule 57(1), (2) and (3) alleging that the plaintiff’s particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing. The notice afforded the   plaintiff 10 days within which to remove the cause complained. The notice further informed the plaintiff that failing to remedy the cause complained, the notice ‘also serves as an Exception in terms of Rule 57(3)’ in which event defendant prays that the exception be upheld and that the plaintiff be granted leave to amend her particulars of claim within 10 days.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        In the same notice the defendant took an exception that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action. The defendant alleged that the plaintiff pleaded her cause of action relying interchangeably on ss 64 and 65 of the Close Corporation Act, 26 of 1988 instead of pleading in the alternative. The defendant points out that in order to rely on s 64 there must be declarator made by a competent court that the defendants acted recklessly, negligently and/or fraudulently. The defendants point out further that the plaintiff does not allege in her particulars of claim that such a declarator has been made by a competent court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        The aims or object of the two types of exceptions are mutually exclusive. So are the procedures. Therefore, the two types of exceptions should not be conflated as it happened in the present matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        The exception that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action goes to the root of the plaintiff‘s claim. It is a point of law type of exception. Its purpose is to dispose of the case without incurring unnecessary costs. For that reason, it must be taken first. In the case of the exception that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action, there is no obligation on the party giving his opponent an opportunity to remedy the defect. The exception is taken there and then without notice.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        As P T Damaseb<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> says in his works the procedure for adjudication of this type of exception, that is the particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing, if not already stipulated in the case plan order, is for the party raising the exception to seek directions from the managing judge when the exception may be heard.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        The exception that the particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing by implication admits that it discloses a cause of action but the excipient feels that the cause of action is not sufficiently and precisely pleaded. The excipient entertains some apprehension that if he or she were to try to plead thereto he or she will be embarrassed by the vagueness and lack of particularity. In</span></span></span><i> </i><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Gauiseb v Minister of Home Affairs<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><sup><b><sup><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></sup></b></sup></a></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, this Court per Mtambanengwe, J held that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:9px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:9px; text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt 476.1pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘</span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The proviso to rule 23(1) [the predecessor to rule 57(1)] is couched in peremptory terms, and the effect is clear; it is a condition precedent to the taking of an exception on the ground that a pleading is vague and embarrassing, that the would-be excipient shall by notice afford his opponent an opportunity of removing the cause of the complaint within 14 days. Where no such opportunity was afforded no such exception can be taken.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        Therefore, unlike with the law point exception with this type of exception there is an obligation on the excipient, as a condition precedent, to afford the other party an opportunity to remove the defect by giving notice to his or her opponent to remove such defect within ten days from the date of notice. It is only after the expiry of such period that the excipient may take an exception should the opponent fail to remedy the defect. An exception is a pleading and cannot substituted by the notice giving notice of exception as the excipient attempted to do in the present proceedings. Rule 57(3) requires the excipient to ‘deliver’ his or her exception after the expiry of 10 days calculated from the date of reply to or 10 days after the due to reply to notice of intention to except. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        In the present matter the excipient conflated the two distinct exceptions. This is not permissible for the reasons stated above. In respect of the exception alleging that the particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing, the excipients having given notice of their intention to except failed after the expiry of the notice period to file the exception. Rule 57(3) does not make provision for the notice to substitute the filing of the actual exception. Just like the notice of intention to amend does to substitute the filing of the real amended pleading, be it particulars of claim of plea or counter-claim, likewise the notice of intention to except does not obviates the requirement to file the exception.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        For those reasons, the failure by the defendants to file an exception is fatal to their attempt to except to the plaintiff’s particulars of claim. I found the procedure adopted to be irregular and for that reason the exception that the particulars of claim are vague and embarrassing is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      As regards the exception that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action I agree with the defendants that the plaintiff conflated ss 64 and 65 of the Close Corporation Act, 1988 by failing to plead the alleged contravention of the two sections separately or in the alternative. In my view, each section creates its own separate and independent cause of action. Therefore, any cause of action founded on either of the said sections must be pleaded separately or in the alternative. It is correct that in the absence of a declarator the particulars of claim insofar as it relates to s 64 does not disclose a cause of action. However, if the plaintiff were to lead evidence at the trial to prove a cause of action based on s 65 she might succeed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      Having regard to the foregoing, in my view it is not a matter that the particulars of claim do not disclose a cause of action but rather that the failure to plead the cause of action in relation to s 65, independently and separately had the effect of making the cause of action based on s 65 to be vague and embarrassing. This is because the cause of action founded on s 65 is not dependant on the existence of a declarator.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      My finding is therefore that the particulars of claim are rather vague and embarrassing as opposed to not disclosing a cause of action, particularly the cause of action founded on s 65 for the reason that it has not pleaded separately and/or in the alternative from the cause of action founded on s 64.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      Accordingly, the plaintiff is afforded an opportunity to correct the defect pointed out within the time period stipulated in the order.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Costs</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      The defendants have partially failed with one part of the exception and partially succeed with the other part of exception. On the other hand the plaintiff succeeds with her opposition to part of the exception but have to amend part of her particulars of claim. Under the circumstances and in the exercise of my discretion I am prepared to award each side half of the costs prescribed by rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendants</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">I Mainga</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">of</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Inonge Mainga Attorneys, Ongwediva</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S Kahengombe</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">of</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Samuel &amp; Company Legal Practitioners, Ongwediva</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:31px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:312px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="margin-right:-46px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Petrus T Damaseb <i>Court - Managed Civil Procedure of the High Court: </i></span><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Law, Procedure and Practice,</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> p 226.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="tab-stops:18.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><sup><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><sup><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></sup></span></span></sup></a><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"> 1996 NR 90 (HC).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 15:50:46 +0000 Mariana 25406 at http://namiblii.org Omaka Mining and Engineering CC v Omusati Regional Council (HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON 180 of 2017) [2021] NAHCNLD 17 (22 February 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/17 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Omaka Mining and Engineering CC v Omusati Regional Council (HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON 180 of 2017) [2021] NAHCNLD 17 (22 February 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 15:48</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-search-summary field--type-text-with-summary field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Search summary</div> <div class="field__item"><p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Civil proceedings – Claim for building work done and material supplied, defendants refuses to compensate the plaintiff after work was done – Plaintiff alleged verbal agreement to construct a building identical to the first building – The defendants and their legal practitioners barred from leading evidence due to non-compliance with the rules – Court proceeded in terms of rule 98(1) – Court found that the plaintiff had proved the first written agreement but failed to prove the alleged additional oral agreements and grant absolution from the instances in respect of work done and material supplied in respect of the alleged oral agreement</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-headnote-and-holding field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Headnote and holding</div> <div class="field__item"><p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:0cm"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff claimed an amount of N$2 100 000 which he alleges emanated from a breach of a building contract entered into between it and the first defendant following a tender award</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff alleged that on or about 11 October 2016 the plaintiff and the defendants entered into a written agreement in terms of which the plaintiff would construct two bachelor flats which would be housed in one Unit at Pendukeni High School, situated in Omusati Region, for a consideration N$1 305 000. In terms of that written agreement the plaintiff would supply labour, material and machinery. The plaintiff further alleged that during the construction his foreman of site was approached by the second defendant, an employee of the first defendant, who instructed him to construct additional two similar bachelor flats on the same terms and conditions as the initial written agreement for a similar consideration. To which the plaintiff agreed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">After plaintiff completed the first two flats and the last two flats were about 98 per cent completed the defendant breach the agreement by refusing to pay the plaintiff for the construction of the additional verbal agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:0cm"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Court held that</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">; on the admissible evidence before court, the plaintiff had proved the written agreement and is entitled to be compensated for the amount agreed. The court found that in respect of the alleged second oral agreement, in that on the foreman’s own admission he did not have prior authority from his principal to conclude the alleged oral agreement. Furthermore given the fact that the written agreement was preceded by a tender invitation it was highly improbable that the construction of two additional flats could have been done without a tender proses and without a further written agreement been concluded between the parties. The court accordingly granted an order for the absolution from the instance against the plaintiff in respect of the two additional flats.</span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/17/2021-nahcnld-17.doc" type="application/msword; length=123392">2021-nahcnld-17.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><shape id="_x0000_s1026" strokecolor="white" style="position:absolute; left:0; text-align:left; margin-left:478px; margin-top:-6px; width:123pt; height:19.5pt; z-index:251657728" type="#_x0000_t202"></shape></span></span></span></p> <table><tbody><tr><td bgcolor="white" style="border-bottom:.100px solid white; vertical-align:top; background-color:white; border-top:.100px solid white; border-right:.100px solid white; border-left:.100px solid white; width:170px; height:32px"> <table width="100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div class="shape" style="padding:4.35pt 7.95pt 4.35pt 7.95pt" v:shape="_x0000_s1026"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:15px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="position:relative"><span style="z-index:251657728"><span style="left:477px; width:170px"><span style="position:absolute"><span style="top:-7px"><span style="height:32px"><span style="position:absolute"><span style="left:0pt"><span style="z-index:251657728"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Reportable REPORTABLE</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table></td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-center"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case no: HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2017/00180</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the matter between</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 451.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">OMAKA MINING AND ENGINEERING CC</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                      PLAINTIFF</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 451.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">OMUSATI REGIONAL COUNCIL                                                    FIRST DEFENDANT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 451.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">TEOFELUS SHIGWEDHA                                                           SECOND DEFENDNAT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:      </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Omaka Mining and Engineering CC v Omusati Regional Council </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2017/00180) [2021] </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">NAHCNLD </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">17 (22 February 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Coram:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">          ANGULA DJP</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:            <b>1 December 2020</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:     <b>22 February 2021</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Flynote:         </span></b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Civil proceedings – Claim for building work done and material supplied, defendants refuses to compensate the plaintiff after work was done – Plaintiff alleged verbal agreement to construct a building identical to the first building – The defendants and their legal practitioners barred from leading evidence due to non-compliance with the rules – Court proceeded in terms of rule 98(1) – Court found that the plaintiff had proved the first written agreement but failed to prove the alleged additional oral agreements and grant absolution from the instances in respect of work done and material supplied in respect of the alleged oral agreement</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:0cm"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Summary:</span></b>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff claimed an amount of N$2 100 000 which he alleges emanated from a breach of a building contract entered into between it and the first defendant following a tender award</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff alleged that on or about 11 October 2016 the plaintiff and the defendants entered into a written agreement in terms of which the plaintiff would construct two bachelor flats which would be housed in one Unit at Pendukeni High School, situated in Omusati Region, for a consideration N$1 305 000. In terms of that written agreement the plaintiff would supply labour, material and machinery. The plaintiff further alleged that during the construction his foreman of site was approached by the second defendant, an employee of the first defendant, who instructed him to construct additional two similar bachelor flats on the same terms and conditions as the initial written agreement for a similar consideration. To which the plaintiff agreed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">After plaintiff completed the first two flats and the last two flats were about 98 per cent completed the defendant breach the agreement by refusing to pay the plaintiff for the construction of the additional verbal agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:0cm"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Court held that</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">; on the admissible evidence before court, the plaintiff had proved the written agreement and is entitled to be compensated for the amount agreed. The court found that in respect of the alleged second oral agreement, in that on the foreman’s own admission he did not have prior authority from his principal to conclude the alleged oral agreement. Furthermore given the fact that the written agreement was preceded by a tender invitation it was highly improbable that the construction of two additional flats could have been done without a tender proses and without a further written agreement been concluded between the parties. The court accordingly granted an order for the absolution from the instance against the plaintiff in respect of the two additional flats.