High Court http://namiblii.org/ en S v Joseph (2) (Sentence) (CC 10 of 2007) [2007] NAHC 209 (23 April 2007); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2007/209 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">S v Joseph (2) (Sentence) (CC 10 of 2007) [2007] NAHC 209 (23 April 2007);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mary Falconer</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 12/01/2021 - 17:43</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-rtf file--general"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2007/209/2007-nahc-209.rtf" type="application/rtf; length=69215">2007-nahc-209.rtf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">MULLER, J.:</span></span></span></u></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[1]  The accused was convicted of an attempt to commit a sexual act with a girl under the age of 16, in terms of 21 of 1980 as amended by Act 7 of 2000. The penalty for such conviction is a fine not exceeding N$40 000 or imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years, or both such fine and imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[2]  The accused’s legal practitioner, Ms Kishi, called the accused to testify in mitigation after he was cross-examined by Ms Nyoni for the State.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[3]  In considering what an appropriate sentence for the accused should be, the Court considers the elements of retribution, prevention, deterrence and reformation or rehabilitation and attempts to incorporate a combination thereof in the sentence to be imposed. Furthermore, a balance of the circumstances relating to the accused, the crime and society, coupled with a blend of mercy, is the aim that the Court attempts to achieve by imposing an appropriate sentence. (<i>S v Zinn</i> 1969 (2) SA 573 (A) and <i>S v Rabie </i>1975 (4) SA 855 (A)).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[4] The accused</span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB">’</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">s personal circumstances are the following:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He was 16 when he committed the offence and is now 21 years of age;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He left school when he was in Grade 5;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Thereafter he worked as a cattle herder for a certain George Heita;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He was not paid a salary but received cows from the owner with which he ploughed his field;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He grew up with his grandmother;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">His mother died and his father left them;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">There are in total 7 children who stays with his grandmother and who are dependent on her meagre pension of N$370 per month;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">A relative in Windhoek also contributes to the support;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The accused works in the mahangu field and assists his grandmother to look after the other children;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">If sent to prison, that assistance will be lost;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He expressed remorse and told the Court that the will not repeat this offence again;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He was in custody after being arrested for approximately a week, whereafter he was warned and returned to his grandmother.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[5]  Ms Nyoni directed her cross-examination mainly at the ages of the minor children and possible contribution to their own support, if the accused should not be there. The oldest child after the accused is a girl of 16 years, who is at boarding school and consequently not available for this purpose. The next child is  14 and attends school from the home of the grandmother. Ms Nyoni also elicited from the accused that he committed this crime with the complainant, who apparently stayed in the same house, during a time when there were no adults and so took advantage of their absence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[6]  Ms Kishi concentrated in argument on the age of the accused at the time, the fact that he is uneducated and comes from a poor background, as well as that assists the grandmother, who looks after several young children. She indicated that he showed remorse and pleaded guilty. Although conceding that society condemns this kind of offence, she submitted that a term of direct imprisonment for the accused will not only spell disaster for himself, but also for the grandmother and the other minor children. She consequently asked that the Court should suspend the sentence to be imposed <i>in toto.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[7]  Ms Nyoni urged the Court to consider the young age of the complainant at the time, namely 8 years, whose innocence was lost through the  conduct of the accused. She also argued that the accused does not have any remorse and his plea of guilty is not an indication thereof, because he was caught in the act and could not plead otherwise. A further aggravating factor, she submitted, was that the accused was entrusted with care of the children, including the complainant. The adults were away and he abused this trust. She further submitted that although only 16 at the time the accused was still 8 years older than the complainant, an age difference much greater than that which the legislator regarded as serious and should be visited by the penalty provided in the Act. Ms Nyoni finally submitted that the community demands that such offences be treated with seriousness and that the Court’s sentence for the accused should also reflect the interest of society.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[8]  I have considered all the factors, including the personal circumstances of the accused, the seriousness of the offence and the interests of the community and will attempt to impose a sentence that would reflect all these interests in a balanced sentence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[9]  There are certain elements of the evidence of the offence in itself and the evidence submitted in mitigation, that I believe should also be considered. I take it into consideration that the accused did testify in mitigation and subjected himself to cross-examination. My impression of his demeanour is that he honestly answered all questions, also those put to him during cross-examination. As an example he admitted his responsibility to look after the younger children when the adults were away and that he abused this trust to take advantage of the complainant being alone with him. Ms Nyoni submitted he pleaded guilty to the alternative charge because he was caught in the act. This was not put to him  during cross-examination and he could not respond  thereto. His evidence that he has remorse for what he did was left unchallenged. From the time when he pleaded the accused indicated that he wanted to have sexual intercourse with the complainant, but this was fortunately interrupted before it could happen by Mr Paavo’s  arrival. The evidence of the complainant was also that his “thing” was on her “thing”, but not inside it. The doctor’s evidence of his physical examination of the complainant after the incident and of her genitalia is that it was found to be normal and that there was no evidence of rape. I have already dealt with those findings of the doctor and concludes that on the evidence before me, the accused attempted to commit the alternative offence, namely of a sexual act with a child under 16. Although the accused was double the age of the complainant at the time, it must be remembered that he only attempted to commit the said contravention of the Act. I can, therefore, also not agree with Ms Nyoni that the complainant’s innocence was taken away by the accused. I take cognizance of the accused’s evidence under oath that he will never repeat this act again and from what I have seen of him, I believe it. Although the precautions that I have referred to in my judgment on the merits taken by the Court in respect of the complainant, her demeanour in Court does not indicate any serious permanent harm. No evidence was presented in mitigation of any psychological harm that the complainant suffered after the incident.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[10]  Finally, I take into consideration that the accused was only in custody for a week and this incident occurred on 09 September 2002, namely nearly after 5 years ago. Since then it appears that the accused continued with his life  at the village where the complainant also lives. I have not been told what the position is regarding the two of them during this period. The accused apparently continued with his cattle herding, working in the mahangu field and assisting his grandmother to look after the 7 other young children, of which the complainant may be one. If society, or the community wherein they live, would expect the Court to impose a sentence on the accused of a custodial sentence, I find it difficult to evaluate that without any evidence to that effect. The delay to bring the matter to court was not explained. The community has apparently accepted the accused back and although it would expect that he be punished for what he has done, the Court is left to draw its own conclusions as mentioned. I am also not sure why this case has taken nearly 5 years before it was heard and the fairness thereof to both the accused and the complainant is doubtful in my opinion.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[11] Although I have taken all these factors and aspects into consideration, I am of the opinion that the only proper and balanced sentenced for the accused is a period of imprisonment which is totally suspended. I am aware that such a totally suspended sentence may be difficult to be understood by society, but as  mentioned before, I believe it would be a correct sentence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[12]  The accused is sentenced as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">Four years imprisonment which are fully suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that the accused is not convicted of a contravention of s 2 (1) of the Combating of Rape Act, No 8 of 2000, or of a contravention of s 14 (a) of the Combating of Immoral Practices Act, No 21 of 1980, as amended by Act 7 of 2000.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">___________</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">MULLLER, J</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">On behalf of the State:                        Ms I. Nyoni</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">Instructed by:                                      Office of the Prosecutor-General</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">On behalf of the Defence:                   Ms F. Kishi</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">Instructed by:                                      Directorate of Legal Aid</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-984d0aa5f7a3e103cd3496ffe8da97c51f4cc4c58b5ca2cc0850d2907df6e40c"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">MULLER, J.:</span></span></span></u></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[1]  The accused was convicted of an attempt to commit a sexual act with a girl under the age of 16, in terms of 21 of 1980 as amended by Act 7 of 2000. The penalty for such conviction is a fine not exceeding N$40 000 or imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years, or both such fine and imprisonment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[2]  The accused’s legal practitioner, Ms Kishi, called the accused to testify in mitigation after he was cross-examined by Ms Nyoni for the State.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[3]  In considering what an appropriate sentence for the accused should be, the Court considers the elements of retribution, prevention, deterrence and reformation or rehabilitation and attempts to incorporate a combination thereof in the sentence to be imposed. Furthermore, a balance of the circumstances relating to the accused, the crime and society, coupled with a blend of mercy, is the aim that the Court attempts to achieve by imposing an appropriate sentence. (<i>S v Zinn</i> 1969 (2) SA 573 (A) and <i>S v Rabie </i>1975 (4) SA 855 (A)).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[4] The accused</span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB">’</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">s personal circumstances are the following:</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He was 16 when he committed the offence and is now 21 years of age;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He left school when he was in Grade 5;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">Thereafter he worked as a cattle herder for a certain George Heita;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He was not paid a salary but received cows from the owner with which he ploughed his field;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He grew up with his grandmother;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">His mother died and his father left them;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">There are in total 7 children who stays with his grandmother and who are dependent on her meagre pension of N$370 per month;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">A relative in Windhoek also contributes to the support;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">The accused works in the mahangu field and assists his grandmother to look after the other children;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">If sent to prison, that assistance will be lost;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He expressed remorse and told the Court that the will not repeat this offence again;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø </span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">He was in custody after being arrested for approximately a week, whereafter he was warned and returned to his grandmother.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[5]  Ms Nyoni directed her cross-examination mainly at the ages of the minor children and possible contribution to their own support, if the accused should not be there. The oldest child after the accused is a girl of 16 years, who is at boarding school and consequently not available for this purpose. The next child is  14 and attends school from the home of the grandmother. Ms Nyoni also elicited from the accused that he committed this crime with the complainant, who apparently stayed in the same house, during a time when there were no adults and so took advantage of their absence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[6]  Ms Kishi concentrated in argument on the age of the accused at the time, the fact that he is uneducated and comes from a poor background, as well as that assists the grandmother, who looks after several young children. She indicated that he showed remorse and pleaded guilty. Although conceding that society condemns this kind of offence, she submitted that a term of direct imprisonment for the accused will not only spell disaster for himself, but also for the grandmother and the other minor children. She consequently asked that the Court should suspend the sentence to be imposed <i>in toto.</i></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[7]  Ms Nyoni urged the Court to consider the young age of the complainant at the time, namely 8 years, whose innocence was lost through the  conduct of the accused. She also argued that the accused does not have any remorse and his plea of guilty is not an indication thereof, because he was caught in the act and could not plead otherwise. A further aggravating factor, she submitted, was that the accused was entrusted with care of the children, including the complainant. The adults were away and he abused this trust. She further submitted that although only 16 at the time the accused was still 8 years older than the complainant, an age difference much greater than that which the legislator regarded as serious and should be visited by the penalty provided in the Act. Ms Nyoni finally submitted that the community demands that such offences be treated with seriousness and that the Court’s sentence for the accused should also reflect the interest of society.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[8]  I have considered all the factors, including the personal circumstances of the accused, the seriousness of the offence and the interests of the community and will attempt to impose a sentence that would reflect all these interests in a balanced sentence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[9]  There are certain elements of the evidence of the offence in itself and the evidence submitted in mitigation, that I believe should also be considered. I take it into consideration that the accused did testify in mitigation and subjected himself to cross-examination. My impression of his demeanour is that he honestly answered all questions, also those put to him during cross-examination. As an example he admitted his responsibility to look after the younger children when the adults were away and that he abused this trust to take advantage of the complainant being alone with him. Ms Nyoni submitted he pleaded guilty to the alternative charge because he was caught in the act. This was not put to him  during cross-examination and he could not respond  thereto. His evidence that he has remorse for what he did was left unchallenged. From the time when he pleaded the accused indicated that he wanted to have sexual intercourse with the complainant, but this was fortunately interrupted before it could happen by Mr Paavo’s  arrival. The evidence of the complainant was also that his “thing” was on her “thing”, but not inside it. The doctor’s evidence of his physical examination of the complainant after the incident and of her genitalia is that it was found to be normal and that there was no evidence of rape. I have already dealt with those findings of the doctor and concludes that on the evidence before me, the accused attempted to commit the alternative offence, namely of a sexual act with a child under 16. Although the accused was double the age of the complainant at the time, it must be remembered that he only attempted to commit the said contravention of the Act. I can, therefore, also not agree with Ms Nyoni that the complainant’s innocence was taken away by the accused. I take cognizance of the accused’s evidence under oath that he will never repeat this act again and from what I have seen of him, I believe it. Although the precautions that I have referred to in my judgment on the merits taken by the Court in respect of the complainant, her demeanour in Court does not indicate any serious permanent harm. No evidence was presented in mitigation of any psychological harm that the complainant suffered after the incident.