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="0" width="100%" /></div> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ORDER</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="0" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The first defendant is to pay the plaintiff a sum of N$1 305 000 in consideration for work done and material supplied in respect of the written contract to construct two bachelor flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:28px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-21.3pt"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Absolution from the instance is granted in respect of the alleged additional work done and material supplied.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first defendant is to pay interest on the aforesaid amount of N$1 305 000<b> </b>at the rate of 20 per cent per annum calculated from 24 March 2017 on which the defendants acknowledged in writing its indebtness to the plaintiff to date of final payment.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Costs of suit.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="5"><li><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The matter is removed from the roll and is considered finalized</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="0" width="100%" /></div> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:0cm"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">JUDGMENT</span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <div class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="0" width="100%" /></div> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ANGULA DJP:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[1]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff claimed an amount of N$2 100 000 emanating from a breach of a written building construction contract, through a tender awarded to the plaintiff by the first defendant to construct initially two identical bachelor flats and further two additional identical flats in terms of an oral agreement</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[2]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff is Omaka Mining and Engineering, a close corporation duly incorporated in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Namibia.</span> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first defendant is Omusati Regional Council, a Regional Authority established in terms of s 2 of the Regional Councils Act 22 of 1992. The second defendant is Teofelus Shigwedha a major male, building inspector employed by the Omusati Regional Council. The second defendant is cited in his capacity as an employee of the first defendant and no relief is sought against him. Where reference is made in this judgment to the plaintiff and the defendants jointly, they shall be referred to as the ‘the parties’.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[3]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff was represented by Mr Ndaitwah, while the defendants were represented by Mr </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Tibinyane</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">, who was not in attendance at the trial.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Pleadings</span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[4]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff alleges in its particulars of claim that on or about 11 October 2016 the plaintiff and the defendant entered into a written agreement in terms of which plaintiff would construct two bachelor flats which would be housed in one unit at Pendukeni High School, situated in Omusati Region for the amount of N$1 305 000. In terms of the agreement, the plaintiff would provide all the labour, material, machinery and everything necessary for the construction of such flats.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[5]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff further alleges that during the site hand over, the plaintiff, represented by his site-foreman and the second respondent orally agreed that the plaintiff would construct two additional similar bachelor flats on the same terms and conditions as the first two flats for the same amount as the first two flats</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[6]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">On or about 24 October 2016, the plaintiff commenced with the construction of the two bachelor flats in accordance with the written agreement. On 18 November 2016, the second defendant instructed the plaintiff’s site foreman to construct two additional bachelor flats which should be a mirror images of the first two flats on the same terms and conditions.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[7]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff alleges that the first and second defendants are in breach of the said agreements in that they failed and or refused to compensate it in respect of work done and material supplied</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[8]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first defendant admits in its plea that it entered into a written agreement with the </span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">plaintiff for the construction of two bachelor flats at Pendukeni High School, for the amount of N$1 305 000 as alleged by the plaintiff. It however denies that it entered into an oral agreement with the plaintiff for the construction of two additional bachelor flats and put the plaintiff to the proof thereof.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><u><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The parties’ non-compliance with the rules</span></u></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[9]        There have been numerous non-compliances with the Rules of Court by both parties in this matter. For instance, on 29 January 2019 the matter was struck from the roll by the Judge-President for want of prosecution. Thereafter, the plaintiff brought an application for re-instatement and the matter was accordingly re-instated</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]     The parties yet again failed to file their respective witness statements and were sanctioned by this court. The plaintiff complied with the sanctions order and was thereafter allowed to file its witness statements. The defendants on the other hand failed to satisfy the court on their failure to file their witness statements timely and as a consequence they were barred from filing and using witness statements at trial.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">When the matter was called for hearing on 30 November 2020, the defendants brought an application to postpone the trial. </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">After considering the application for postponement, the court dismissed the application. As Mr. Nyambe who stood in for Mr. Tibinyane who acted on behalf of the defendants had no further instruction to proceed with the trial he asked for leave to be excused from the proceedings. His request was granted. The court thereafter considered the defendants to be in default and proceeded in terms of rule 98(1), in the absence of the defendants.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]     Rule 98(</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1) provides:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            ‘If a trial is called and the plaintiff appears and the defendant does not appear in person or by his or her legal practitioner, the plaintiff may prove his or her claim insofar as the burden of proof lies on him or her and judgment must be given accordingly insofar as he or she has discharged such burden, but, if the claim is for a debt or liquidated demand no evidence is necessary unless the presiding judge otherwise orders.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The court wishes to reiterate that it will not tolerate or condone the parties’ flagrant non-compliance with its rules and will in future non-suit parties who fail to comply with its rules.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff’s case</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]     Mr Erkki Kandjamba testified that</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">he is the sole member of the plaintiff and that on 11 October 2016, on behalf of the plaintiff. Following being awarded the tender, he entered into a written agreement with the first defendant, duly represented by the second defendant, in terms of which the plaintiff would construct two bachelor flats at Pendukeni High School designed into a single dwelling for the amount of N$1 305 000 as compensation. He handed in evidence a copy of the Bill of Quantity and the letter of the plaintiff’s appointment by the first respondent as a contractor.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Prior to commencement with the construction work, a site hand over was conducted. During that site hand over, the second defendant informed the plaintiff’s foreman that they would have to construct two additional flats, identical to the flats in in respect of the written contract. The foreman agreed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff’s foreman relayed the communication in respect of the extra work to Mr Kandjamba and further advised that due to the extra work and the fact that they were required to finalised the construction of the two additional flats during the same period as the first two flats, they would require additional resources in the form of machinery and employees. According to Mr Kandjamba, he acted promptly by supplying additional machinery and employees to the construction site.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Kandjamba further testified that January 2017 his foreman informed him that they required more material to complete the work whereupon he informed his foreman that there was no money and they need to submit a claim for ‘progress payment’ to the first defendant. He then contacted second defendant and request for payment in respect of the work done that far. The second defendant advised him that a formal written request was needed by the first defendant. Mr Kandjamba then addressed a written request for payment to the first defendant however for months no response was received. Thereafter, the second defendant visited the site and gave instruction that the construction work be stopped.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Kandjamba further testified that the only work that remained to be completed in respect of the two additional flats were the installation of the electricity; cupboards, doors; and septic tank. Other than that, the two separate flats were completed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Kandjamba handed into evidence, a letter from </span></span></span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the first defendant dated 24 March 2017 addressed to the plaintiff. In the letter, the first defendant</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> stated and admitted that the plaintiff was entitled to a payment of N$1 305 000. The letter was admitted into evidence and was marked ‘Exhibit E’. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">According to this witness, the defendants have to date not paid the plaintiff for the work done and as a result the first defendant is indebted to the plaintiff in the sum claimed in the summons.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]     The plaintiff then called the second witness for the plaintiff, the plaintiff’s site-foreman, Mr Paulus Ismael. He basically confirmed what was testified by Mr Kandjamba. In particular he testified that he was instructed by the second respondent during the site hand over that the plaintiff construct two additional identical flats for the same price. He testified that he enquired from the second respondent why the material for the additional two flats had not been included in the bill of quantity as the plaintiff had already ordered the material in respect of the first two flats. The second respondent ordered him to abide by his instruction. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]     Mr Ismael further testified that he thereafter informed Mr Kandjamba, his principal, about the new additional work required by the respondents and requested that he be furnished with additional resources to which his principal positively responded. Thereafter he sent a request to Mr Kandjamba for additional material. The latter informed him that there was no money anymore and that they should submit a claim in respect of work already done. The claim was submitted but was rejected. Thereafter the second respondent visited the site and instructed him to stop with all constructions work.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[22]     Mr. Ismael further testified that he did not have any general or prior authority from his principal to accept or conclude the verbal agreement for the construction of the additional two flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendants’ case</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[23]     No evidence was led on behalf of the defendants due to non-compliance with the rules of court. As pointed out earlier in this judgment, when summarising the parties pleadings, the defendants admit in their plea, the plaintiff’s allegation with regard to the conclusion of the agreement to construct the first two bachelor flats and that as a consideration the plaintiff would be paid a sum of N$1 305 000. It follows therefore that, that claim is not in dispute.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Analysis of evidence</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[24]     It is settled law that he who alleges bears the burden of proof of such allegation to prove that allegation on a balance of probabilities in order to sustain his or her claim. In discussing the burden of proof Damaseb JP<i> </i>in <i>Dannecker v Leopard Tours Car and Camping Hire CC</i><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> stated the following:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">            ‘[44]      It is trite that he who alleges must prove. A duty rests on a litigant to adduce evidence that is sufficient to persuade a court, at the end of the trial, that his or her claim or defence, as the case may be should succeed. A three-legged approach was stated in <i>Pillay v Krishna </i>1946 AD 946 at 951-2<i> </i>as<i> </i>follows<i>:</i> The first rule is that the party who claims something from another in a court of law has the duty to satisfy the court that it is entitled to the relief sought. Secondly, where the party against whom the claim is made sets up a special defence, it is regarded in respect of that defence as being the claimant: for the special defence to be upheld the defendant must satisfy the court that it is entitled to succeed on it. As the learned authors Zeffert <i>et al</i> <i>South African law of Evidence</i> (2 ed) at 57 argue, the first two rules have been read to mean that the plaintiff must first prove his or her claim unless it be admitted and then the defendant his plea since he is the plaintiff as far as that goes. The third rule is that he who asserts proves and not he who denies: a mere denial of facts which is absolute does not place the burden of proof on he who denies but rather on the one who alleges. As was observed by Davis AJA, each party may bear a burden of proof on several and distinct issues save that the burden on proving the claim supersedes the burden of proving the defence.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[25]     It is apparent from the evidence that the version of the plaintiff and that of the defendants in respect of the claim for N$1 305 000 do not completely differ which makes this court’s duty to adjudicate somewhat easier.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[26]     At the outset, it is important to set out facts that are common cause between the parties, which are the following:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">That a tender was awarded to the plaintiff under tender number </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">OMRC/35/2016;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:85px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm"> </p> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">This tender was to construct two bachelor flats at Pendukeni High School, Etayi Circuit, for the amount of N$1 305 000;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:85px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm"> </p> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">One bachelor flat is containing two rooms;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:85px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm"> </p> <ol start="4" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Construction of the said bachelor flats commenced on </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">24 October 2016; and</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:85px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm"> </p> <ol start="5" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff would be compensated for his works and material in the sum of N$1 305 000.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[27]     Thus essentially leaving one issue for the court to determine whether or not the plaintiff was awarded an additional tender separate from tender number </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">OMRC/35/2016 for the construction of two additional bachelor flats at Pendukeni High School, Etayi Circuit, for the amount of N$1 305 000 separate from the initial tender.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[28]     The court raised two issues with Mr Kandjamba during his testimony. The first issue was the fact that there was only one bill of quantity handed up as an exhibit, whereas the plaintiff claimed that he was contracted to construct two additional flats. Second, was the fact that, on the plaintiff’s case, there were still</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> the installations of the electricity, cupboards, doors, and a septic tank to be completed in respect of the two additional flats, however the plaintiff failed to quantify the value of such unfinished work so that its value could be deducted from the amount claimed in respect of the two additional flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[29]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Kandjamba could not satisfactory explain the reasons why he did not request for a second bill of quantity and why he did not insists on signing a second written agreement in respect of the two additional flats. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[30]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In this regard the court in <i>S v Holshausen</i><a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> stated that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            ‘Oral or written statements made by persons who are not parties and are not called as witnesses are inadmissible to prove the truth of the matters stated . . .’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[31]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Furthermore this court agrees fully with Damaseb JP<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a>, when he stated that; ‘evidence of a statement will be hearsay only when it is intended to prove a fact in issue and as representing the truth. That is so because the truth depends upon the credit of the maker of the statement which, because he or she is not present in court, cannot be tested through cross-examination.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Conclusion</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[32]     </span></span></span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The court is satisfied that the plaitiff has proved that he is entitled to payment in respect of the first two flats. This claim has also been admitted by the first defendant both in writing and on the pleadings before court. It follows therefore that the plaintiff is entitled to payment of the sum of N$1 305 000.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[33]     </span></span></span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The court finds that that the plaintiff has not proved its claim relating to the two additional flats. The court considers it highly improbable that the first defendant as a public body would act inconsitent by calling for a tender in respect of the first two flats and further concluded a written agreement but would not follow the same precedure in respect of the two additinal flats. It would appear that the plaintiff was hoodwinked into constructing the two additinal flats by the second defendant. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the first respondent is prepared to compensate the plaintiff in respect of the two first flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[34]     It is clear that the plaintiff constructed the two additional flats whithout following the tender process followed in respect of the first two flats. In the circumstances, it would appear that on the information before court, the plaintiff has an enrichment claim against the first defendant in respect of the two additional flats, given the fact that the flats were constructed with the plaintiff’s own material and labour.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[35]     I should mention that, I found it rather disturbing and indeed unacceptable that a public institution such as the first defendant who, having admitted its indebtness to a contractor inrespect of the two flats, failed to honour its admitted contractual obligation to the plaintiff in respect of the first two flats. No explanation has been tendered for the first defendand’s failure to pay the amount it has admitted it ows to the plaintiff. In the circumstances, I will order that plaintiff pays interest on the amount N$1 305 000 calculated from 24 March 2017 being the date it acknowledged its indebtedness in respect of the said sum to the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Costs</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[36]     There is no reasons why costs should not follow the event. The plaintiff has succeeded, albeit partial, and is accordingly entitled to its costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Order</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[37]     I therefore make the following order:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The first defendant is to pay the plaintiff a sum of N$1 305 000 in consideration for work done and material supplied in respect of the written contract to construct two bachelor flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:75px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-20.7pt"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Absolution from the instance is granted in respect of the alleged additional work done and material supplied</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first defendant is to pay interest on the aforesaid amount of N$1 305 000<b> </b>at the rate of 20 per cent per annum calculated from 24 March 2017 on which the defendants acknowledged in writing its indebtness to the plaintiff to date of final payment.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Costs of suit.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The matter is removed from the roll and is considered finalized</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="left" class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:left"> </p> <p align="left" class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:left"> </p> <p align="right" class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:right; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:27.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">___________________</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:right; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:27.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">H Angula</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:right; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:27.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Deputy-Judge President</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:15px"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">APPEARANCES:</span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:69.7pt 5.0cm"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">PLAINTIFF:                          N NDAITWAH</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:189px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Sisa Namandje &amp; Co. Inc., Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:69.7pt 5.0cm"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">FIRST AND SECOND</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:69.7pt 5.0cm"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">DEFENDANTS:                   L TIBINYANE</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:189px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of Office of the Government Attorney, Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Dannecker v Leopard Tours Car and Camping Hire CC</span></i> <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(I 2909/2006) [2016] NAHCMD 381 (5 December 2016) at para 44-45.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> <i>S v Holshausen</i> 1984 (4) SA 852 (A).</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Damaseb P T 2020, <i>Court managed Civil Procedure of the High Court of Namibia </i>at paras 11-076, p 286-287.</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-cbc811f28bbf1c3b5f1c5ad3cdf5efa9de0243eb276fb8d2786b6e270d5c6391"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><shape id="_x0000_s1026" strokecolor="white" style="position:absolute; left:0; text-align:left; margin-left:478px; margin-top:-6px; width:123pt; height:19.5pt; z-index:251657728" type="#_x0000_t202"></shape></span></span></span></p> <table><tbody><tr><td bgcolor="white" style="border-bottom:.100px solid white; vertical-align:top; background-color:white; border-top:.100px solid white; border-right:.100px solid white; border-left:.100px solid white; width:170px; height:32px"> <table width="100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div class="shape" style="padding:4.35pt 7.95pt 4.35pt 7.95pt" v:shape="_x0000_s1026"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:15px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="position:relative"><span style="z-index:251657728"><span style="left:477px; width:170px"><span style="position:absolute"><span style="top:-7px"><span style="height:32px"><span style="position:absolute"><span style="left:0pt"><span style="z-index:251657728"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Reportable REPORTABLE</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table></td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-center"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JUDGMENT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case no: HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2017/00180</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the matter between</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 451.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">OMAKA MINING AND ENGINEERING CC</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                      PLAINTIFF</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">and</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 451.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">OMUSATI REGIONAL COUNCIL                                                    FIRST DEFENDANT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 451.35pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">TEOFELUS SHIGWEDHA                                                           SECOND DEFENDNAT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:      </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Omaka Mining and Engineering CC v Omusati Regional Council </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-NLD-CIV-ACT-CON-2017/00180) [2021] </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">NAHCNLD </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">17 (22 February 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Coram:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">          ANGULA DJP</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:            <b>1 December 2020</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:     <b>22 February 2021</b></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Flynote:         </span></b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Civil proceedings – Claim for building work done and material supplied, defendants refuses to compensate the plaintiff after work was done – Plaintiff alleged verbal agreement to construct a building identical to the first building – The defendants and their legal practitioners barred from leading evidence due to non-compliance with the rules – Court proceeded in terms of rule 98(1) – Court found that the plaintiff had proved the first written agreement but failed to prove the alleged additional oral agreements and grant absolution from the instances in respect of work done and material supplied in respect of the alleged oral agreement</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:0cm"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Summary:</span></b>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff claimed an amount of N$2 100 000 which he alleges emanated from a breach of a building contract entered into between it and the first defendant following a tender award</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff alleged that on or about 11 October 2016 the plaintiff and the defendants entered into a written agreement in terms of which the plaintiff would construct two bachelor flats which would be housed in one Unit at Pendukeni High School, situated in Omusati Region, for a consideration N$1 305 000. In terms of that written agreement the plaintiff would supply labour, material and machinery. The plaintiff further alleged that during the construction his foreman of site was approached by the second defendant, an employee of the first defendant, who instructed him to construct additional two similar bachelor flats on the same terms and conditions as the initial written agreement for a similar consideration. To which the plaintiff agreed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">After plaintiff completed the first two flats and the last two flats were about 98 per cent completed the defendant breach the agreement by refusing to pay the plaintiff for the construction of the additional verbal agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:0cm"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Court held that</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">; on the admissible evidence before court, the plaintiff had proved the written agreement and is entitled to be compensated for the amount agreed. The court found that in respect of the alleged second oral agreement, in that on the foreman’s own admission he did not have prior authority from his principal to conclude the alleged oral agreement. Furthermore given the fact that the written agreement was preceded by a tender invitation it was highly improbable that the construction of two additional flats could have been done without a tender proses and without a further written agreement been concluded between the parties. The court accordingly granted an order for the absolution from the instance against the plaintiff in respect of the two additional flats.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="0" width="100%" /></div> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ORDER</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="0" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The first defendant is to pay the plaintiff a sum of N$1 305 000 in consideration for work done and material supplied in respect of the written contract to construct two bachelor flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:28px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-21.3pt"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Absolution from the instance is granted in respect of the alleged additional work done and material supplied.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first defendant is to pay interest on the aforesaid amount of N$1 305 000<b> </b>at the rate of 20 per cent per annum calculated from 24 March 2017 on which the defendants acknowledged in writing its indebtness to the plaintiff to date of final payment.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Costs of suit.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="5"><li><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The matter is removed from the roll and is considered finalized</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="0" width="100%" /></div> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:0cm"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">JUDGMENT</span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <div class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="0" width="100%" /></div> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">ANGULA DJP:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[1]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff claimed an amount of N$2 100 000 emanating from a breach of a written building construction contract, through a tender awarded to the plaintiff by the first defendant to construct initially two identical bachelor flats and further two additional identical flats in terms of an oral agreement</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[2]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff is Omaka Mining and Engineering, a close corporation duly incorporated in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Namibia.