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[10]  Finally, I take into consideration that the accused was only in custody for a week and this incident occurred on 09 September 2002, namely nearly after 5 years ago. Since then it appears that the accused continued with his life  at the village where the complainant also lives. I have not been told what the position is regarding the two of them during this period. The accused apparently continued with his cattle herding, working in the mahangu field and assisting his grandmother to look after the 7 other young children, of which the complainant may be one. If society, or the community wherein they live, would expect the Court to impose a sentence on the accused of a custodial sentence, I find it difficult to evaluate that without any evidence to that effect. The delay to bring the matter to court was not explained. The community has apparently accepted the accused back and although it would expect that he be punished for what he has done, the Court is left to draw its own conclusions as mentioned. I am also not sure why this case has taken nearly 5 years before it was heard and the fairness thereof to both the accused and the complainant is doubtful in my opinion.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[11] Although I have taken all these factors and aspects into consideration, I am of the opinion that the only proper and balanced sentenced for the accused is a period of imprisonment which is totally suspended. I am aware that such a totally suspended sentence may be difficult to be understood by society, but as  mentioned before, I believe it would be a correct sentence.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[12]  The accused is sentenced as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">Four years imprisonment which are fully suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that the accused is not convicted of a contravention of s 2 (1) of the Combating of Rape Act, No 8 of 2000, or of a contravention of s 14 (a) of the Combating of Immoral Practices Act, No 21 of 1980, as amended by Act 7 of 2000.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">___________</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">MULLLER, J</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">On behalf of the State:                        Ms I. Nyoni</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">Instructed by:                                      Office of the Prosecutor-General</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">On behalf of the Defence:                   Ms F. Kishi</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">Instructed by:                                      Directorate of Legal Aid</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Wed, 01 Dec 2021 17:43:24 +0000 Mary Falconer 25604 at http://namiblii.org S v Coetzee (4) (Sentence) (CC 13 of 2007) [2007] NAHC 208 (03 May 2007); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2007/208 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">S v Coetzee (4) (Sentence) (CC 13 of 2007) [2007] NAHC 208 (03 May 2007);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mary Falconer</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 11/29/2021 - 15:46</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-rtf file--general"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2007/208/2007-nahc-208.rtf" type="application/rtf; length=64503">2007-nahc-208.rtf</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">MULLER, J.:</span></span></span></span></u></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line"> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[1] The accused was convicted of the murder of Alfred Rieketts and attempted murder of Juanita Coetzee, his wife.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[2]  The State did not prove any previous convictions.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[3]  Ms Kishi who represented the accused called him to testify. The accused testified that he is 50 years old and is a first offender. He only completed Standard 4 at school. He related his work record, which indicates that after he qualified as a mechanic and that he was employed in Windhoek, Walvis Bay and finally at a garage in Ondangwa. He is married to the complainant Juanita Coetzee since 1997 and they have 3 children, of which one is a minor and still in school. She stays with her maternal grandfather. Until the incident the accused used to contribute to her support. His bail application failed and he was since his arrest in custody for a period of 2½ years. In respect of the incident the accused said he has remorse for his deeds. He was cross-examined in respect thereof by Ms Jacobs. In any event, the accused said that he will never repeat these offences and that the offences were committed as a result of severe provocation, not only by the deceased, but also by his wife, who had a relationship with the deceased.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[4]  Ms Kishi referred to the personal circumstances of the accused, the peculiar circumstances that led to these offences and the fact the accused, who was a law abiding citizen for nearly 50 years of his life, would not find himself in the same position again. She asked the Court to suspend any sentence of imprisonment <i>in toto</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[5]  As mentioned above, Ms Jacobs also directed her cross-examination of the accused at his claim of remorse, while he still mentioned that he is innocent. Ms Jacobs submitted that by repeating his innocence, even after his defence was rejected and he was convicted, excludes any allegation of having remorse for his deeds. She also submitted that the these offences were committed with pre-meditation, because the accused knew of the affair between his wife and the deceased and acted out of jealousy. She submitted that a sentence of at least 20 years imprisonment would be appropriate in the circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[6]  Ms Jacobs agreed with Ms Kishi that the sentence in respect of the second conviction, namely the attempted murder of Ms Coetzee should either be taken together with the conviction of murder, or should run concurrently.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[7]  In considering what an appropriate sentence for the accused should be the Court considers the elements of retribution, prevention, deterrence and reformation or rehabilitation and attempts to incorporate a combination thereof in the sentence to be imposed. Furthermore, a balance of the circumstances relating to the accused, the crime and society, coupled with a blend of mercy is the aim that the Court attempts to achieve by imposing an appropriate sentence. (<i>S v Zinn 1969</i> (2) SA 537 and <i>S v Rabie</i> 1975 (4) SA 855 A).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[8]  Both counsel agreed that the offences committed by the accused and of which he was convicted are serious. I have no doubt that it is so and that society would demand that an accused who commits such crimes should be severely punished and that such punishment should necessarily entail a long period of imprisonment. Except of the element of retribution which requires that the convicted criminal should experience the effect of his deed, the other elements should also be considered. The elements of prevention and deterrence shows the community that by imposing a suitable sentence of imprisonment, society is protected from such a convicted criminal and that it would not only deter him from repeating the crime he was convicted of, but would also send a message to other members of society to withhold themselves from committing such crimes, because if convicted, they will also face such a sentence. Finally, the element of rehabilitation of the particular criminal must be considered. The question is whether he can be rehabilitated to return to society as a person who has completed his punishment for his deeds and will take his place as a useful member of society. I shall deal with these elements in relation to this particular accused hereinafter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[9]  I accept the personal circumstances of the accused which was put before me. I also take cognizance of the fact that accused was prepared to testify under oath in mitigation and consequently subjected himself to cross-examination. It is trite that mitigating factors provided to the Court under oath carry more weight than those only conveyed to the Court from the bar. I did also consider the nature of the offence and the interests of society, as requirements for a balanced sentence referred to before and I have already indicated that a long period of imprisonment would be the only appropriate and balanced sentence for the accused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[10]  However, in determining what an appropriate sentence of imprisonment for the accused should be and whether this particular case warrants the suspension of part of it, I shall consider the elements referred to hereinbefore, weighed against the personal circumstances and applicable mitigating factors. The retributive element should not be forgotten, but should not be over-emphasised to the exclusion of the other elements. I have already indicated that the only suitable punishment for the accused is one of a long period of imprisonment, the effect of which he will certainly experience. When considering the elements of deterrence and prevention, I am mindful of the circumstances under which these offences were committed. The offences are related. He killed his wife’s boyfriend and stabbed her in one incident, which occurred on one occasion. Although it is no excuse, the evidence suggested that the accused suddenly boiled over and  that this happened after he was first humiliated by the behaviour of his wife dressing herself in shorts belonging to the deceased. Then, after arguments and being threatened by an armed deceased, he was incited his wife saying: <i>“kill the dog.”</i> She later also joined in the fight, supporting the deceased. Secondly, the deceased was the aggressor and he was armed. I do not agree with the submission that the accused acted with the pre-meditation. If that was the case, he would have certainly  not come to a fight unarmed. I accept  that he was jealous, but not that he killed the deceased out of jealousy. It seems to me that the accused intended to please his wife on her birthday, however difficult it might have been under the circumstances. However, her incitement, the attitude of the deceased and the fight for the knife might very well have led to the conduct of the accused once he got hold of the knife. At that stage part of his actions might be because of jealousy. Similarly, I do not agree that by maintaining his innocence, even after conviction, it absolutely excludes the possibility that he may have remorse for his deeds. Despite the fact that the Court rejected his defence of self-defence, the accused may still feel sorry that a person died because of his action and that he injured his wife. I do consider his expression of remorse in that light. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[11]  All in all, I do not believe that this accused will commit similar offences again. The accused had a clean record until the age of more than 47 years. The circumstances that led to these two interrelated offences were unique and the repetition thereof improbable. The accused will be much older when he comes out of prison and on the evidence before Court so far, the continuation of the marriage relationship between him and his wife seems doubtful. Although the elements of deterrence and prevention should not be ignored, they do not carry so much weight in my opinion as to call for a very heavy sentence or to prevent partial suspension of the sentence. With regard to rehabilitation, the history of the accused and the time that he will have to spend in prison, would contribute to his rehabilitation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[12]  The accused is now 50 years of age. He already spend 2½ years in prison. I do not think that a sentence of 20 years imprisonment is appropriate for a man of his age under the circumstances applicable to his case, as mentioned before. I must also remember that I have to sentence this particular accused before me. Although the offences he committed are serious and that that factor, together with the other interests I have mentioned, call for a long term of imprisonment, I do not think that, when taking all the factors and elements that I have mentioned into account, he should be imprisoned until he is 70 years of age. In my opinion a fairly long term of imprisonment of which a part is suspended, would serve all these interests.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[13]  I agree that the sentences of both offences that the  accused was convicted of should be taken together for the purpose of sentence  and shall do so.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[14]  The accused is sentenced as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">Taking both offences that the accused have been convicted of together, he is sentenced to 15 years imprisonment of which 5 years are suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that the accused is not convicted of the offences of murder, culpable homicide or attempted murder, committed within the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> </span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">____________</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">MULLER, J</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">ON BEHALF OF THE STATE:                  MS H. JACOBS</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">INSTRUCTED BY:                                  OFFICE OF THE PROSECUTOR-GENERAL</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">ON BEHALF OF THE DEFENCE:             MS F. KISHI</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">INSTRUCTED BY:                                  DIRECTORATE OF LEGAL AID</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-0723d30ebf071c7983b7ed7169be2972d1fb93a733f6ab000b61984567aea03a"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">MULLER, J.:</span></span></span></span></u></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line"> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[1] The accused was convicted of the murder of Alfred Rieketts and attempted murder of Juanita Coetzee, his wife.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[2]  The State did not prove any previous convictions.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[3]  Ms Kishi who represented the accused called him to testify. The accused testified that he is 50 years old and is a first offender. He only completed Standard 4 at school. He related his work record, which indicates that after he qualified as a mechanic and that he was employed in Windhoek, Walvis Bay and finally at a garage in Ondangwa. He is married to the complainant Juanita Coetzee since 1997 and they have 3 children, of which one is a minor and still in school. She stays with her maternal grandfather. Until the incident the accused used to contribute to her support. His bail application failed and he was since his arrest in custody for a period of 2½ years. In respect of the incident the accused said he has remorse for his deeds. He was cross-examined in respect thereof by Ms Jacobs. In any event, the accused said that he will never repeat these offences and that the offences were committed as a result of severe provocation, not only by the deceased, but also by his wife, who had a relationship with the deceased.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[4]  Ms Kishi referred to the personal circumstances of the accused, the peculiar circumstances that led to these offences and the fact the accused, who was a law abiding citizen for nearly 50 years of his life, would not find himself in the same position again. She asked the Court to suspend any sentence of imprisonment <i>in toto</i>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[5]  As mentioned above, Ms Jacobs also directed her cross-examination of the accused at his claim of remorse, while he still mentioned that he is innocent. Ms Jacobs submitted that by repeating his innocence, even after his defence was rejected and he was convicted, excludes any allegation of having remorse for his deeds. She also submitted that the these offences were committed with pre-meditation, because the accused knew of the affair between his wife and the deceased and acted out of jealousy. She submitted that a sentence of at least 20 years imprisonment would be appropriate in the circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[6]  Ms Jacobs agreed with Ms Kishi that the sentence in respect of the second conviction, namely the attempted murder of Ms Coetzee should either be taken together with the conviction of murder, or should run concurrently.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[7]  In considering what an appropriate sentence for the accused should be the Court considers the elements of retribution, prevention, deterrence and reformation or rehabilitation and attempts to incorporate a combination thereof in the sentence to be imposed. Furthermore, a balance of the circumstances relating to the accused, the crime and society, coupled with a blend of mercy is the aim that the Court attempts to achieve by imposing an appropriate sentence. (<i>S v Zinn 1969</i> (2) SA 537 and <i>S v Rabie</i> 1975 (4) SA 855 A).</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[8]  Both counsel agreed that the offences committed by the accused and of which he was convicted are serious. I have no doubt that it is so and that society would demand that an accused who commits such crimes should be severely punished and that such punishment should necessarily entail a long period of imprisonment. Except of the element of retribution which requires that the convicted criminal should experience the effect of his deed, the other elements should also be considered. The elements of prevention and deterrence shows the community that by imposing a suitable sentence of imprisonment, society is protected from such a convicted criminal and that it would not only deter him from repeating the crime he was convicted of, but would also send a message to other members of society to withhold themselves from committing such crimes, because if convicted, they will also face such a sentence. Finally, the element of rehabilitation of the particular criminal must be considered. The question is whether he can be rehabilitated to return to society as a person who has completed his punishment for his deeds and will take his place as a useful member of society. I shall deal with these elements in relation to this particular accused hereinafter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[9]  I accept the personal circumstances of the accused which was put before me. I also take cognizance of the fact that accused was prepared to testify under oath in mitigation and consequently subjected himself to cross-examination. It is trite that mitigating factors provided to the Court under oath carry more weight than those only conveyed to the Court from the bar. I did also consider the nature of the offence and the interests of society, as requirements for a balanced sentence referred to before and I have already indicated that a long period of imprisonment would be the only appropriate and balanced sentence for the accused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[10]  However, in determining what an appropriate sentence of imprisonment for the accused should be and whether this particular case warrants the suspension of part of it, I shall consider the elements referred to hereinbefore, weighed against the personal circumstances and applicable mitigating factors. The retributive element should not be forgotten, but should not be over-emphasised to the exclusion of the other elements. I have already indicated that the only suitable punishment for the accused is one of a long period of imprisonment, the effect of which he will certainly experience. When considering the elements of deterrence and prevention, I am mindful of the circumstances under which these offences were committed. The offences are related. He killed his wife’s boyfriend and stabbed her in one incident, which occurred on one occasion. Although it is no excuse, the evidence suggested that the accused suddenly boiled over and  that this happened after he was first humiliated by the behaviour of his wife dressing herself in shorts belonging to the deceased. Then, after arguments and being threatened by an armed deceased, he was incited his wife saying: <i>“kill the dog.”</i> She later also joined in the fight, supporting the deceased. Secondly, the deceased was the aggressor and he was armed. I do not agree with the submission that the accused acted with the pre-meditation. If that was the case, he would have certainly  not come to a fight unarmed. I accept  that he was jealous, but not that he killed the deceased out of jealousy. It seems to me that the accused intended to please his wife on her birthday, however difficult it might have been under the circumstances. However, her incitement, the attitude of the deceased and the fight for the knife might very well have led to the conduct of the accused once he got hold of the knife. At that stage part of his actions might be because of jealousy. Similarly, I do not agree that by maintaining his innocence, even after conviction, it absolutely excludes the possibility that he may have remorse for his deeds. Despite the fact that the Court rejected his defence of self-defence, the accused may still feel sorry that a person died because of his action and that he injured his wife. I do consider his expression of remorse in that light. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[11]  All in all, I do not believe that this accused will commit similar offences again. The accused had a clean record until the age of more than 47 years. The circumstances that led to these two interrelated offences were unique and the repetition thereof improbable. The accused will be much older when he comes out of prison and on the evidence before Court so far, the continuation of the marriage relationship between him and his wife seems doubtful. Although the elements of deterrence and prevention should not be ignored, they do not carry so much weight in my opinion as to call for a very heavy sentence or to prevent partial suspension of the sentence. With regard to rehabilitation, the history of the accused and the time that he will have to spend in prison, would contribute to his rehabilitation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[12]  The accused is now 50 years of age. He already spend 2½ years in prison. I do not think that a sentence of 20 years imprisonment is appropriate for a man of his age under the circumstances applicable to his case, as mentioned before. I must also remember that I have to sentence this particular accused before me. Although the offences he committed are serious and that that factor, together with the other interests I have mentioned, call for a long term of imprisonment, I do not think that, when taking all the factors and elements that I have mentioned into account, he should be imprisoned until he is 70 years of age. In my opinion a fairly long term of imprisonment of which a part is suspended, would serve all these interests.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">[13]  I agree that the sentences of both offences that the  accused was convicted of should be taken together for the purpose of sentence  and shall do so.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">[14]  The accused is sentenced as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="Indent1"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">Taking both offences that the accused have been convicted of together, he is sentenced to 15 years imprisonment of which 5 years are suspended for a period of 5 years on condition that the accused is not convicted of the offences of murder, culpable homicide or attempted murder, committed within the period of suspension.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> </span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif">____________</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">MULLER, J</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="line-height:200%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">ON BEHALF OF THE STATE:                  MS H. JACOBS</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">INSTRUCTED BY:                                  OFFICE OF THE PROSECUTOR-GENERAL</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">ON BEHALF OF THE DEFENCE:             MS F. KISHI</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Verdana&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="layout-grid-mode:line">INSTRUCTED BY:                                  DIRECTORATE OF LEGAL AID</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 29 Nov 2021 15:46:10 +0000 Mary Falconer 25601 at http://namiblii.org Bruni v Hengari (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH- 2194 of 2020) [2021] NAHC 83 (23 February 2021); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2021/83-0 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Bruni v Hengari (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH- 2194 of 2020) [2021] NAHC 83 (23 February 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 07/19/2021 - 13:49</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2021/83/2021-nahc-83_0.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=32762">2021-nahc-83.docx</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Practice Directive 61</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <table class="Table" style="border-collapse:collapse"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Case Title:</span></span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333"> DAVID JOHN BRUNI &amp; ANOTHER vs MARVIN NGUTJIWA HENGARI</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Case No:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2020/02194-</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Division of Court:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">HIGH COURT(MAIN DIVISION)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Heard before:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">TOMMASI, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">28 January 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Date of order: </span></span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">28 January 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Reasons: </span></span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">23 February 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"> Bruni v Hengari  </span></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH– 2020/02194) [2021] NAHCMD 83 (23 February 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Results on merits: </span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">The order:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:19px; margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:2px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Having heard <b>ADV HEATHCOTE </b>on behalf of the Plaintiff(s) and <b>MARVIN NGUTJIWA HENGARI</b> the Defendant in person and having read the Application for HC-MD-CIV-ACT- OTH– 2020-02194 and other documents filed of record:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:19px; margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:2px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">IT IS HEREBY ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></span></b> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:19px; margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:2px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">THE COURT GRANTS SUMMARY JUDGEMENT IN FAVOUR OF THE PLAINTIFS AGAINST THE DEFENDANT IN THE FOLLOWING TERMS</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:9px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="vertical-align:baseline"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Payment in the amount of N$3 900 000.00; </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="vertical-align:baseline"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Interest on the amount of N$3 900 000.00 at the rate of 20% per annum from 17 September 2015 to date of payment; </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="vertical-align:baseline"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Costs of suit. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="vertical-align:baseline"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Matter is removed from the roll: Case Finalised.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[1]        The court granted Summary Judgment in favour of the Plaintiffs against the defendant. What follows are the reasons for this order. I shall refer to the parties as they appear in the main action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[2]        The plaintiffs applied for Summary Judgment in respect of their action based on the claims of <i>condictio indebiti</i>, alternatively the <i>condictio ob turpem vel injustam cusam</i>, alternatively <i>condictio furtiva</i>. The plaintiffs are the joint liquidators of the Small and Medium Enterprises bank. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[3]        Plaintiffs’ case in summary is as follows: certain <i>dramatis personae</i> holding positions in the SME bank as Deputy Chairman of the Board, CEO and Director, Assistant Accountant, Administrative Assistant and Assistant Finance Manager in conjunction with third parties such as the defendant, stole the money from SME bank.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[4]        On 14 September 2015 payment in the sum of N$4 200 000 was approved by the CEO after going through the various departments where it was signed off by the other <i>dramatis persona</i>. This amount was transferred to the bank account of AMFS. On 16 September 2015 AMFS paid the amount of N$3 900 000 into the trust account of Koep &amp; Partners, referenced “Quatro Investments Thirty Two CC”. This was to fund the purchase of the aforesaid Close Corporation by the defendant. AMFS retained N$300 000 as commission. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[5]        The plaintiff avers that the Authoriser within the treasury department of the SME bank made the payment in the <i>bona fide</i> and reasonable but mistaken belief that the amount was due, owing and payable by the SME bank to AMFS. AMFS and</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Koep &amp; Partners were agents with the defendant as the final recipient of the money. The payment was however not due and payable to the defendant who nevertheless</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">appropriated the monies. The plaintiff claims that the defendant was unjustly enriched  whilst the SME bank was unjustly impoverished. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[6]        The defendant in his affidavit resisting the application for summary judgment, states that he is the owner of two close corporations which mainly do business in transport. During 2013 he obtained fleet vehicle finance from Bank Windhoek in order to start a business transporting passengers and goods to Zimbabwe. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[7]        He entered into verbal agreements with some Zimbabwean Nationals and some individuals listed <i>as dramatis personae</i> in plaintiff’s particulars of claim. He leased his vehicles, bought goods for resale in Zimbabwe and in this way made profits to the tune of N$20 million which were deposited into both his individual and business accounts over the years. He admitted that he received payments from some individuals referred to as <i>dramatis personae</i> but stated that these payments were not made by mistake but it was in fact due and payable to him. He refers to three payments totaling N$ 394 797.90 received during 2013 which he received from Zimbabwean Nationals and some individuals referred to as <i>dramatis personae</i>. He also confirmed that he received payments of close to N$500 000 from one individual referred to as a <i>dramatis personae</i> which was in fact payment for money owed to him for having leased his fleet of busses and the investment he made in the resale of goods. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[8]        The following is the explanation by the defendant for the payment he received in the sum of N$3 900 000:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">“The payment made of N$3 900 000 to Koep &amp; Partners referenced as Quatro Investment Thirty Two CC, facilitated by AMFS.(sic)That payment was done in normal course of business by Zimbabwean nationals and <i>dramatis personae</i>, based on business relationship that commenced in 2013.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">The Small Medium Enterprises Bank liquidators are inquisitive of one particular transaction of N$3 900 000. At the commission of enquiry into Small Medium Enterprises Bank affairs I explain my position in chronological order to liquidator’s legal advisors. (sic) At the commission of enquiry into Small Medium Enterprises</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Bank affairs liquidator’s legal advisors advised me to tell the enquiry that I was consultant for Small Medium Enterprises Bank.(sic) legal advisors. (sic) At the commission of enquiry into Small Medium Enterprises Bank affairs liquidator’s legal advisors advised me to tell the enquiry that I was consultant for Small Medium Enterprises Bank.(sic)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[9]        Mr Heathcote, counsel for the plaintiff, submits, that the last beneficial recipient (without giving value) of the SME bank’s stolen money is the defendant, that it is not necessarily the person into whose hands the money was actually put but the one who, in all circumstances of the case truly to have received the payment.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> In this case, although the money was “funneled” through AMFS, it was for the benefit of the defendant, without himself giving value. Under these circumstances the <i>condictio indebiti</i> lies. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[10]       He submitted that in the alternative, the claim for <i>condictio furtiva</i> should also succeed in that the defendant received the benefit of the stolen money in a <i>mala fide</i> manner. It is not a defense that the defendant did not know that the money was stolen as long as he has the requisite dolus eventualis.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[11]       He further argued that the defendant does not deny that he received the money and even if he acted <i>bona fide</i> in receiving the money, the <i>condictio indebiti</i> lies and if he acted <i>mala fide</i> and with <i>dolus eventualis</i>, the condictio indebiti still applies as it is not a requirement of the <i>condictio indebiti</i> that the recipient must be <i>bona fide</i>. It is the person who represents the plaintiff in transferring the money who must be <i>bona fide</i>. He submitted that this aspect is not disputed by the defendant and that proof of the transfer of money gives rise to a presumption of enrichment. He argued that the defendant has the onus to prove loss of enrichment which the defendant failed to do. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[12]       The defendant appeared in person after his legal practitioner withdrew. He in essence submitted to the court that he has not been enriched as this payment was paid to him by Zimbabwean Nationals and the <i>dramatis personae</i> based on the </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">business he had established since 2013. He submitted that that he did not keep a written record as the transport business is very informal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[13]       Rule 60(5) provides that on the hearing of an application for summary judgment the defendant may satisfy the court on affidavit that he has a <i>bona fide</i> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">defense to the action and the affidavit must disclose fully the nature and grounds of the defense and the material facts relied on. The relief sought by the plaintiffs, is a drastic one and the defendant is called upon to comply with the provisions of the rule.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[14]       In <i>Maharaj v Barclays National Bank Ltd 1976 (1) SA 418 (A) at 426B – D</i>, Corbett JA stated the following:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">'All that the Court enquires into is: (a) whether the defendant has fully disclosed the nature and grounds of his defence and the material facts upon which it is founded, and (b) whether on the facts so disclosed the defendant appears to have, as to either the whole or part of the claim, a defence which is both <i>bona fide</i> and good in law. If satisfied on these matters the court must refuse summary judgment, either wholly or in part, as the case may be. The word fully, as used in the context of the Rule (and its predecessors), has been the cause of some judicial controversy in the past. It connotes, in my view, that, while the defendant need not deal exhaustively with the facts and the evidence relied upon to substantiate them, he must at least disclose his defence and the material facts upon which it is based with sufficient particularity and completeness to enable the Court to decide whether the affidavit discloses a bona fide defence.'<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[15]       The first enquiry is therefore whether or not the defendant has fully disclosed the nature and grounds of his defence and the material facts upon which it is founded. If the defendant’s case is that he received the amount from Zimbabwean</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">nationals and <i>dramatis persona</i> in the normal course of business, then, he disputes that he is the true recipient of the money. In <i>Phillips v Hughes;</i> <i>Hughes v Maphumalo,supra</i> Didcott J stated the following: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">‘<u>The <i>condictio indebiti</i> does not entitle the <i>solvens</i> to pursue what was mistakenly paid, wherever it goes.</u> The recovery of the undue payment from its recipiens is the action's sole objective. Wessels explained this in his Law of Contract in South Africa 2nd ed. He wrote (vol 2 paras  ‘a thing is due when it is not; and if through his act in delivering the thing to the recipiens a third party acquires rights in that thing, the solvens has only himself to blame. Hence in strict law, as the recipiens becomes the owner in so far that he can give title by transfer or delivery, <u>the solvens cannot vindicate the thing in the hands of a third party</u>. The right to bring the <i>condictio </i>does not attach to the thing, nor does there exist any privity between the solvens and the third party."</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">This means that the condictio indebiti is enforceable against the recipiens of the undue payment, but nobody else. The recipiens is not necessarily the person into whose hands the money was actually put when it was paid. He is the one who must be considered, in all the circumstances of the case, truly to have received the payment. Whenever a payment is made to an agent with authority to accept it, for instance, the recipiens is the principal, not the agent. A conduit through whom payment passes is likewise not its recipiens. Instead he who obtains payment by such means is. <u>One is not the recipiens of a payment, on the other hand, merely because it was intended or happens in the result to benefit one</u>. That, on its own, does not count. All that matters is whether one can appropriately be said to have received the payment in some or other way. Unless one has done so, one is beyond the range of the <i>condictio indebiti</i>, for all the payment's auxiliary advantages to one.’[my emphasis]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[16]       It is the plaintiff’s case that the defendant is the true recipient of the payment albeit funneled through other accounts. It is not disputed that the defendant received the money and that it was paid in error. The defendant admitted that he had no</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">business dealings with the SME bank save for having a bank account with it. He therefore gave no value to the SME bank and no payment was due to him by the SME bank.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[17]          The defendant’s claim is that he received the money from the <i>dramatis personae</i> and other Zimbabwean National is not rule compliant. The material facts which support this defense are absent. There is no indication who the Zimbabwe Nationals or the <i>dramatis personae</i> are. Throughout his affidavit the identity of the</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Zimbabwean Nationals and the <i>dramatis persona</i> is not disclosed. Furthermore there are no details of the agreements verbal or otherwise which gave rise to the payment which was made. The explanation that the payment was based on a business relationship that commenced in 2013 is almost deliberately vague. The claim is for a specific amount paid in a lump sum. The defendant does not disclose how various persons with whom he did business came to make a single payment extinguishing a debt which existed. A general reference to “business” is made with no particulars of the transaction(s) which justifies payment in the sum of N$3 900 000. The bank account statements attached to the defendant’s affidavit are equally unhelpful as no reference is made to the particular entries which supports the existence of debt between the defendant and the other unidentified parties warranting payment of N$3 900 000. The defendant stated that he gave a chronological account to the Commission of Enquiry but completely failed to do the same in this court. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[18]       The defendant was, under the circumstances, required to set out the material facts upon which his defense is based with sufficient particularity and completeness to enable this court to decide whether he has a <i>bona fide</i> defense. This he failed to do. The vagueness of the nature of his defense and of the material facts which supports the defense led to this court’s conclusion that the defendant does not have a defense which is <i>bona fide</i> and good in law. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[19]       It is for these reasons that the court granted the plaintiffs Summary Judgment in the terms set out in the order above.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Judge’s signature  </span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-bottom:16px"> </p> <p align="center" style="margin-bottom:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">TOMMASI, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Not applicable</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Counsel:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Applicant</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Respondent</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:60px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Francois Erasmus</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Of</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Francois Erasmus and Partners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:60px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Felicitas Gaes</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Of </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Uanivi Gaes Inc.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> Phillips v Hughes; Hughes v Maphumalo 1979 (1) SA 225 (N)</span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> SOMAEB v STANDARD BANK NAMIBIA LTD 2017 (1) NR 248 (SC) where this matter is discussed;</span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-e25f5238bc6770490a2e5e719871ad1b3144eb736ef6089ef682119ee3589ad6"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Practice Directive 61</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <table class="Table" style="border-collapse:collapse"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Case Title:</span></span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333"> DAVID JOHN BRUNI &amp; ANOTHER vs MARVIN NGUTJIWA HENGARI</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Case No:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2020/02194-</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Division of Court:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">HIGH COURT(MAIN DIVISION)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Heard before:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">TOMMASI, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">28 January 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Date of order: </span></span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">28 January 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Reasons: </span></span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">23 February 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Neutral citation: </span></span></span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"> Bruni v Hengari  </span></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH– 2020/02194) [2021] NAHCMD 83 (23 February 2021)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Results on merits: </span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">The order:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:19px; margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:2px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Having heard <b>ADV HEATHCOTE </b>on behalf of the Plaintiff(s) and <b>MARVIN NGUTJIWA HENGARI</b> the Defendant in person and having read the Application for HC-MD-CIV-ACT- OTH– 2020-02194 and other documents filed of record:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:19px; margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:2px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">IT IS HEREBY ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></span></b> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:19px; margin-bottom:19px; margin-left:2px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">THE COURT GRANTS SUMMARY JUDGEMENT IN FAVOUR OF THE PLAINTIFS AGAINST THE DEFENDANT IN THE FOLLOWING TERMS</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-left:9px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="vertical-align:baseline"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Payment in the amount of N$3 900 000.00; </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="vertical-align:baseline"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Interest on the amount of N$3 900 000.00 at the rate of 20% per annum from 17 September 2015 to date of payment; </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="vertical-align:baseline"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Costs of suit. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-left:9px; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="vertical-align:baseline"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Matter is removed from the roll: Case Finalised.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol></td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[1]        The court granted Summary Judgment in favour of the Plaintiffs against the defendant. What follows are the reasons for this order. I shall refer to the parties as they appear in the main action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[2]        The plaintiffs applied for Summary Judgment in respect of their action based on the claims of <i>condictio indebiti</i>, alternatively the <i>condictio ob turpem vel injustam cusam</i>, alternatively <i>condictio furtiva</i>. The plaintiffs are the joint liquidators of the Small and Medium Enterprises bank. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[3]        Plaintiffs’ case in summary is as follows: certain <i>dramatis personae</i> holding positions in the SME bank as Deputy Chairman of the Board, CEO and Director, Assistant Accountant, Administrative Assistant and Assistant Finance Manager in conjunction with third parties such as the defendant, stole the money from SME bank.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[4]        On 14 September 2015 payment in the sum of N$4 200 000 was approved by the CEO after going through the various departments where it was signed off by the other <i>dramatis persona</i>. This amount was transferred to the bank account of AMFS. On 16 September 2015 AMFS paid the amount of N$3 900 000 into the trust account of Koep &amp; Partners, referenced “Quatro Investments Thirty Two CC”. This was to fund the purchase of the aforesaid Close Corporation by the defendant. AMFS retained N$300 000 as commission. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[5]        The plaintiff avers that the Authoriser within the treasury department of the SME bank made the payment in the <i>bona fide</i> and reasonable but mistaken belief that the amount was due, owing and payable by the SME bank to AMFS. AMFS and</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Koep &amp; Partners were agents with the defendant as the final recipient of the money. The payment was however not due and payable to the defendant who nevertheless</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">appropriated the monies. The plaintiff claims that the defendant was unjustly enriched  whilst the SME bank was unjustly impoverished. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[6]        The defendant in his affidavit resisting the application for summary judgment, states that he is the owner of two close corporations which mainly do business in transport. During 2013 he obtained fleet vehicle finance from Bank Windhoek in order to start a business transporting passengers and goods to Zimbabwe. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[7]        He entered into verbal agreements with some Zimbabwean Nationals and some individuals listed <i>as dramatis personae</i> in plaintiff’s particulars of claim. He leased his vehicles, bought goods for resale in Zimbabwe and in this way made profits to the tune of N$20 million which were deposited into both his individual and business accounts over the years. He admitted that he received payments from some individuals referred to as <i>dramatis personae</i> but stated that these payments were not made by mistake but it was in fact due and payable to him. He refers to three payments totaling N$ 394 797.90 received during 2013 which he received from Zimbabwean Nationals and some individuals referred to as <i>dramatis personae</i>. He also confirmed that he received payments of close to N$500 000 from one individual referred to as a <i>dramatis personae</i> which was in fact payment for money owed to him for having leased his fleet of busses and the investment he made in the resale of goods. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[8]        The following is the explanation by the defendant for the payment he received in the sum of N$3 900 000:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">“The payment made of N$3 900 000 to Koep &amp; Partners referenced as Quatro Investment Thirty Two CC, facilitated by AMFS.(sic)That payment was done in normal course of business by Zimbabwean nationals and <i>dramatis personae</i>, based on business relationship that commenced in 2013.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">The Small Medium Enterprises Bank liquidators are inquisitive of one particular transaction of N$3 900 000. At the commission of enquiry into Small Medium Enterprises Bank affairs I explain my position in chronological order to liquidator’s legal advisors. (sic) At the commission of enquiry into Small Medium Enterprises</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Bank affairs liquidator’s legal advisors advised me to tell the enquiry that I was consultant for Small Medium Enterprises Bank.(sic) legal advisors. (sic) At the commission of enquiry into Small Medium Enterprises Bank affairs liquidator’s legal advisors advised me to tell the enquiry that I was consultant for Small Medium Enterprises Bank.(sic)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[9]        Mr Heathcote, counsel for the plaintiff, submits, that the last beneficial recipient (without giving value) of the SME bank’s stolen money is the defendant, that it is not necessarily the person into whose hands the money was actually put but the one who, in all circumstances of the case truly to have received the payment.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> In this case, although the money was “funneled” through AMFS, it was for the benefit of the defendant, without himself giving value. Under these circumstances the <i>condictio indebiti</i> lies. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[10]       He submitted that in the alternative, the claim for <i>condictio furtiva</i> should also succeed in that the defendant received the benefit of the stolen money in a <i>mala fide</i> manner. It is not a defense that the defendant did not know that the money was stolen as long as he has the requisite dolus eventualis.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[11]       He further argued that the defendant does not deny that he received the money and even if he acted <i>bona fide</i> in receiving the money, the <i>condictio indebiti</i> lies and if he acted <i>mala fide</i> and with <i>dolus eventualis</i>, the condictio indebiti still applies as it is not a requirement of the <i>condictio indebiti</i> that the recipient must be <i>bona fide</i>. It is the person who represents the plaintiff in transferring the money who must be <i>bona fide</i>. He submitted that this aspect is not disputed by the defendant and that proof of the transfer of money gives rise to a presumption of enrichment. He argued that the defendant has the onus to prove loss of enrichment which the defendant failed to do. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[12]       The defendant appeared in person after his legal practitioner withdrew. He in essence submitted to the court that he has not been enriched as this payment was paid to him by Zimbabwean Nationals and the <i>dramatis personae</i> based on the </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">business he had established since 2013. He submitted that that he did not keep a written record as the transport business is very informal. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[13]       Rule 60(5) provides that on the hearing of an application for summary judgment the defendant may satisfy the court on affidavit that he has a <i>bona fide</i> </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">defense to the action and the affidavit must disclose fully the nature and grounds of the defense and the material facts relied on. The relief sought by the plaintiffs, is a drastic one and the defendant is called upon to comply with the provisions of the rule.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[14]       In <i>Maharaj v Barclays National Bank Ltd 1976 (1) SA 418 (A) at 426B – D</i>, Corbett JA stated the following:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">'All that the Court enquires into is: (a) whether the defendant has fully disclosed the nature and grounds of his defence and the material facts upon which it is founded, and (b) whether on the facts so disclosed the defendant appears to have, as to either the whole or part of the claim, a defence which is both <i>bona fide</i> and good in law. If satisfied on these matters the court must refuse summary judgment, either wholly or in part, as the case may be. The word fully, as used in the context of the Rule (and its predecessors), has been the cause of some judicial controversy in the past. It connotes, in my view, that, while the defendant need not deal exhaustively with the facts and the evidence relied upon to substantiate them, he must at least disclose his defence and the material facts upon which it is based with sufficient particularity and completeness to enable the Court to decide whether the affidavit discloses a bona fide defence.'<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[15]       The first enquiry is therefore whether or not the defendant has fully disclosed the nature and grounds of his defence and the material facts upon which it is founded. If the defendant’s case is that he received the amount from Zimbabwean</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">nationals and <i>dramatis persona</i> in the normal course of business, then, he disputes that he is the true recipient of the money. In <i>Phillips v Hughes;</i> <i>Hughes v Maphumalo,supra</i> Didcott J stated the following: </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">‘<u>The <i>condictio indebiti</i> does not entitle the <i>solvens</i> to pursue what was mistakenly paid, wherever it goes.</u> The recovery of the undue payment from its recipiens is the action's sole objective. Wessels explained this in his Law of Contract in South Africa 2nd ed. He wrote (vol 2 paras  ‘a thing is due when it is not; and if through his act in delivering the thing to the recipiens a third party acquires rights in that thing, the solvens has only himself to blame. Hence in strict law, as the recipiens becomes the owner in so far that he can give title by transfer or delivery, <u>the solvens cannot vindicate the thing in the hands of a third party</u>. The right to bring the <i>condictio </i>does not attach to the thing, nor does there exist any privity between the solvens and the third party."</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">This means that the condictio indebiti is enforceable against the recipiens of the undue payment, but nobody else. The recipiens is not necessarily the person into whose hands the money was actually put when it was paid. He is the one who must be considered, in all the circumstances of the case, truly to have received the payment. Whenever a payment is made to an agent with authority to accept it, for instance, the recipiens is the principal, not the agent. A conduit through whom payment passes is likewise not its recipiens. Instead he who obtains payment by such means is. <u>One is not the recipiens of a payment, on the other hand, merely because it was intended or happens in the result to benefit one</u>. That, on its own, does not count. All that matters is whether one can appropriately be said to have received the payment in some or other way. Unless one has done so, one is beyond the range of the <i>condictio indebiti</i>, for all the payment's auxiliary advantages to one.’[my emphasis]</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[16]       It is the plaintiff’s case that the defendant is the true recipient of the payment albeit funneled through other accounts. It is not disputed that the defendant received the money and that it was paid in error. The defendant admitted that he had no</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">business dealings with the SME bank save for having a bank account with it. He therefore gave no value to the SME bank and no payment was due to him by the SME bank.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[17]          The defendant’s claim is that he received the money from the <i>dramatis personae</i> and other Zimbabwean National is not rule compliant. The material facts which support this defense are absent. There is no indication who the Zimbabwe Nationals or the <i>dramatis personae</i> are. Throughout his affidavit the identity of the</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Zimbabwean Nationals and the <i>dramatis persona</i> is not disclosed. Furthermore there are no details of the agreements verbal or otherwise which gave rise to the payment which was made. The explanation that the payment was based on a business relationship that commenced in 2013 is almost deliberately vague. The claim is for a specific amount paid in a lump sum. The defendant does not disclose how various persons with whom he did business came to make a single payment extinguishing a debt which existed. A general reference to “business” is made with no particulars of the transaction(s) which justifies payment in the sum of N$3 900 000. The bank account statements attached to the defendant’s affidavit are equally unhelpful as no reference is made to the particular entries which supports the existence of debt between the defendant and the other unidentified parties warranting payment of N$3 900 000. The defendant stated that he gave a chronological account to the Commission of Enquiry but completely failed to do the same in this court. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[18]       The defendant was, under the circumstances, required to set out the material facts upon which his defense is based with sufficient particularity and completeness to enable this court to decide whether he has a <i>bona fide</i> defense. This he failed to do. The vagueness of the nature of his defense and of the material facts which supports the defense led to this court’s conclusion that the defendant does not have a defense which is <i>bona fide</i> and good in law. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">[19]       It is for these reasons that the court granted the plaintiffs Summary Judgment in the terms set out in the order above.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Judge’s signature  </span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-bottom:16px"> </p> <p align="center" style="margin-bottom:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">TOMMASI, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Not applicable</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Counsel:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Applicant</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Respondent</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:376px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:60px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Francois Erasmus</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Of</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Francois Erasmus and Partners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:331px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:60px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Felicitas Gaes</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Of </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Uanivi Gaes Inc.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> Phillips v Hughes; Hughes v Maphumalo 1979 (1) SA 225 (N)</span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> SOMAEB v STANDARD BANK NAMIBIA LTD 2017 (1) NR 248 (SC) where this matter is discussed;</span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Mon, 19 Jul 2021 13:49:39 +0000 Mariana 25453 at http://namiblii.org Kamwi v Law Society of Namibia (4) (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL- 1337 of 2019) [2021] NAHC 196 (30 April 2021); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2021/196 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Kamwi v Law Society of Namibia (4) (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL- 1337 of 2019) [2021] NAHC 196 (30 April 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 17:29</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2021/196/2021-nahc-196.doc" type="application/msword; length=72192">2021-nahc-196.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">“ANNEXURE 11”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title: </span></b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Alex Mabuku Kamwi Kamwi vs Law Society of Namibia and 1 Another</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"> </p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></b> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01337</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">High Court, Main Division</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Justice Herman Oosthuizen</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">23 February 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">30 April 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:  </span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Kamwi v Law Society of Namibia</span></span></i><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01337) [2021] NAHCMD 196 (30 April 2021).</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Result on merits:      </span></b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff Unsuccessful.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                    Defendants successful.</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having heard <b>Mr Kamwi</b>, plaintiff (in person) and <b>Mr Van Greunen</b>, counsel for the defendants - </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        Plaintiff's Rule 18(4) application for setting aside and variation of order 3 of Judge Tomassi's court order of 19 October 2020, is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        Plaintiff's application to court to decide and dispose summarily the allegations of fact not denied or objected to in his amended particulars of claim filed on 2 November 2020, is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        Plaintiff's amended particulars of claim purporting to be in compliance with order 2 of Judge Tomassi's court order of 19 October 2020 together with the variations thereto, filed on<br /> 2 November 2020, is struck on the basis that plaintiff was under automatic bar in terms of Rule 54(3) of the Rules of Court for the filing thereof.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        In the result there is no current particulars of claim founding the action of the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        Plaintiff is refused any opportunity to support his purported claim any further.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        Plaintiff is ordered to pay the costs of the defendants, uncapped, which shall include the costs of one instructing and one instructed counsel on a party and party scale.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        Plaintiff shall not institute any claim against any or both the defendants unless the costs order (order 3 of 19 October 2020) and this costs order are paid fully.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        The case is finalised and removed from the roll.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        On 19 October 2020 the Honourable Justice Tomassi, J ordered that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‛1.        The amended particulars of claim dated 12 June 2020 is hereby set aside;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         The plaintiff must comply with the court order of 09 June 2020 by filing the amended particulars of claim filed on 20 June 2019 together with annexure MCW5 attached to the amended particulars of claim dated 12 June 2020 on or before 30 October 2020;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         The plaintiff must pay the defendants' cost of one instructing and one instructed counsel limited in terms of the provisions of Rule 32(11).’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        The amended particulars of claim dated 12 June 2020 was set aside as irregular proceedings in terms of Rule 61 of the Rules.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        The court order of 9 June 2020 was that the amended particulars of claim filed on<br /> 20 June 2019 together with annexure MCW5 attached to the irregularly filed amended particulars of claim filed on 12 June 2020 should be filed on or before 30 October 2020 despite the strong case which defendants made in their security of costs application against plaintiff for the hearing of their intended exceptions against the amended particulars of claim filed on 20 June 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        Justice Tomassi dismissed on 31 October 2019 the first defendant's application for security of costs in terms of Rule 59.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        On 24 January 2020 Justice Tomassi delivered her reasons for the dismissal of the security of costs application.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a>  I agree with paragraphs [4], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11] of the reasoning.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        In paragraph [11] of her reasons on 24 January 2020 Justice Tomassi recorded as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:29.4pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‛I dismissed the application of the defendants and the rationale for doing so was to afford the plaintiff the opportunity to oppose the exception and to fast track the matter without causing further delays in hearing the exception.  However, having considered the matter carefully, it became apparent that I ought to have ordered the plaintiff to pay security for costs in order to limit the abuse of the court process and to avoid the defendants being dragged down a cul-de-sac.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        I revert to the court order of 19 October 2020 as in paragraph [1] above.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        Plaintiff, instead of filing the amended particulars of claim first filed on 20 June 2019, filed different amended particulars of claim on 22 October 2020 and did so cognitively aware of the fact that he brought about further changes and amendments to the amended particulars of claim dated 19 June 2019 and filed on 20 June 2019.  What is more serious is that he must have realised that he acted in flagrant disregard of the court order of 19 October 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        Protestations by the defendants followed and plaintiff then filed another set of amended particulars of claim dated 19 June 2019 on 2 November 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      Subsequently Mr Kamwi requested the court and the defendants to disregard the amended particulars of claim and application in terms of Rule 18(4) filed on 22 October 2020 and to consider only the amended particulars of claim filed on 2 November 2020, as well as his new application in terms of Rule 18(4) and his Notice of Motion to grant relief consequent thereto that the defendants did not deny allegations in terms of Rule 46(3) of the Rules.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      The amended particulars of claim filed on 2 November 2020 also contained changes, deletions and insertions without following mandatory proceedings prescribed in Rule 52 of the Rules of Court.  Only one person could brought about these changes and did so cognitively:  Mr Kamwi.  Every time he purportedly filed the amended particulars of claim dated 19 June 2019, he did so knowingly that it may prejudice the defendants and cause them harm later in the case if he does not apprise them of the changes and defendants do not realise that he brought about changes, deletions and insertions.