</span> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first defendant is Omusati Regional Council, a Regional Authority established in terms of s 2 of the Regional Councils Act 22 of 1992. The second defendant is Teofelus Shigwedha a major male, building inspector employed by the Omusati Regional Council. The second defendant is cited in his capacity as an employee of the first defendant and no relief is sought against him. Where reference is made in this judgment to the plaintiff and the defendants jointly, they shall be referred to as the ‘the parties’.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[3]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff was represented by Mr Ndaitwah, while the defendants were represented by Mr </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">Tibinyane</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">, who was not in attendance at the trial.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Pleadings</span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[4]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff alleges in its particulars of claim that on or about 11 October 2016 the plaintiff and the defendant entered into a written agreement in terms of which plaintiff would construct two bachelor flats which would be housed in one unit at Pendukeni High School, situated in Omusati Region for the amount of N$1 305 000. In terms of the agreement, the plaintiff would provide all the labour, material, machinery and everything necessary for the construction of such flats.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[5]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff further alleges that during the site hand over, the plaintiff, represented by his site-foreman and the second respondent orally agreed that the plaintiff would construct two additional similar bachelor flats on the same terms and conditions as the first two flats for the same amount as the first two flats</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[6]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">On or about 24 October 2016, the plaintiff commenced with the construction of the two bachelor flats in accordance with the written agreement. On 18 November 2016, the second defendant instructed the plaintiff’s site foreman to construct two additional bachelor flats which should be a mirror images of the first two flats on the same terms and conditions.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[7]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The plaintiff alleges that the first and second defendants are in breach of the said agreements in that they failed and or refused to compensate it in respect of work done and material supplied</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[8]        </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first defendant admits in its plea that it entered into a written agreement with the </span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">plaintiff for the construction of two bachelor flats at Pendukeni High School, for the amount of N$1 305 000 as alleged by the plaintiff. It however denies that it entered into an oral agreement with the plaintiff for the construction of two additional bachelor flats and put the plaintiff to the proof thereof.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><u><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The parties’ non-compliance with the rules</span></u></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">[9]        There have been numerous non-compliances with the Rules of Court by both parties in this matter. For instance, on 29 January 2019 the matter was struck from the roll by the Judge-President for want of prosecution. Thereafter, the plaintiff brought an application for re-instatement and the matter was accordingly re-instated</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]     The parties yet again failed to file their respective witness statements and were sanctioned by this court. The plaintiff complied with the sanctions order and was thereafter allowed to file its witness statements. The defendants on the other hand failed to satisfy the court on their failure to file their witness statements timely and as a consequence they were barred from filing and using witness statements at trial.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">When the matter was called for hearing on 30 November 2020, the defendants brought an application to postpone the trial. </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">After considering the application for postponement, the court dismissed the application. As Mr. Nyambe who stood in for Mr. Tibinyane who acted on behalf of the defendants had no further instruction to proceed with the trial he asked for leave to be excused from the proceedings. His request was granted. The court thereafter considered the defendants to be in default and proceeded in terms of rule 98(1), in the absence of the defendants.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]     Rule 98(</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1) provides:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            ‘If a trial is called and the plaintiff appears and the defendant does not appear in person or by his or her legal practitioner, the plaintiff may prove his or her claim insofar as the burden of proof lies on him or her and judgment must be given accordingly insofar as he or she has discharged such burden, but, if the claim is for a debt or liquidated demand no evidence is necessary unless the presiding judge otherwise orders.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The court wishes to reiterate that it will not tolerate or condone the parties’ flagrant non-compliance with its rules and will in future non-suit parties who fail to comply with its rules.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff’s case</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]     Mr Erkki Kandjamba testified that</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">he is the sole member of the plaintiff and that on 11 October 2016, on behalf of the plaintiff. Following being awarded the tender, he entered into a written agreement with the first defendant, duly represented by the second defendant, in terms of which the plaintiff would construct two bachelor flats at Pendukeni High School designed into a single dwelling for the amount of N$1 305 000 as compensation. He handed in evidence a copy of the Bill of Quantity and the letter of the plaintiff’s appointment by the first respondent as a contractor.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Prior to commencement with the construction work, a site hand over was conducted. During that site hand over, the second defendant informed the plaintiff’s foreman that they would have to construct two additional flats, identical to the flats in in respect of the written contract. The foreman agreed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff’s foreman relayed the communication in respect of the extra work to Mr Kandjamba and further advised that due to the extra work and the fact that they were required to finalised the construction of the two additional flats during the same period as the first two flats, they would require additional resources in the form of machinery and employees. According to Mr Kandjamba, he acted promptly by supplying additional machinery and employees to the construction site.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Kandjamba further testified that January 2017 his foreman informed him that they required more material to complete the work whereupon he informed his foreman that there was no money and they need to submit a claim for ‘progress payment’ to the first defendant. He then contacted second defendant and request for payment in respect of the work done that far. The second defendant advised him that a formal written request was needed by the first defendant. Mr Kandjamba then addressed a written request for payment to the first defendant however for months no response was received. Thereafter, the second defendant visited the site and gave instruction that the construction work be stopped.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[18]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Kandjamba further testified that the only work that remained to be completed in respect of the two additional flats were the installation of the electricity; cupboards, doors; and septic tank. Other than that, the two separate flats were completed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[19]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Kandjamba handed into evidence, a letter from </span></span></span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">the first defendant dated 24 March 2017 addressed to the plaintiff. In the letter, the first defendant</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> stated and admitted that the plaintiff was entitled to a payment of N$1 305 000. The letter was admitted into evidence and was marked ‘Exhibit E’. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">According to this witness, the defendants have to date not paid the plaintiff for the work done and as a result the first defendant is indebted to the plaintiff in the sum claimed in the summons.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[20]     The plaintiff then called the second witness for the plaintiff, the plaintiff’s site-foreman, Mr Paulus Ismael. He basically confirmed what was testified by Mr Kandjamba. In particular he testified that he was instructed by the second respondent during the site hand over that the plaintiff construct two additional identical flats for the same price. He testified that he enquired from the second respondent why the material for the additional two flats had not been included in the bill of quantity as the plaintiff had already ordered the material in respect of the first two flats. The second respondent ordered him to abide by his instruction. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[21]     Mr Ismael further testified that he thereafter informed Mr Kandjamba, his principal, about the new additional work required by the respondents and requested that he be furnished with additional resources to which his principal positively responded. Thereafter he sent a request to Mr Kandjamba for additional material. The latter informed him that there was no money anymore and that they should submit a claim in respect of work already done. The claim was submitted but was rejected. Thereafter the second respondent visited the site and instructed him to stop with all constructions work.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[22]     Mr. Ismael further testified that he did not have any general or prior authority from his principal to accept or conclude the verbal agreement for the construction of the additional two flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendants’ case</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[23]     No evidence was led on behalf of the defendants due to non-compliance with the rules of court. As pointed out earlier in this judgment, when summarising the parties pleadings, the defendants admit in their plea, the plaintiff’s allegation with regard to the conclusion of the agreement to construct the first two bachelor flats and that as a consideration the plaintiff would be paid a sum of N$1 305 000. It follows therefore that, that claim is not in dispute.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Analysis of evidence</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[24]     It is settled law that he who alleges bears the burden of proof of such allegation to prove that allegation on a balance of probabilities in order to sustain his or her claim. In discussing the burden of proof Damaseb JP<i> </i>in <i>Dannecker v Leopard Tours Car and Camping Hire CC</i><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> stated the following:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">            ‘[44]      It is trite that he who alleges must prove. A duty rests on a litigant to adduce evidence that is sufficient to persuade a court, at the end of the trial, that his or her claim or defence, as the case may be should succeed. A three-legged approach was stated in <i>Pillay v Krishna </i>1946 AD 946 at 951-2<i> </i>as<i> </i>follows<i>:</i> The first rule is that the party who claims something from another in a court of law has the duty to satisfy the court that it is entitled to the relief sought. Secondly, where the party against whom the claim is made sets up a special defence, it is regarded in respect of that defence as being the claimant: for the special defence to be upheld the defendant must satisfy the court that it is entitled to succeed on it. As the learned authors Zeffert <i>et al</i> <i>South African law of Evidence</i> (2 ed) at 57 argue, the first two rules have been read to mean that the plaintiff must first prove his or her claim unless it be admitted and then the defendant his plea since he is the plaintiff as far as that goes. The third rule is that he who asserts proves and not he who denies: a mere denial of facts which is absolute does not place the burden of proof on he who denies but rather on the one who alleges. As was observed by Davis AJA, each party may bear a burden of proof on several and distinct issues save that the burden on proving the claim supersedes the burden of proving the defence.’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[25]     It is apparent from the evidence that the version of the plaintiff and that of the defendants in respect of the claim for N$1 305 000 do not completely differ which makes this court’s duty to adjudicate somewhat easier.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[26]     At the outset, it is important to set out facts that are common cause between the parties, which are the following:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">That a tender was awarded to the plaintiff under tender number </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">OMRC/35/2016;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:85px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm"> </p> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">This tender was to construct two bachelor flats at Pendukeni High School, Etayi Circuit, for the amount of N$1 305 000;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:85px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm"> </p> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">One bachelor flat is containing two rooms;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:85px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm"> </p> <ol start="4" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Construction of the said bachelor flats commenced on </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">24 October 2016; and</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:85px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm"> </p> <ol start="5" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin-left:45px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff would be compensated for his works and material in the sum of N$1 305 000.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[27]     Thus essentially leaving one issue for the court to determine whether or not the plaintiff was awarded an additional tender separate from tender number </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">OMRC/35/2016 for the construction of two additional bachelor flats at Pendukeni High School, Etayi Circuit, for the amount of N$1 305 000 separate from the initial tender.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[28]     The court raised two issues with Mr Kandjamba during his testimony. The first issue was the fact that there was only one bill of quantity handed up as an exhibit, whereas the plaintiff claimed that he was contracted to construct two additional flats. Second, was the fact that, on the plaintiff’s case, there were still</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> the installations of the electricity, cupboards, doors, and a septic tank to be completed in respect of the two additional flats, however the plaintiff failed to quantify the value of such unfinished work so that its value could be deducted from the amount claimed in respect of the two additional flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[29]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Kandjamba could not satisfactory explain the reasons why he did not request for a second bill of quantity and why he did not insists on signing a second written agreement in respect of the two additional flats. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[30]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In this regard the court in <i>S v Holshausen</i><a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> stated that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">            ‘Oral or written statements made by persons who are not parties and are not called as witnesses are inadmissible to prove the truth of the matters stated . . .’</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[31]     </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Furthermore this court agrees fully with Damaseb JP<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a>, when he stated that; ‘evidence of a statement will be hearsay only when it is intended to prove a fact in issue and as representing the truth. That is so because the truth depends upon the credit of the maker of the statement which, because he or she is not present in court, cannot be tested through cross-examination.