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      The application in terms of Rule 18(4) for revoking and varying the costs order, has to be read with the other orders, orders 1 and 2 on 19 October 2020 and has to be considered within the context of the issues which Justice Tomassi had to decide.  An application for leave to appeal, in the circumstances, would have been appropriate in view of the grounds set out in the plaintiff's accompanying affidavit.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      Plaintiff's reliance on Rule 46(3) in applying to court to decide and dispose summarily the allegations of fact in the amended particulars of claim dated 19 June 2019 filed on<br /> 2 November 2020 and not objected to by the defendants on 27 June 2019, is erroneous.  Rule 46(3) clearly applies to pleadings.  Rule 46(3) provides:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:29.4pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‛Every allegation of fact in the particulars of claim which is not stated in the plea as denied or admitted is regarded as having been admitted and, if an explanation or qualification of an admission or denial is necessary, it must be stated in the plea.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      It is common cause and common sense that Rule 46 deals with pleadings and not with objections and notices.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]      In any event, the court has no particulars of claim or amended particulars of claim in front of it to take judicial notice of.  Plaintiff, in terms of Rule 54(3), was automatically barred by his default to file on or before 30 October 2020.  Plaintiff's explanation that he resides at Mafuta Compound, Zambezi and only arrived in Windhoek on Friday 30 November 2020 at 19h00 and was thus not able to file the amended particulars of claim as ordered in time, is devoid of logical substance (and in any event is not contained in an affidavit supporting a condonation application) against the background that he filed an irregular amended particulars of claim already on 22 October 2020, which he abandoned after protestations by defendants.  Plaintiff had ample time to comply with the court order of 19 October 2020.  Condonation for the late filing is therefore refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]      None of the parties before me applied for a rescission or variations of order 1 of the Court order of 9 December 2020 in terms of Rule 103.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]      In view of paragraph [5], [6] and [11] to [16] of this Reasons and applying Rule 53 of the Rules of Court on a purported action which is a <i>brutum fulmen,</i> the orders on the first and second pages hereof are made.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff(s)</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendant (s)</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Alex Mabuku Kamwi Kamwi</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(in person)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Willem van Greunen</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Köpplinger Boltman Legal Practitioner</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">   See:  <i>Kamwi v Law Society of Namibia</i> (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01337) [2020] NAHCMD 23<br /> (24 January 2020).</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">   See also:  <i>Alex Kamwi Kamwi v S</i> (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2017/01050) [2017] NAHCMD 339<br /> (28 November 2017).  I concur with paragraphs [43], [44] to [52].</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-1d69e9f08a25c9ee09e9a2e7e73117058d163b872080721fcd2e0dc4ad5072ab"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">“ANNEXURE 11”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title: </span></b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Alex Mabuku Kamwi Kamwi vs Law Society of Namibia and 1 Another</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"> </p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></b> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01337</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">High Court, Main Division</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Justice Herman Oosthuizen</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">23 February 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">30 April 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:  </span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Kamwi v Law Society of Namibia</span></span></i><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01337) [2021] NAHCMD 196 (30 April 2021).</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Result on merits:      </span></b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff Unsuccessful.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                    Defendants successful.</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having heard <b>Mr Kamwi</b>, plaintiff (in person) and <b>Mr Van Greunen</b>, counsel for the defendants - </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        Plaintiff's Rule 18(4) application for setting aside and variation of order 3 of Judge Tomassi's court order of 19 October 2020, is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        Plaintiff's application to court to decide and dispose summarily the allegations of fact not denied or objected to in his amended particulars of claim filed on 2 November 2020, is dismissed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        Plaintiff's amended particulars of claim purporting to be in compliance with order 2 of Judge Tomassi's court order of 19 October 2020 together with the variations thereto, filed on<br /> 2 November 2020, is struck on the basis that plaintiff was under automatic bar in terms of Rule 54(3) of the Rules of Court for the filing thereof.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        In the result there is no current particulars of claim founding the action of the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        Plaintiff is refused any opportunity to support his purported claim any further.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        Plaintiff is ordered to pay the costs of the defendants, uncapped, which shall include the costs of one instructing and one instructed counsel on a party and party scale.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        Plaintiff shall not institute any claim against any or both the defendants unless the costs order (order 3 of 19 October 2020) and this costs order are paid fully.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        The case is finalised and removed from the roll.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        On 19 October 2020 the Honourable Justice Tomassi, J ordered that:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‛1.        The amended particulars of claim dated 12 June 2020 is hereby set aside;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         The plaintiff must comply with the court order of 09 June 2020 by filing the amended particulars of claim filed on 20 June 2019 together with annexure MCW5 attached to the amended particulars of claim dated 12 June 2020 on or before 30 October 2020;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         The plaintiff must pay the defendants' cost of one instructing and one instructed counsel limited in terms of the provisions of Rule 32(11).’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        The amended particulars of claim dated 12 June 2020 was set aside as irregular proceedings in terms of Rule 61 of the Rules.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        The court order of 9 June 2020 was that the amended particulars of claim filed on<br /> 20 June 2019 together with annexure MCW5 attached to the irregularly filed amended particulars of claim filed on 12 June 2020 should be filed on or before 30 October 2020 despite the strong case which defendants made in their security of costs application against plaintiff for the hearing of their intended exceptions against the amended particulars of claim filed on 20 June 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        Justice Tomassi dismissed on 31 October 2019 the first defendant's application for security of costs in terms of Rule 59.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        On 24 January 2020 Justice Tomassi delivered her reasons for the dismissal of the security of costs application.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a>  I agree with paragraphs [4], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11] of the reasoning.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        In paragraph [11] of her reasons on 24 January 2020 Justice Tomassi recorded as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:29.4pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‛I dismissed the application of the defendants and the rationale for doing so was to afford the plaintiff the opportunity to oppose the exception and to fast track the matter without causing further delays in hearing the exception.  However, having considered the matter carefully, it became apparent that I ought to have ordered the plaintiff to pay security for costs in order to limit the abuse of the court process and to avoid the defendants being dragged down a cul-de-sac.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        I revert to the court order of 19 October 2020 as in paragraph [1] above.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        Plaintiff, instead of filing the amended particulars of claim first filed on 20 June 2019, filed different amended particulars of claim on 22 October 2020 and did so cognitively aware of the fact that he brought about further changes and amendments to the amended particulars of claim dated 19 June 2019 and filed on 20 June 2019.  What is more serious is that he must have realised that he acted in flagrant disregard of the court order of 19 October 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        Protestations by the defendants followed and plaintiff then filed another set of amended particulars of claim dated 19 June 2019 on 2 November 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      Subsequently Mr Kamwi requested the court and the defendants to disregard the amended particulars of claim and application in terms of Rule 18(4) filed on 22 October 2020 and to consider only the amended particulars of claim filed on 2 November 2020, as well as his new application in terms of Rule 18(4) and his Notice of Motion to grant relief consequent thereto that the defendants did not deny allegations in terms of Rule 46(3) of the Rules.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      The amended particulars of claim filed on 2 November 2020 also contained changes, deletions and insertions without following mandatory proceedings prescribed in Rule 52 of the Rules of Court.  Only one person could brought about these changes and did so cognitively:  Mr Kamwi.  Every time he purportedly filed the amended particulars of claim dated 19 June 2019, he did so knowingly that it may prejudice the defendants and cause them harm later in the case if he does not apprise them of the changes and defendants do not realise that he brought about changes, deletions and insertions.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      The application in terms of Rule 18(4) for revoking and varying the costs order, has to be read with the other orders, orders 1 and 2 on 19 October 2020 and has to be considered within the context of the issues which Justice Tomassi had to decide.  An application for leave to appeal, in the circumstances, would have been appropriate in view of the grounds set out in the plaintiff's accompanying affidavit.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      Plaintiff's reliance on Rule 46(3) in applying to court to decide and dispose summarily the allegations of fact in the amended particulars of claim dated 19 June 2019 filed on<br /> 2 November 2020 and not objected to by the defendants on 27 June 2019, is erroneous.  Rule 46(3) clearly applies to pleadings.  Rule 46(3) provides:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:29.4pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‛Every allegation of fact in the particulars of claim which is not stated in the plea as denied or admitted is regarded as having been admitted and, if an explanation or qualification of an admission or denial is necessary, it must be stated in the plea.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      It is common cause and common sense that Rule 46 deals with pleadings and not with objections and notices.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]      In any event, the court has no particulars of claim or amended particulars of claim in front of it to take judicial notice of.  Plaintiff, in terms of Rule 54(3), was automatically barred by his default to file on or before 30 October 2020.  Plaintiff's explanation that he resides at Mafuta Compound, Zambezi and only arrived in Windhoek on Friday 30 November 2020 at 19h00 and was thus not able to file the amended particulars of claim as ordered in time, is devoid of logical substance (and in any event is not contained in an affidavit supporting a condonation application) against the background that he filed an irregular amended particulars of claim already on 22 October 2020, which he abandoned after protestations by defendants.  Plaintiff had ample time to comply with the court order of 19 October 2020.  Condonation for the late filing is therefore refused.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]      None of the parties before me applied for a rescission or variations of order 1 of the Court order of 9 December 2020 in terms of Rule 103.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]      In view of paragraph [5], [6] and [11] to [16] of this Reasons and applying Rule 53 of the Rules of Court on a purported action which is a <i>brutum fulmen,</i> the orders on the first and second pages hereof are made.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff(s)</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendant (s)</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Alex Mabuku Kamwi Kamwi</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(in person)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Willem van Greunen</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Köpplinger Boltman Legal Practitioner</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">   See:  <i>Kamwi v Law Society of Namibia</i> (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01337) [2020] NAHCMD 23<br /> (24 January 2020).</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">   See also:  <i>Alex Kamwi Kamwi v S</i> (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2017/01050) [2017] NAHCMD 339<br /> (28 November 2017).  I concur with paragraphs [43], [44] to [52].</span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 17:29:53 +0000 Mariana 25420 at http://namiblii.org Hunibed v Prosecutor General (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL- 1549 of 2019) [2021] NAHC 165 (08 April 2021); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2021/165 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Hunibed v Prosecutor General (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL- 1549 of 2019) [2021] NAHC 165 (08 April 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 17:25</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2021/165/2021-nahc-165.doc" type="application/msword; length=65536">2021-nahc-165.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">“ANNEXURE 11”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:  </span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">JONATHAN HUNIBEB vs PROSECUTOR GENERAL: MARTHA IMALWA AND 2 OTHERS</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01549</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">High Court, Main Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Justice Herman Oosthuizen</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">22 February 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">08 April 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="tab-stops:388.2pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:  </span></b><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hunibed v Prosecutor General </span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01549) [2021] NAHCMD 165 (8 April 2021)<b>.</b></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Result on merits:</span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">  Defendants successful with exception.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having heard <b>MR HUNIBEB</b> (in person) and <b>MS J. GAWISES</b>, on behalf of the Defendant(s) and having read the papers filed of record for HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01549:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         Plaintiff's action against the first defendant (Prosecutor General), has prescribed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         Plaintiff's action against second and third defendants, has prescribed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         Reasons shall be supplied during the week 12 to 16 April 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4.         In the premises the exceptions concerning prescription succeeded. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5.         The matter is removed from the roll: Case Finalized.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         Plaintiff is a sentenced offender serving time under the care of Correctional Services.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         First defendant is the Prosecutor General of Namibia.  Second defendant is the Minister of Safety and Security and third defendant is the Head of the Prison, Hardap, Mariental.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         Plaintiff instituted action against the defendants for malicious assault and prosecution which was wrong according to plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4.         Plaintiff first pursue his claims under case number HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2018/01471, which he withdrew on 19 March 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5.         He then re-instituted the present action on 8 April 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6.         Plaintiff changed the year 2014 to 2017 in his present particulars of claim.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.         Plaintiff however persisted with his allegations that subsequent to the incident that happened during ‟2017” in the Hardap Correctional Facility he took certain actions resulting in actions by officials in the Correctional Facility which in turn culminated in him reacting in a destructive way.  As a result he pleaded that he was charged with (1) malicious damage to property (and) (2) escaping from lawful custody on 14 September 2014.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8.         Plaintiff then pleaded that he was found guilty on malicious damage to property and not guilty on the escape charge on 16 April 2015.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9.         Annexure ‟K” to plaintiff's particulars of claim revealed that he was found not guilty and acquitted on Count 1, common law escaping and guilty on the first alternative to Count 1, malicious damage to property.  Annexure ‟K” is the Court Order of 16 April 2015.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">10.       Defendants except to the particulars of claim on the basis that the allegations therein are vague and embarrassing and do not disclose a cause of action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">11.       Defendants raised several grounds.  The court shall not deal with all of them.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">12.       Defendants raised prescription as one of their grounds and squarely raised the Prescription Act, 1969 and the Correctional Service Act, of 2012.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">13.       The assault (if any) by Correctional Service members took place in August/September 2014.  The malicious prosecution according to plaintiff was then between September 2014 and 16 April 2015.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">14.       Plaintiff's particulars of claim failed to distinguish and properly plead a claim against the first defendant for malicious prosecution and failed to distinguish and properly plead a claim against the second and third defendants for the assault. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">15.       The court shall however deal with the claims as if it was properly pleaded (although it clearly was not).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">16.       Sections 10 and 11 of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969 required from plaintiff to institute action within 3 years after the cause of action arose.  Plaintiff clearly fell foul of these provisions.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">17.       Section 133(3) and (4) of the Correctional Service Act, Act 9 of 2012 inter alia provide for a maximum period of one (1) year from the date of the act to the institution of action with notice in writing to the defendant at least one month before commencement of action.  Apart from the notice (which was not argued before me), plaintiff instituted the current action only during April 2019 (and the previous action during 2018).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">18.       Plaintiff clearly instituted his action(s) outside the ambit of the provision in Section 133(3) of Act 9 of 2012.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">19.       Plaintiff causes of action (if it was properly pleaded) prescribed against the Prosecutor General and against the second and third defendant (expired).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">20.       Plaintiff on 3 September 2020 endeavoured to strike out a status report of defendants concerning the exceptions and to do so in terms of Rule 58(2).  Rule 58 is only applicable to pleadings (and affidavits) and not relevant or permissible in the circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff(s)</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendant (s)</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JONATHAN HUNIBEB (in person)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hardap Correctional Facility</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JANSELINE GAWISES </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Government - Office of the Government Attorney 2<sup>nd</sup> floor Sanlam Centre Independence Avenue, Windhoek, Namibia </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-77d0988490e28fabe1c4c5041fe5a35606e0c4a37c54c39379734f6c985f20c6"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">“ANNEXURE 11”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:  </span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#333333">JONATHAN HUNIBEB vs PROSECUTOR GENERAL: MARTHA IMALWA AND 2 OTHERS</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:  </span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01549</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">High Court, Main Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Justice Herman Oosthuizen</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">22 February 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">08 April 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="tab-stops:388.2pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:  </span></b><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hunibed v Prosecutor General </span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01549) [2021] NAHCMD 165 (8 April 2021)<b>.</b></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Result on merits:</span></span></span></b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">  Defendants successful with exception.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having heard <b>MR HUNIBEB</b> (in person) and <b>MS J. GAWISES</b>, on behalf of the Defendant(s) and having read the papers filed of record for HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01549:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         Plaintiff's action against the first defendant (Prosecutor General), has prescribed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         Plaintiff's action against second and third defendants, has prescribed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         Reasons shall be supplied during the week 12 to 16 April 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4.         In the premises the exceptions concerning prescription succeeded. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5.         The matter is removed from the roll: Case Finalized.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         Plaintiff is a sentenced offender serving time under the care of Correctional Services.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         First defendant is the Prosecutor General of Namibia.  Second defendant is the Minister of Safety and Security and third defendant is the Head of the Prison, Hardap, Mariental.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         Plaintiff instituted action against the defendants for malicious assault and prosecution which was wrong according to plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4.         Plaintiff first pursue his claims under case number HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2018/01471, which he withdrew on 19 March 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5.         He then re-instituted the present action on 8 April 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6.         Plaintiff changed the year 2014 to 2017 in his present particulars of claim.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.         Plaintiff however persisted with his allegations that subsequent to the incident that happened during ‟2017” in the Hardap Correctional Facility he took certain actions resulting in actions by officials in the Correctional Facility which in turn culminated in him reacting in a destructive way.  As a result he pleaded that he was charged with (1) malicious damage to property (and) (2) escaping from lawful custody on 14 September 2014.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8.         Plaintiff then pleaded that he was found guilty on malicious damage to property and not guilty on the escape charge on 16 April 2015.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9.         Annexure ‟K” to plaintiff's particulars of claim revealed that he was found not guilty and acquitted on Count 1, common law escaping and guilty on the first alternative to Count 1, malicious damage to property.  Annexure ‟K” is the Court Order of 16 April 2015.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">10.       Defendants except to the particulars of claim on the basis that the allegations therein are vague and embarrassing and do not disclose a cause of action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">11.       Defendants raised several grounds.  The court shall not deal with all of them.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">12.       Defendants raised prescription as one of their grounds and squarely raised the Prescription Act, 1969 and the Correctional Service Act, of 2012.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">13.       The assault (if any) by Correctional Service members took place in August/September 2014.  The malicious prosecution according to plaintiff was then between September 2014 and 16 April 2015.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">14.       Plaintiff's particulars of claim failed to distinguish and properly plead a claim against the first defendant for malicious prosecution and failed to distinguish and properly plead a claim against the second and third defendants for the assault. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">15.       The court shall however deal with the claims as if it was properly pleaded (although it clearly was not).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">16.       Sections 10 and 11 of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969 required from plaintiff to institute action within 3 years after the cause of action arose.  Plaintiff clearly fell foul of these provisions.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">17.       Section 133(3) and (4) of the Correctional Service Act, Act 9 of 2012 inter alia provide for a maximum period of one (1) year from the date of the act to the institution of action with notice in writing to the defendant at least one month before commencement of action.  Apart from the notice (which was not argued before me), plaintiff instituted the current action only during April 2019 (and the previous action during 2018).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">18.       Plaintiff clearly instituted his action(s) outside the ambit of the provision in Section 133(3) of Act 9 of 2012.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">19.       Plaintiff causes of action (if it was properly pleaded) prescribed against the Prosecutor General and against the second and third defendant (expired).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">20.       Plaintiff on 3 September 2020 endeavoured to strike out a status report of defendants concerning the exceptions and to do so in terms of Rule 58(2).  Rule 58 is only applicable to pleadings (and affidavits) and not relevant or permissible in the circumstances.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff(s)</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendant (s)</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JONATHAN HUNIBEB (in person)</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hardap Correctional Facility</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JANSELINE GAWISES </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Government - Office of the Government Attorney 2<sup>nd</sup> floor Sanlam Centre Independence Avenue, Windhoek, Namibia </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 17:25:18 +0000 Mariana 25418 at http://namiblii.org Hanse v Minister of Justice (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH- 1550 of 2019) [2021] NAHC 178 (22 April 2021); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2021/178 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Hanse v Minister of Justice (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH- 1550 of 2019) [2021] NAHC 178 (22 April 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 17:22</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2021/178/2021-nahc-178.doc" type="application/msword; length=62464">2021-nahc-178.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">“ANNEXURE 11”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JACOBUS HANSE vs MINISTER OF JUSTICE AND 7 OTHERS</span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2019/01550</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">High Court, Main Division, SADC</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Justice Herman Oosthuizen</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">25 February 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Order:  19 April 2021</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons:  22 April 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:  </span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hanse v Minister of Justice</span></span></i><b><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> (</span></span></b><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2019/01550) [2021] NAHCMD 178 (22 April 2021).</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Result on merits:  </span></b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendants successful.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having heard <b>MR. HANSE</b> (plaintiff)and <b>MS. J. HINDA</b>, for first to sixth defendants and having read the respective heads of argument for HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2019/01550 and other documents filed of record:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1          The matter is removed from the roll: Case Finalized. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2          Plaintiff did not make out cases against the first and second defendants (but assuming he did), it expired in terms of sections 10 to 12 of the Prescription Act of 1969. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3          Plaintiff's cause(s) of action(assuming he made out such case(s)) against third to sixth defendants, has expired(prescribed) against 3rd to 6th defendants in terms of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969 and in terms of Section 39 of the Police Act, Act 19 of 1990. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4          Seventh and eighth defendants were never served but the effect of sections 10 to 12 of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969, would have been the same, i.e. the claim is extinct by virtue of prescription. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5          Plaintiff is prohibited from instituting any further claims against any of the defendants and any of the Minister responsible for the Namibian Police and/or Correctional Services based on any of the alleged causes in this case.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6          No costs order is made.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons </span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         Jacobus Hanse (plaintiff) on 8 April 2019 claimed damages against the Minister of Justice, the Prosecutor General, the Maltahohe Station Commander, three members of the Namibian Police Force and two farmers (who assisted with plaintiff's apprehension during November 2008).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         Plaintiff's claim was initially set out in an affidavit filed by him on 8 April 2019.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         On the same date a summons commencing action was issued.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4.         Plaintiff's claim is for damages resulting from wrongful arrest and detention.  Later on in plaintiffs filings he endeavoured to clarify that his claim is for a brutal assault when he was arrested.  Plaintiff claims that his arrest, detention and the assault upon him happened during November 2008.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5.         Due thereto that the government defendants raised prescription in terms of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969 and in terms of the Police Act, Act 19 of 1990 as part of their exception, the court shall deal therewith.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6.         There is nothing on the case file indicating that 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> defendant were served with process.  The same legal principles concerning extinction of a debt however applies in terms of the Prescription Act of 1969.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.         To raise prescription as part of an exception is permissible and shall resort under the ground that no cause of action was disclosed in the claim.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8.         Plaintiff's claim for wrongful arrest and detention was already dealt with under Case No<br /> HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2017/00235 where the two defendants were the Minister of Safety and Security and the Prosecutor General and it was held, on 19 March 2018, that it prescribed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9.         The alleged brutal assault, not properly pleaded, in the current action remains to be considered against the grounds of prescription.