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Conclusion</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[32]     </span></span></span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The court is satisfied that the plaitiff has proved that he is entitled to payment in respect of the first two flats. This claim has also been admitted by the first defendant both in writing and on the pleadings before court. It follows therefore that the plaintiff is entitled to payment of the sum of N$1 305 000.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[33]     </span></span></span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The court finds that that the plaintiff has not proved its claim relating to the two additional flats. The court considers it highly improbable that the first defendant as a public body would act inconsitent by calling for a tender in respect of the first two flats and further concluded a written agreement but would not follow the same precedure in respect of the two additinal flats. It would appear that the plaintiff was hoodwinked into constructing the two additinal flats by the second defendant. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the first respondent is prepared to compensate the plaintiff in respect of the two first flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[34]     It is clear that the plaintiff constructed the two additional flats whithout following the tender process followed in respect of the first two flats. In the circumstances, it would appear that on the information before court, the plaintiff has an enrichment claim against the first defendant in respect of the two additional flats, given the fact that the flats were constructed with the plaintiff’s own material and labour.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[35]     I should mention that, I found it rather disturbing and indeed unacceptable that a public institution such as the first defendant who, having admitted its indebtness to a contractor inrespect of the two flats, failed to honour its admitted contractual obligation to the plaintiff in respect of the first two flats. No explanation has been tendered for the first defendand’s failure to pay the amount it has admitted it ows to the plaintiff. In the circumstances, I will order that plaintiff pays interest on the amount N$1 305 000 calculated from 24 March 2017 being the date it acknowledged its indebtedness in respect of the said sum to the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Costs</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[36]     There is no reasons why costs should not follow the event. The plaintiff has succeeded, albeit partial, and is accordingly entitled to its costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Order</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:35.45pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[37]     I therefore make the following order:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The first defendant is to pay the plaintiff a sum of N$1 305 000 in consideration for work done and material supplied in respect of the written contract to construct two bachelor flats.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:75px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-20.7pt"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Absolution from the instance is granted in respect of the alleged additional work done and material supplied</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The first defendant is to pay interest on the aforesaid amount of N$1 305 000<b> </b>at the rate of 20 per cent per annum calculated from 24 March 2017 on which the defendants acknowledged in writing its indebtness to the plaintiff to date of final payment.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Costs of suit.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="5"><li style="margin-left:35px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The matter is removed from the roll and is considered finalized</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="left" class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:left"> </p> <p align="left" class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:left"> </p> <p align="right" class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:right; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:27.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">___________________</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:right; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:27.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">H Angula</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-left:36px; text-align:right; text-indent:-27.0pt"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:27.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Deputy-Judge President</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:15px"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-GB">APPEARANCES:</span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:69.7pt 5.0cm"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">PLAINTIFF:                          N NDAITWAH</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:189px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Sisa Namandje &amp; Co. Inc., Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:69.7pt 5.0cm"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">FIRST AND SECOND</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:69.7pt 5.0cm"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">DEFENDANTS:                   L TIBINYANE</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:189px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of Office of the Government Attorney, Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:252px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-189.0pt"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Dannecker v Leopard Tours Car and Camping Hire CC</span></i> <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(I 2909/2006) [2016] NAHCMD 381 (5 December 2016) at para 44-45.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> <i>S v Holshausen</i> 1984 (4) SA 852 (A).</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Damaseb P T 2020, <i>Court managed Civil Procedure of the High Court of Namibia </i>at paras 11-076, p 286-287.</span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 15:48:33 +0000 Mariana 25405 at http://namiblii.org Uusiku v S (CC 9 of 2019) [2021] NAHCNLD 51 (03 June 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/51 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Uusiku v S (CC 9 of 2019) [2021] NAHCNLD 51 (03 June 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 07/16/2021 - 16:54</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/51/2021-nahcnld-51.doc" type="application/msword; length=93184">2021-nahcnld-51.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HELD AT OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">   LEAVE TO APPEAL JUDGEMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:662px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Fillipus Uusiku</span></span></span></i><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> v The State </span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No: </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CC 9/2019</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: High Court </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Lady Justice Salionga  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard on: </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">18 May 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:  </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">03  June 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Uusiku v S </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CC 9/2019) [2021] NAHCNLD 51 (03 June 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The point in limine is upheld.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The application for condonation is refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The leave to appeal is hereby struck off and considered finalized. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the above order</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-bottom:15px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:15px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]     This is an application for leave to appeal to the Supreme Court in terms of section 316 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]     The applicant was charged and convicted in this court of the following charges:  murder, assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm and assault by threat all counts read with the provisions of the Combating of Domestic Violence Act 4 of 2003. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">On the 24 July 2020 </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">he was sentenced to 32 years’ imprisonment on the murder charge, three (3) years’ imprisonment on assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm and six (6) months imprisonment on the charge of assault by threat. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]      Displeased with the sentences imposed on count 1 and 3, applicant filed a notice of leave to appeal to the Supreme Court together with an affidavit. He applied for leave on 16 September 2020 about one month and 28 days from the date he was sentenced. No doubt that the leave to appeal was filed out of the prescribed time limit.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]      Applicant is a self-actor but was legally represented at the trial.  Mr. Matota appears for the respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]<b>     </b>At the commencement of the hearing Mr. Matota raised a point <i>in limine</i> in that the appeal was filed out of time. He submitted that applicant was sentenced on 24 July 2020 and had 14 days to apply for leave but did not. Applicant was supposed to apply for condonation wherein he was to explain the reason for the delay and whether he has prospects of success, which he did not. He further submitted that the explanation applicant gave in his affidavit is not reasonable and that he has no reasonable prospect of success in the appeal. He asked the matter to be struck for non-compliance. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]    Applicant in reply indicated that the reasons were in the documents filed. I understand that to mean reasons were in the affidavit filed. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant stated in his affidavit that he is a lay man who cannot read or write the official language; that he did not fully understand the court procedure. He was looking for someone knowledgeable in appeal procedures to assist him and that took long. Whilst in his oral explanation in court he explained that he filed the appeal on time however the delay was caused by the officers at the correctional facility where he is serving his sentence. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]    Section 316 (1) of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 provides that</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> ‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">An accused convicted of an offence before the High Court of Namibia may, within a period of fourteen days of the passing of any sentence as a result of such conviction or within such extended period as may on application (in this section referred to as an application for condonation) on good cause be allowed, apply to the judge who presided at the trial or, if that judge is not available, to any other judge of that court for leave to appeal against his or her conviction or against any sentence or order following thereon (in this section referred to as an application for leave to appeal), and an accused convicted of any offence before any such court on a plea of guilty may, within the same period, apply for leave to appeal against any sentence or any order following thereon.’</span>   </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]      </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is settled law that from the above paragraph leave to appeal must be applied within the prescribed time limit unless condonation is obtained for the late filing of notice of appeal. Applicant in this matter filed an affidavit wherein he explained the reason for the delay but nowhere had he indicated that he has a prospects of success in his appeal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[9]      In determining whether or not to grant condonation in the instant matter, this court will consider whether the explanation for the delay is sufficient and whether the applicant has prospects of success on the appeal. Applicant was sentenced on 24 July 2010. The leave to appeal documents dated 12, 10 August 2020 and 28 July 2020 were only filed on 16 September 2010 about one month and 28 days late. </span></span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant gave two different explanations and it is not clear which one is to be considered because this court cannot speculate on the exact reason for the delay. The explanation ought to be clear and satisfactory as counsel for the respondent correctly argued that if it was true that his lawyer had not explained the appeal procedures to him, he could have indicated that in his affidavit which applicant failed to explain. I find the</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"> explanation</span></span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> not reasonable and <span style="background:white"><span style="color:black">unacceptable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:54.75pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]    I now turn to deal with the second leg of this inquiry namely prospects of success, a very important tool </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">to be considered in tantem with the first leg of the inquiry before condonation is granted</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Nowhere in the documents filed applicant states or alleges that he has prospects of success on appeal. He merely stated in his notice that the mitigation factors were not fully considered and requests the appeal court to reduce his sentence without indicating any misdirection or irregularity committed by the trial court.</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr. Matota took a swipe at the applicant’s notice of appeal and submitted that the notice does not indicate how the trial court misdirected itself in its findings. He was able to refer this court to specific paragraphs and pages of the judgement clearly indicating which of the triad factors were considered. He therefore submitted that the trial court did consider all the personal circumstances of the applicant and that proper balance was made in this case in concluding that the applicant had a history of violence against the deceased and that the applicant’s remorse was not genuine as he persisted his innocence on count three even after a finding of guilty.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]     In the Supreme Court case of <i>Hyanith James Ningisa and Others v The State</i><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> Mainga JA referred to the test as set out in <i>S v Ackerman en ‘n Ander<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> and <i>R v Boya</i><a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a> as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">A reasonable prospects of success means that the Judge who has to deal with an application for leave must be satisfied that on the findings of fact or conclusion of law involved, the court of appeal may well take a different view from that arrived at by the jury or by himself or herself and arrive at a different conclusion.’  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]    In <i>S v Tjivela</i><a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></a>, the Supreme Court cited and with approval the principle laid down by Holmes J in</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">R<i> v Lindsay</i> 1956 (2) SA 235 (N) </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">that: </span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">“…The matter is governed by principle, not by <u>ad hoc</u> discretion. And the principle is this: If a magistrate has passed a sentence within his jurisdiction, and has not misdirected himself on law, and has duly considered the relevant facts, the Supreme Court will not interfere unless the sentence is so severe as to be unjust.”</span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Although the aforesaid judgement was ceased with appeals from the Magistrates courts, I find it relevant and applicable in this application where I am called upon to grant leave even where no prospects of success are alleged in the notice of appeal and where it was not shown to this court how and to what extent it might have misdirected itself in its findings.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">[13]     Reading from the judgement on sentence, the applicant’s personal circumstances</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> were considered and evaluated at length.</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> Accused was found to have a history of assault against the deceased who was his girlfriend. The offences were pre-premediated in that prior to murdering the deceased with a dangerous weapon (a pestle), he threatened to assault her with a beer bottle, further physically assaulted her with and pulled her braiding out. The offences were committed in the presence of the mother and a sister of the deceased who were pleading with the applicant to stop assaulting the deceased but failed to heed to their plea. Applicant did not satisfy this Court that he had reasonable prospects of success on appeal</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. I am thus not satisfied that on the findings or conclusions of law, the court of appeal may take a different view from that which I arrived at and / or at a different conclusion. This application is unmerited and stands to fail. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]    Consequently, the following order is made:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">   1. The point in limine is upheld.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">    2. The application for condonation is refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">    3. The leave to appeal is hereby struck off and considered finalized.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Salionga J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondent</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Fillipus Uusiku-  in person</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of Evaristus Shikongo Correctional Facility, Tsumeb</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr. L. Matota</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of The Office of the Prosecutor General, Oshakati</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 2013 (2) NR 504 SC at para 6 (SA 03/2009) [2012] NASC 10 (13 August 2012)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 1973 (1) SA 765 at 766 H quoting from <i>R v Boya</i></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 1952 (3) SA 574 (C) at 577 B-C</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(SA-2003/14) [2004] NASC 9 (16 December 2004)</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-a31991aa64526d83135722cb193766ef942ac91fb7930b47833c0bf83f3b0abb"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION, </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HELD AT OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">   LEAVE TO APPEAL JUDGEMENT </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:662px; margin-left:-10px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Fillipus Uusiku</span></span></span></i><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> v The State </span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-106.3pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No: </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">CC 9/2019</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court: High Court </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Northern Local Division </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Lady Justice Salionga  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard on: </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">18 May 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:  </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">03  June 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Uusiku v S </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CC 9/2019) [2021] NAHCNLD 51 (03 June 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The point in limine is upheld.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The application for condonation is refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The leave to appeal is hereby struck off and considered finalized. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for the above order</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-bottom:15px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:15px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]     This is an application for leave to appeal to the Supreme Court in terms of section 316 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]     The applicant was charged and convicted in this court of the following charges:  murder, assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm and assault by threat all counts read with the provisions of the Combating of Domestic Violence Act 4 of 2003. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">On the 24 July 2020 </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">he was sentenced to 32 years’ imprisonment on the murder charge, three (3) years’ imprisonment on assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm and six (6) months imprisonment on the charge of assault by threat. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]      Displeased with the sentences imposed on count 1 and 3, applicant filed a notice of leave to appeal to the Supreme Court together with an affidavit. He applied for leave on 16 September 2020 about one month and 28 days from the date he was sentenced. No doubt that the leave to appeal was filed out of the prescribed time limit.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]      Applicant is a self-actor but was legally represented at the trial.  Mr. Matota appears for the respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]<b>     </b>At the commencement of the hearing Mr. Matota raised a point <i>in limine</i> in that the appeal was filed out of time. He submitted that applicant was sentenced on 24 July 2020 and had 14 days to apply for leave but did not. Applicant was supposed to apply for condonation wherein he was to explain the reason for the delay and whether he has prospects of success, which he did not. He further submitted that the explanation applicant gave in his affidavit is not reasonable and that he has no reasonable prospect of success in the appeal. He asked the matter to be struck for non-compliance. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]    Applicant in reply indicated that the reasons were in the documents filed. I understand that to mean reasons were in the affidavit filed. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant stated in his affidavit that he is a lay man who cannot read or write the official language; that he did not fully understand the court procedure. He was looking for someone knowledgeable in appeal procedures to assist him and that took long. Whilst in his oral explanation in court he explained that he filed the appeal on time however the delay was caused by the officers at the correctional facility where he is serving his sentence. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]    Section 316 (1) of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 provides that</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> ‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">An accused convicted of an offence before the High Court of Namibia may, within a period of fourteen days of the passing of any sentence as a result of such conviction or within such extended period as may on application (in this section referred to as an application for condonation) on good cause be allowed, apply to the judge who presided at the trial or, if that judge is not available, to any other judge of that court for leave to appeal against his or her conviction or against any sentence or order following thereon (in this section referred to as an application for leave to appeal), and an accused convicted of any offence before any such court on a plea of guilty may, within the same period, apply for leave to appeal against any sentence or any order following thereon.’</span>   </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]      </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is settled law that from the above paragraph leave to appeal must be applied within the prescribed time limit unless condonation is obtained for the late filing of notice of appeal. Applicant in this matter filed an affidavit wherein he explained the reason for the delay but nowhere had he indicated that he has a prospects of success in his appeal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[9]      In determining whether or not to grant condonation in the instant matter, this court will consider whether the explanation for the delay is sufficient and whether the applicant has prospects of success on the appeal. Applicant was sentenced on 24 July 2010. The leave to appeal documents dated 12, 10 August 2020 and 28 July 2020 were only filed on 16 September 2010 about one month and 28 days late. </span></span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant gave two different explanations and it is not clear which one is to be considered because this court cannot speculate on the exact reason for the delay. The explanation ought to be clear and satisfactory as counsel for the respondent correctly argued that if it was true that his lawyer had not explained the appeal procedures to him, he could have indicated that in his affidavit which applicant failed to explain. I find the</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"> explanation</span></span></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> not reasonable and <span style="background:white"><span style="color:black">unacceptable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:54.75pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]    I now turn to deal with the second leg of this inquiry namely prospects of success, a very important tool </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">to be considered in tantem with the first leg of the inquiry before condonation is granted</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Nowhere in the documents filed applicant states or alleges that he has prospects of success on appeal. He merely stated in his notice that the mitigation factors were not fully considered and requests the appeal court to reduce his sentence without indicating any misdirection or irregularity committed by the trial court.</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr. Matota took a swipe at the applicant’s notice of appeal and submitted that the notice does not indicate how the trial court misdirected itself in its findings. He was able to refer this court to specific paragraphs and pages of the judgement clearly indicating which of the triad factors were considered. He therefore submitted that the trial court did consider all the personal circumstances of the applicant and that proper balance was made in this case in concluding that the applicant had a history of violence against the deceased and that the applicant’s remorse was not genuine as he persisted his innocence on count three even after a finding of guilty.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]     In the Supreme Court case of <i>Hyanith James Ningisa and Others v The State</i><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> Mainga JA referred to the test as set out in <i>S v Ackerman en ‘n Ander<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></b></span></span></a></i> and <i>R v Boya</i><a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a> as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">A reasonable prospects of success means that the Judge who has to deal with an application for leave must be satisfied that on the findings of fact or conclusion of law involved, the court of appeal may well take a different view from that arrived at by the jury or by himself or herself and arrive at a different conclusion.’  </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]    In <i>S v Tjivela</i><a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></a>, the Supreme Court cited and with approval the principle laid down by Holmes J in</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">R<i> v Lindsay</i> 1956 (2) SA 235 (N) </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">that: </span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">“…The matter is governed by principle, not by <u>ad hoc</u> discretion. And the principle is this: If a magistrate has passed a sentence within his jurisdiction, and has not misdirected himself on law, and has duly considered the relevant facts, the Supreme Court will not interfere unless the sentence is so severe as to be unjust.”</span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Although the aforesaid judgement was ceased with appeals from the Magistrates courts, I find it relevant and applicable in this application where I am called upon to grant leave even where no prospects of success are alleged in the notice of appeal and where it was not shown to this court how and to what extent it might have misdirected itself in its findings.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">[13]     Reading from the judgement on sentence, the applicant’s personal circumstances</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> were considered and evaluated at length.</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"> Accused was found to have a history of assault against the deceased who was his girlfriend. The offences were pre-premediated in that prior to murdering the deceased with a dangerous weapon (a pestle), he threatened to assault her with a beer bottle, further physically assaulted her with and pulled her braiding out. The offences were committed in the presence of the mother and a sister of the deceased who were pleading with the applicant to stop assaulting the deceased but failed to heed to their plea. Applicant did not satisfy this Court that he had reasonable prospects of success on appeal</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. I am thus not satisfied that on the findings or conclusions of law, the court of appeal may take a different view from that which I arrived at and / or at a different conclusion. This application is unmerited and stands to fail. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]    Consequently, the following order is made:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">   1. The point in limine is upheld.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">    2. The application for condonation is refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">    3. The leave to appeal is hereby struck off and considered finalized.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Salionga J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:662px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondent</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:357px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Fillipus Uusiku-  in person</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of Evaristus Shikongo Correctional Facility, Tsumeb</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:304px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr. L. Matota</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of The Office of the Prosecutor General, Oshakati</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 2013 (2) NR 504 SC at para 6 (SA 03/2009) [2012] NASC 10 (13 August 2012)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 1973 (1) SA 765 at 766 H quoting from <i>R v Boya</i></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> 1952 (3) SA 574 (C) at 577 B-C</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:105%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(SA-2003/14) [2004] NASC 9 (16 December 2004)</span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Fri, 16 Jul 2021 16:54:25 +0000 Mariana 25371 at http://namiblii.org S v Siyave (CC 15 of 2018) [2021] NAHCNLD 52 (07 June 2021); http://namiblii.org/index.php/na/judgment/northern-local-division/2021/52 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">S v Siyave (CC 15 of 2018) [2021] NAHCNLD 52 (07 June 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 07/16/2021 - 16:35</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-search-summary field--type-text-with-summary field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Search summary</div> <div class="field__item"><p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Criminal Procedure ―Sentence― Factors to be taken into account at sentencing―Accused 54 years’ old first offender – Convicted of murdering his wife—Crime of violence against women and children far too serious and prevalent in our society—Court to send a vibrant message that violence as a way of resolving conflict in love relationship cannot be tolerated—Accused has previous record of violent offence--Long term imprisonment just and fair—Will meet objectives o sentencing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-headnote-and-holding field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Headnote and holding</div> <div class="field__item"><p>The accused was charged and convicted of murder. The deceased was his wife and they have children together. Accused kicking Rebecca Kauma all over her body with booted feet and beating her with open hands and thereby inflicting upon her certain injuries. As a result of which the said Rebecca Kauma died at Likwatelela village on 22 February. Accused persisted to assaulting Rebecca notwithstanding her grandmother’s plea to stop assaulting her as he may kill her. After the assault, the accused dragged Rebecca from the scene, by pulling her body on the ground up to their sleeping hat. He left her alone at home and slept at his grandmother’s house. The next day despite Rebecca’s swollen face, accused without seeking medical help went to the soccer field saying he was bored at home.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahcnld/2021/52/2021-nahcnld-52.doc" type="application/msword; length=102400">2021-nahcnld-52.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><shape id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" o:gfxdata="UEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQC2gziS/gAAAOEBAAATAAAAW0NvbnRlbnRfVHlwZXNdLnhtbJSRQU7DMBBF&lt;br /&gt;&#10;90jcwfIWJU67QAgl6YK0S0CoHGBkTxKLZGx5TGhvj5O2G0SRWNoz/78nu9wcxkFMGNg6quQqL6RA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;0s5Y6ir5vt9lD1JwBDIwOMJKHpHlpr69KfdHjyxSmriSfYz+USnWPY7AufNIadK6MEJMx9ApD/oD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OlTrorhX2lFEilmcO2RdNtjC5xDF9pCuTyYBB5bi6bQ4syoJ3g9WQ0ymaiLzg5KdCXlKLjvcW893&lt;br /&gt;&#10;SUOqXwnz5DrgnHtJTxOsQfEKIT7DmDSUCaxw7Rqn8787ZsmRM9e2VmPeBN4uqYvTtW7jvijg9N/y&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JsXecLq0q+WD6m8AAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQA4/SH/1gAAAJQBAAALAAAAX3JlbHMvLnJl&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bHOkkMFqwzAMhu+DvYPRfXGawxijTi+j0GvpHsDYimMaW0Yy2fr2M4PBMnrbUb/Q94l/f/hMi1qR&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JVI2sOt6UJgd+ZiDgffL8ekFlFSbvV0oo4EbChzGx4f9GRdb25HMsYhqlCwG5lrLq9biZkxWOiqY&lt;br /&gt;&#10;22YiTra2kYMu1l1tQD30/bPm3wwYN0x18gb45AdQl1tp5j/sFB2T0FQ7R0nTNEV3j6o9feQzro1i&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OWA14Fm+Q8a1a8+Bvu/d/dMb2JY5uiPbhG/ktn4cqGU/er3pcvwCAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;IQB+xl6WJAIAAFAEAAAOAAAAZHJzL2Uyb0RvYy54bWysVFFv2yAQfp+0/4B4X+xYSdpacaouXaZJ&lt;br /&gt;&#10;XTep3Q/AGNtowDEgsbNfvwOnWdS9VfMD4jj47u777ry+HbUiB+G8BFPR+SynRBgOjTRdRX887z5c&lt;br /&gt;&#10;U+IDMw1TYERFj8LT2837d+vBlqKAHlQjHEEQ48vBVrQPwZZZ5nkvNPMzsMKgswWnWUDTdVnj2IDo&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WmVFnq+yAVxjHXDhPZ7eT066SfhtK3j41rZeBKIqirmFtLq01nHNNmtWdo7ZXvJTGuwNWWgmDQY9&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Q92zwMjeyX+gtOQOPLRhxkFn0LaSi1QDVjPPX1Xz1DMrUi1Ijrdnmvz/g+WPh++OyKaiBSWGaZTo&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WYyBfISRFJGdwfoSLz1ZvBZGPEaVU6XePgD/6YmBbc9MJ+6cg6EXrMHs5vFldvF0wvERpB6+QoNh&lt;br /&gt;&#10;2D5AAhpbpyN1SAZBdFTpeFYmpsJjyOWqmOfo4ugrFlerZZIuY+XLa+t8+CxAk7ipqEPlEzo7PPgQ&lt;br /&gt;&#10;s2Hly5UYzIOSzU4qlQzX1VvlyIFhl+zSlwp4dU0ZMlT0ZlksJwLeAKFlwHZXUlf0Oo/f1ICRtk+m&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Sc0YmFTTHlNW5sRjpG4iMYz1eNKlhuaIjDqY2hrHEDc9uN+UDNjSFfW/9swJStQXg6rczBeLOAPJ&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WCyvCjTcpae+9DDDEaqigZJpuw3T3Oytk12PkaY+MHCHSrYykRwln7I65Y1tm7g/jVici0s73fr7&lt;br /&gt;&#10;I9j8AQAA//8DAFBLAwQUAAYACAAAACEAT6Rysd8AAAAJAQAADwAAAGRycy9kb3ducmV2LnhtbEyP&lt;br /&gt;&#10;QW/CMAyF75P2HyIj7TJBQpFgdHURQpt2BnbZLTSmrWiStgm07NfPO20n23pPz9/LNqNtxI36UHuH&lt;br /&gt;&#10;MJ8pEOQKb2pXInwe36cvIELUzujGO0K4U4BN/viQ6dT4we3pdoil4BAXUo1QxdimUoaiIqvDzLfk&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WDv73urIZ19K0+uBw20jE6WW0ura8YdKt7SrqLgcrhbBD29366lTyfPXt/3Ybbv9OekQnybj9hVE&lt;br /&gt;&#10;pDH+meEXn9EhZ6aTvzoTRIOwmq+4S0SYrnmyYb1c8HJCWCgFMs/k/wb5DwAAAP//AwBQSwECLQAU&lt;br /&gt;&#10;AAYACAAAACEAtoM4kv4AAADhAQAAEwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAW0NvbnRlbnRfVHlwZXNdLnht&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bFBLAQItABQABgAIAAAAIQA4/SH/1gAAAJQBAAALAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC8BAABfcmVscy8ucmVs&lt;br /&gt;&#10;c1BLAQItABQABgAIAAAAIQB+xl6WJAIAAFAEAAAOAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC4CAABkcnMvZTJvRG9j&lt;br /&gt;&#10;LnhtbFBLAQItABQABgAIAAAAIQBPpHKx3wAAAAkBAAAPAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAH4EAABkcnMvZG93&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bnJldi54bWxQSwUGAAAAAAQABADzAAAAigUAAAAA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;" strokecolor="white" style="position:absolute; left:0; text-align:left; margin-left:478px; margin-top:-6px; width:123pt; height:19.5pt; z-index:251657728" type="#_x0000_t202"></shape></span></span></span></p> <table><tbody><tr><td bgcolor="white" style="border-bottom:.100px solid white; vertical-align:top; background-color:white; border-top:.100px solid white; border-right:.100px solid white; border-left:.100px solid white; width:170px; height:32px"> <table width="100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div class="shape" style="padding:4.35pt 7.95pt 4.35pt 7.95pt" v:shape="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table></td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-center"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HELD AT OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SENTENCE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case no: CC 15/2018</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="page-break-after:avoid"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">THE STATE                                                                                                                               </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">v</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MUNE SIYAVE                                                                                                      ACCUSED</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:      </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Siyave </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CC 15/2018) [2021] NAHCNLD 52 (7 June 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Coram:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">          SALIONGA J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:           14 May 2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:     7 June 2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Flynote:         </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Criminal Procedure ―Sentence― Factors to be taken into account at sentencing―Accused 54 years’ old first offender – Convicted of murdering his wife—Crime of violence against women and children far too serious and prevalent in our society—Court to send a vibrant message that violence as a way of resolving conflict in love relationship cannot be tolerated—Accused has previous record of violent offence--Long term imprisonment just and fair—Will meet objectives o sentencing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Summary:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The accused was charged and convicted of murder. The deceased was his wife and they have children together. Accused kicking Rebecca Kauma all over her body with booted feet and beating her with open hands and thereby inflicting upon her certain injuries. As a result of which the said Rebecca Kauma died at Likwatelela village on 22 February. Accused persisted to assaulting Rebecca notwithstanding her grandmother’s plea to stop assaulting her as he may kill her. After the assault, the accused dragged Rebecca from the scene, by pulling her body on the ground up to their sleeping hat. He left her alone at home and slept at his grandmother’s house. The next day despite Rebecca’s swollen face, accused without seeking medical help went to the soccer field saying he was bored at home. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                               ORDER</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Accused is sentenced to 30 years imprisonment of which 5 years is suspended for 5 years on condition the accused is not convicted of murder committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                           SENTENCE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        On 30 October 2020, this court convicted the accused on a count of murder with direct intent</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">read with the provisions of the Combating of Domestic Violence Act 4 of 2003</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. The facts of the case are fully stated in the judgement on conviction and I am not going to dwell on them unless it becomes really necessary.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> It is now the duty of this court to determine an appropriate and suitable sentence for the crime accused is convicted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        Sentencing is not an easy task as Hogarth in Sentencing as a human process (1971) said “there is no decision in the criminal process that is so complicated and so difficult to make as that of the sentencing judge.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]     In considering an appropriate and suitable sentence regard must be had to the triad factors set out in <i>S v Zinn</i><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> namely, the personal circumstances of the person convicted, the nature and gravity of the crime(s) committed and the interests of the community whilst at the same time bearing in mind the objectives of punishment. This process requires the sentencing court to assess all relevant factors, afford appropriate weight thereto and striking a balance between various interests.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The offence</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span>        <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The offence of murder accused stands to be sentenced is</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> undoubtly one of the most staid and widespread crimes in our country. The killing of the deceased can be described in no better words than merciless and cruel. What is disturbing in this matter is that the accused carried out his horrendous assault at the homestead of the deceased’s grandmother</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The interest of society</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        Namibia is currently experiencing high level of violent crimes in particular against vulnerable women and children. It follows that the public reacts or sometimes overreacts to what they think are too lenient sentences imposed in murder cases in comparison with sentences imposed to transgressors in other crimes such as illegal hunting or diamond related cases. Thus society can only have respect for the rule of law and the criminal justice delivery system if crimes are seen to be adequately and uniformly punished</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the present case the accused’s persistent and prolonged<b> </b>assault on the deceased poses threat to society. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]         The State called Ms Kasivi in terms of section 25 of the Combating of Domestic Violence Act of 2004. She testified that the deceased was her grandchild and at the time of her death she had two children who are now orphans. After her passing, her daughter is staying at the camp where the witness stays and the boy is with his grandmother. The deceased was unemployed but was doing odd jobs and whenever she gets something she used to buy food. Her death put a big stone on her shoulder as she was her pillar. Now that she is no more there is no one is there to assist. She feels bad that her grandchild was brutally killed despite her call for the accused to stop assaulting the deceased. She pray that accused should rot in jail.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span>        <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Accused did not give evidence nor address the court in mitigation before sentence. His personal circumstances were placed on record by his legal representative in that; accused is 54 years old, was married to the deceased and had three children together of which one passed away, that accused has not seen his children since his arrest and has no idea where they are. He misses them dearly and constantly worries about their well-being. Before marrying the now deceased, she was married in Kwangali</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">and had a new born baby. Accused cared and raised the baby as his own but, unfortunately the baby passed away.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> He never set foot in a classroom in his entire life.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        Counsel for the defence submitted that the Court must not to be swayed by public sentiment, prevalence and therefore accused cannot and should not be made a scape goat. Counsel further submitted that the crime was not pre-mediated, it was committed in the spur of the moment. It was further counsel’s submission that the accused‘s moral blameworthiness was also materially diminished at the time in that both the accused and the deceased were drunk although no evidence to that effect was led. He suggests a sentence equivalent to 20 years imprisonment of which two years are suspended for the time served in pre-trial incarceration as appropriate in this case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        On the other hand Counsel for the State submitted that the court should consider that accused is not a first offender, has previous conviction for assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm in 2016 where he was sentenced to 3 years of which one year was suspended. According to counsel that conviction has a direct bearing in this case and should not be disregarded. It is therefore imperative if courts were to consider the interest of the victims of crimes an additional factors constituting the triad</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> given earlier heavier sentences imposed with no sign of backing down.</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In this case, counsel proposed 35 years’ imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      The court is grateful for the written and oral submission both counsel filed and their immeasurable input. Counsel for the defence submitted that society should take the blame because, had it not been for the glorification of liquor none of this may have occurred. That is a valid argument but there was no single evidence to suggest that accused had no recollection of what happened the day of the incident save his evidence suggesting that he consumed much than he could take. The accused attacked and murdered her under the pretext of provocation and the evils of alcohol abuse. It should be noted with concern that men who resort to this heinous conduct as a way of expressing their anger and/ or disappointment when their relationships with women do not work out or under the pretext of insobriety has no place in society and need to be removed for a long period of time.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]</span></span></span>      <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is more disturbing that the assault took place at night where no-one could have rescued her. The accused brutal assaulted the deceased until she was unable to walk. The actions of dragging the deceased by pulling her on the ground, of leaving her alone the whole night well knowing that she was unable to walk and of not seeking medical help in the circumstances where she had a clearly visible swollen face show a ferocious attack towards the deceased and a clearly blatant disregard for the life of a human being. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12] </span></span></span>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">What further aggravates the matter is the fact that accused has not shown any regret for his conduct. A</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">s Ms testified by Kasivi the deceased’s family has been deprived of love, support and companionship forever. At the time of her death, the deceased was 36 years old and had two children. </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Namibia has a Constitution which applies to everyone, protects the rights of all, including the victims of crimes and the transgressors, and accused is not an exception. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      I have taken into account the personal circumstances of the accused including the time he spent in custody while awaiting trial and that he felt provoked. He never attended school in his life and was unemployed before his incarceration. That accused is a mature man aged 54</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> who</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> was married to the deceased. Society expects a person of his maturity to try and resolve love disputes in a peaceful, orderly mature manner and should not allow anger to overshadow his actions. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14] </span></span></span>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Whilst I agree with the submission that the court should not be swayed by public sentiment, prevalence and the like, and a sentence of 35 years suggested by the state will be unlawful considering accused’s age, sight should not be lost that accused’s moral blame worthiness is</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> exceedingly high when regard is had to the following factors; accused savagely assaulted the defenceless deceased, dragged and pulled her on the ground at a distance of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">about 106 meters</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, accused did nothing to seek medical attention instead left her alone in their house.</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The type and extent of injuries sustained were fatal. The external appearance of the body and the condition of the limbs according to the post-mortem report marked exhibit “K” shows contusions on the chin, on the left right, parietal onea on the skull, a fracture of the base of skull and nose bleeding. Further that, this is not even the accused’s first crash with the law, he has a previous conviction of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm and the offence was committed subsequent to his release from serving his three years’ sentence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Conclusion</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15] </span></span></span>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> It is against the aforesaid background that the court has to impose a sentence that reflects the seriousness of the offence committed. In my view </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">an appropriate and suitable sentence</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> in these circumstances</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">is one that should send a vibrant message that violence as a way of resolving conflict in love relationships cannot be tolerated</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> and a long term direct imprisonment will be just and fair at the same time will meet the objectives of sentencing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16] </span></span></span>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> In the result,</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Accused is sentenced to 30 years’ imprisonment of which 5 years is suspended for 5 years on condition the accused is not convicted of murder committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                                  __________________</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                                J  T SALIONGA</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                                            JUDGE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:right"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">APPEARANCES</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">For The State:                                     Mr L Matota</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                        Office of the Prosecutor General, Oshakati</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">For The Accused:                              Mr L Kabajani</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                         Directorate of Legal Aid, Rundu</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">1969 (2) SA 537 (A)</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-a8372995cecb941b1ef5b75907319ff740060a5a446616f8bb3847a9e90d40c9"> <div><div 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class="text-align-center"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA NORTHERN LOCAL DIVISION </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HELD AT OSHAKATI</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SENTENCE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              </b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case no: CC 15/2018</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="page-break-after:avoid"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">THE STATE                                                                                                                               </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">v</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 450.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">MUNE SIYAVE                                                                                                      ACCUSED</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:      </span></span></span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">S v Siyave </span></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(CC 15/2018) [2021] NAHCNLD 52 (7 June 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:145px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-108.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Coram:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">          SALIONGA J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:           14 May 2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered</span></span></span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:     7 June 2021</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Flynote:         </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Criminal Procedure ―Sentence― Factors to be taken into account at sentencing―Accused 54 years’ old first offender – Convicted of murdering his wife—Crime of violence against women and children far too serious and prevalent in our society—Court to send a vibrant message that violence as a way of resolving conflict in love relationship cannot be tolerated—Accused has previous record of violent offence--Long term imprisonment just and fair—Will meet objectives o sentencing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Summary:</span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The accused was charged and convicted of murder. The deceased was his wife and they have children together. Accused kicking Rebecca Kauma all over her body with booted feet and beating her with open hands and thereby inflicting upon her certain injuries. As a result of which the said Rebecca Kauma died at Likwatelela village on 22 February. Accused persisted to assaulting Rebecca notwithstanding her grandmother’s plea to stop assaulting her as he may kill her. After the assault, the accused dragged Rebecca from the scene, by pulling her body on the ground up to their sleeping hat. He left her alone at home and slept at his grandmother’s house. The next day despite Rebecca’s swollen face, accused without seeking medical help went to the soccer field saying he was bored at home. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                               ORDER</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Accused is sentenced to 30 years imprisonment of which 5 years is suspended for 5 years on condition the accused is not convicted of murder committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                           SENTENCE</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <div align="center" style="text-align:center"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%" /></div> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-72.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">SALIONGA, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        On 30 October 2020, this court convicted the accused on a count of murder with direct intent</span></span></span> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">read with the provisions of the Combating of Domestic Violence Act 4 of 2003</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. The facts of the case are fully stated in the judgement on conviction and I am not going to dwell on them unless it becomes really necessary.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> It is now the duty of this court to determine an appropriate and suitable sentence for the crime accused is convicted.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        Sentencing is not an easy task as Hogarth in Sentencing as a human process (1971) said “there is no decision in the criminal process that is so complicated and so difficult to make as that of the sentencing judge.”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]     In considering an appropriate and suitable sentence regard must be had to the triad factors set out in <i>S v Zinn</i><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> namely, the personal circumstances of the person convicted, the nature and gravity of the crime(s) committed and the interests of the community whilst at the same time bearing in mind the objectives of punishment. This process requires the sentencing court to assess all relevant factors, afford appropriate weight thereto and striking a balance between various interests.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The offence</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span>        <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The offence of murder accused stands to be sentenced is</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> undoubtly one of the most staid and widespread crimes in our country. The killing of the deceased can be described in no better words than merciless and cruel. What is disturbing in this matter is that the accused carried out his horrendous assault at the homestead of the deceased’s grandmother</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The interest of society</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        Namibia is currently experiencing high level of violent crimes in particular against vulnerable women and children. It follows that the public reacts or sometimes overreacts to what they think are too lenient sentences imposed in murder cases in comparison with sentences imposed to transgressors in other crimes such as illegal hunting or diamond related cases. Thus society can only have respect for the rule of law and the criminal justice delivery system if crimes are seen to be adequately and uniformly punished</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the present case the accused’s persistent and prolonged<b> </b>assault on the deceased poses threat to society. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]         The State called Ms Kasivi in terms of section 25 of the Combating of Domestic Violence Act of 2004. She testified that the deceased was her grandchild and at the time of her death she had two children who are now orphans. After her passing, her daughter is staying at the camp where the witness stays and the boy is with his grandmother. The deceased was unemployed but was doing odd jobs and whenever she gets something she used to buy food. Her death put a big stone on her shoulder as she was her pillar. Now that she is no more there is no one is there to assist. She feels bad that her grandchild was brutally killed despite her call for the accused to stop assaulting the deceased. She pray that accused should rot in jail.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span>        <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Accused did not give evidence nor address the court in mitigation before sentence. His personal circumstances were placed on record by his legal representative in that; accused is 54 years old, was married to the deceased and had three children together of which one passed away, that accused has not seen his children since his arrest and has no idea where they are. He misses them dearly and constantly worries about their well-being. Before marrying the now deceased, she was married in Kwangali</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">and had a new born baby. Accused cared and raised the baby as his own but, unfortunately the baby passed away.</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> He never set foot in a classroom in his entire life.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        Counsel for the defence submitted that the Court must not to be swayed by public sentiment, prevalence and therefore accused cannot and should not be made a scape goat. Counsel further submitted that the crime was not pre-mediated, it was committed in the spur of the moment. It was further counsel’s submission that the accused‘s moral blameworthiness was also materially diminished at the time in that both the accused and the deceased were drunk although no evidence to that effect was led. He suggests a sentence equivalent to 20 years imprisonment of which two years are suspended for the time served in pre-trial incarceration as appropriate in this case.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        On the other hand Counsel for the State submitted that the court should consider that accused is not a first offender, has previous conviction for assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm in 2016 where he was sentenced to 3 years of which one year was suspended. According to counsel that conviction has a direct bearing in this case and should not be disregarded. It is therefore imperative if courts were to consider the interest of the victims of crimes an additional factors constituting the triad</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> given earlier heavier sentences imposed with no sign of backing down.</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In this case, counsel proposed 35 years’ imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      The court is grateful for the written and oral submission both counsel filed and their immeasurable input. Counsel for the defence submitted that society should take the blame because, had it not been for the glorification of liquor none of this may have occurred. That is a valid argument but there was no single evidence to suggest that accused had no recollection of what happened the day of the incident save his evidence suggesting that he consumed much than he could take. The accused attacked and murdered her under the pretext of provocation and the evils of alcohol abuse. It should be noted with concern that men who resort to this heinous conduct as a way of expressing their anger and/ or disappointment when their relationships with women do not work out or under the pretext of insobriety has no place in society and need to be removed for a long period of time.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]</span></span></span>      <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">It is more disturbing that the assault took place at night where no-one could have rescued her. The accused brutal assaulted the deceased until she was unable to walk. The actions of dragging the deceased by pulling her on the ground, of leaving her alone the whole night well knowing that she was unable to walk and of not seeking medical help in the circumstances where she had a clearly visible swollen face show a ferocious attack towards the deceased and a clearly blatant disregard for the life of a human being. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12] </span></span></span>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">What further aggravates the matter is the fact that accused has not shown any regret for his conduct. A</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">s Ms testified by Kasivi the deceased’s family has been deprived of love, support and companionship forever. At the time of her death, the deceased was 36 years old and had two children. </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Namibia has a Constitution which applies to everyone, protects the rights of all, including the victims of crimes and the transgressors, and accused is not an exception. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      I have taken into account the personal circumstances of the accused including the time he spent in custody while awaiting trial and that he felt provoked. He never attended school in his life and was unemployed before his incarceration. That accused is a mature man aged 54</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> who</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> was married to the deceased. Society expects a person of his maturity to try and resolve love disputes in a peaceful, orderly mature manner and should not allow anger to overshadow his actions. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14] </span></span></span>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Whilst I agree with the submission that the court should not be swayed by public sentiment, prevalence and the like, and a sentence of 35 years suggested by the state will be unlawful considering accused’s age, sight should not be lost that accused’s moral blame worthiness is</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> exceedingly high when regard is had to the following factors; accused savagely assaulted the defenceless deceased, dragged and pulled her on the ground at a distance of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">about 106 meters</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">, accused did nothing to seek medical attention instead left her alone in their house.</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> The type and extent of injuries sustained were fatal. The external appearance of the body and the condition of the limbs according to the post-mortem report marked exhibit “K” shows contusions on the chin, on the left right, parietal onea on the skull, a fracture of the base of skull and nose bleeding. Further that, this is not even the accused’s first crash with the law, he has a previous conviction of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm and the offence was committed subsequent to his release from serving his three years’ sentence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Conclusion</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15] </span></span></span>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> It is against the aforesaid background that the court has to impose a sentence that reflects the seriousness of the offence committed. In my view </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">an appropriate and suitable sentence</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> in these circumstances</span></span></span> <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">is one that should send a vibrant message that violence as a way of resolving conflict in love relationships cannot be tolerated</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> and a long term direct imprisonment will be just and fair at the same time will meet the objectives of sentencing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16] </span></span></span>     <span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> In the result,</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify; margin-left:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Accused is sentenced to 30 years’ imprisonment of which 5 years is suspended for 5 years on condition the accused is not convicted of murder committed during the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                                  __________________</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                                J  T SALIONGA</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                                            JUDGE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="margin-left:25px; text-align:right"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">APPEARANCES</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">For The State:                                     Mr L Matota</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                        Office of the Prosecutor General, Oshakati</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">For The Accused:                              Mr L Kabajani</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                         Directorate of Legal Aid, Rundu</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">1969 (2) SA 537 (A)</span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Fri, 16 Jul 2021 16:35:54 +0000 Mariana 25367 at http://namiblii.org