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">10.       Plaintiff's claim against the Minister of Justice, first defendant, and third to sixth defendants arised during November 2008.  Plaintiff never gave the required notice in terms of section 39 of the Police Act and institute action on 8 April 2019.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">11.       His claims against 3<sup>rd</sup> to 6<sup>th</sup> defendants expired during November 2009 by virtue of the provisions of section 39 of the Police Act of 1990.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">12.       Plaintiffs claim against first to sixth defendants prescribed in terms of sections 10 to 12 of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969, in November 2011.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff(s)</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendant (s)</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Hanse (in person)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ms J. Hinda</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(for first to sixth defendants)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-d85d4b6e5de88453e559a1db7332c8a440eace3b4c663b3989c5369b15abb69e"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">“ANNEXURE 11”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">JACOBUS HANSE vs MINISTER OF JUSTICE AND 7 OTHERS</span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2019/01550</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">High Court, Main Division, SADC</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Justice Herman Oosthuizen</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">25 February 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Order:  19 April 2021</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons:  22 April 2021</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral citation:  </span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Hanse v Minister of Justice</span></span></i><b><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> (</span></span></b><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2019/01550) [2021] NAHCMD 178 (22 April 2021).</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:64px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Result on merits:  </span></b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendants successful.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The order:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having heard <b>MR. HANSE</b> (plaintiff)and <b>MS. J. HINDA</b>, for first to sixth defendants and having read the respective heads of argument for HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2019/01550 and other documents filed of record:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1          The matter is removed from the roll: Case Finalized. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2          Plaintiff did not make out cases against the first and second defendants (but assuming he did), it expired in terms of sections 10 to 12 of the Prescription Act of 1969. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3          Plaintiff's cause(s) of action(assuming he made out such case(s)) against third to sixth defendants, has expired(prescribed) against 3rd to 6th defendants in terms of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969 and in terms of Section 39 of the Police Act, Act 19 of 1990. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4          Seventh and eighth defendants were never served but the effect of sections 10 to 12 of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969, would have been the same, i.e. the claim is extinct by virtue of prescription. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5          Plaintiff is prohibited from instituting any further claims against any of the defendants and any of the Minister responsible for the Namibian Police and/or Correctional Services based on any of the alleged causes in this case.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6          No costs order is made.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons </span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1.         Jacobus Hanse (plaintiff) on 8 April 2019 claimed damages against the Minister of Justice, the Prosecutor General, the Maltahohe Station Commander, three members of the Namibian Police Force and two farmers (who assisted with plaintiff's apprehension during November 2008).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">2.         Plaintiff's claim was initially set out in an affidavit filed by him on 8 April 2019.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">3.         On the same date a summons commencing action was issued.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">4.         Plaintiff's claim is for damages resulting from wrongful arrest and detention.  Later on in plaintiffs filings he endeavoured to clarify that his claim is for a brutal assault when he was arrested.  Plaintiff claims that his arrest, detention and the assault upon him happened during November 2008.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">5.         Due thereto that the government defendants raised prescription in terms of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969 and in terms of the Police Act, Act 19 of 1990 as part of their exception, the court shall deal therewith.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">6.         There is nothing on the case file indicating that 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> defendant were served with process.  The same legal principles concerning extinction of a debt however applies in terms of the Prescription Act of 1969.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">7.         To raise prescription as part of an exception is permissible and shall resort under the ground that no cause of action was disclosed in the claim.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8.         Plaintiff's claim for wrongful arrest and detention was already dealt with under Case No<br /> HC-MD-CIV-ACT-OTH-2017/00235 where the two defendants were the Minister of Safety and Security and the Prosecutor General and it was held, on 19 March 2018, that it prescribed.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9.         The alleged brutal assault, not properly pleaded, in the current action remains to be considered against the grounds of prescription.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">10.       Plaintiff's claim against the Minister of Justice, first defendant, and third to sixth defendants arised during November 2008.  Plaintiff never gave the required notice in terms of section 39 of the Police Act and institute action on 8 April 2019.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">11.       His claims against 3<sup>rd</sup> to 6<sup>th</sup> defendants expired during November 2009 by virtue of the provisions of section 39 of the Police Act of 1990.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">12.       Plaintiffs claim against first to sixth defendants prescribed in terms of sections 10 to 12 of the Prescription Act, Act 68 of 1969, in November 2011.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff(s)</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendant (s)</span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Hanse (in person)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:106px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ms J. Hinda</span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(for first to sixth defendants)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="text-align:justify"> </p></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 17:22:43 +0000 Mariana 25417 at http://namiblii.org Gideon vs Chairperson: Council of University of Science and Technology (NUST) & Others (HC-MD-CIV-MOT-GEN 472 of 2020) [2021] NAHC 182 (23 April 2021); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2021/182 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Gideon vs Chairperson: Council of University of Science and Technology (NUST) &amp; Others (HC-MD-CIV-MOT-GEN 472 of 2020) [2021] NAHC 182 (23 April 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 17:19</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2021/182/2021-nahc-182.doc" type="application/msword; length=99328">2021-nahc-182.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, WINDHOEK, MAIN DIVISION</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                                          RULING</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 467.8pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Frednard Gideon vs Chairperson:  Council of Namibia University of Science and Technology (Nust) and Others</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-MOT-GEN-2020/00472 </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">High Court</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard Before:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Justice Miller, Acting</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of Hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">24 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">23 April 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 467.8pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral Citation:  </span></span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Gideon vs Chairperson: Council of University of Science and Technology (NUST) and Others </span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-MOT-GEN-2020/00472) [2021] NAHCMD 182 (23 April 2021) </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The Order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having heard Mr. Sisa Namandja, on behalf of the Applicant and Mr. Kauta, on behalf of the 1<sup>st</sup> – 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondents on 24 March 2021:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> (a)    The reports of the psychometric assessments of the applicant and the fifth respondents must be produced to the Court hearing the matter and to the applicant only</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(b)       </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The scorecards of the panellists must be produced in a redacted form which does not disclose the identity of the panellist who awarded a particular score. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(c)        The documents referred to in prayer 3.5 must be produced.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(d)     There shall be no order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for Orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        What is presently pending in this Court is an application seeking to review and set aside certain decision taken by the first and third respondent during November 2020 and December 2020</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> which culminated in the appointment of the fifth respondent as the vice-chancellor of the second respondent.  In addition the applicant seeks an order declaring the employment agreement concluded between the second respondent as unlawful and <i>ultra vires</i> in provisions of section 18(3) of the Public Enterprises Governance Act, No. 1 of 2019. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">[2]        The respondents as they were required to do filed what is claimed to be the record of the decision under review, subject to certain qualifications.  In so far as that is concerned the first, second and third respondents filed an application for directions in terms of Rule 32(4) on the basis that they claim confidentiality in respect of some documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">[3]        The applicant thereupon brought an application on 22 February 2021 for an order compelling the respondent to produce the following documents in addition to what had been filed already as the record;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">‘</span></span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.1</span></span>      <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">The signed and approved minutes of the JSCC of 5 November 2020,   9 November 2020 and 12 November 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.2       The signed and approved minutes of the University’s Council meeting of 10 November 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.3       The production of items 15 and 16 of section C and item 18 under section D of the record.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.4       All panellist’s score sheets during the public presentation as well as during the oral and face-to-face interviews of the applicant and the fifth respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.5       The full employment agreement of the fifth respondent and all correspondences with him in relation to his employment.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.6       All communications relating to the recruitment of the vice-chancellor of NUST doing solo between the first to third respondent and Capacity Trust-CC and any of its agents which should include correspondences, e-mail communications reports, background check reports, psychometric test reports including all communications with the applicant and the fifth respondent’s references</span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">        The applicant submits that the documents should be produced in order that the Court hearing to review application has all that is required for the adjudication of the review application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">[5]        It is not the stance of the respondents that the documents should not be produced, save for the documents being sought in paragraph 5, above.  The respondents submit that the employment agreement was concluded subsequent to the decision to employ the fifth respondent, which is now under review</span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        Some of the documents sought were disclosed as part of the answering affidavits filed on the application to compel and nothing more needs to be said about these.  These are the signed minutes and the communications with Capacity Trust.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        What remains in issue is the psychometric reports prepared by Messrs Hendrick and Struggles.  The respondents submit that the reports are those of psychologist and highlights the cognitive profile, personality impressions including motivation, problem solving and decision making.  The reports, so it is said address an assessment of the strength, development needs and leadership capabilities of the applicant and the fifth respondent inter alia. These are said to be sensitive and confidential information concerning the applicant and the fifth respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        The respondents submit that apart from the summaries of these reports, which had been produced already, their disclosure should be confined to the parties and the Court hearing the matter and must not be available to the general public so to speak.  The applicant is in any event already a possession of their reports.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        As a general proposition court proceedings for obvious reasons are conducted in public, including all documents and papers filed by the litigants.  This is an important fundamental principle in our law. There are however some exceptions.  These relate to the protection of the identities of minors, proceedings held in camera either in terms of a statute or certain categories of cases such an Anton Pillar orders and the like.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      As far as reports of psychometric evaluations are concerned I was not referred to nor could I find, any precedent in this jurisdiction.  I was referred to the decision in the case of (<i>Carrie Jaffee, special administrator for Ricky Allen, Sr., deceased Petitioner vs Mary Lu Redman et al</i><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a>.  The case concerned disclosures between a psychotherapist and his client, the issue being whether those should be regarded as privileged.  The following passage appears in the judgment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:43.55pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘In contrast to the significant public and private interests supporting recognition of the privilege, the likely evidentiary benefit that would result from the denial of the privilege is modest.  If the privilege were rejected, confidential conversations between psychotherapists and their patients would surely be chilled, particularly when it is obvious that the circumstances that give rise to the need for treatment will probably result in litigation.  Without a privilege, much of the desirable evidence to which litigants such as petitioner seek access – for example, admissions against interest by a party is unlikely to come into being.  This unspoken ‘evidence’ will therefore serve no greater truth seeking function than if it had been spoken and privileged</span></u><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      I was likewise referred to the decisions <i>Crown Cork &amp; Seal Co. Inc and Another vs Rheem South Africa (Pty) Ltd and Others</i><a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> and <i>Unilever plc and another vs Polagric</i> <i>(Pty) Ltd</i><a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      Those cases concerned to protection of commercial interests rather than psychometric assessments.  Nonetheless it is clear that in given situations, the court will depart from the general rule of open and public hearings.  Each case must be considered within the context in which it is and it is not possible to establish any general hard and fast rule.  The principles of open and public hearings and the confidentiality of the reports are opposing consideration. Undoubtedly the court hearing the matter and the respondent may need to take into consideration what the reports state.  Our law does not provide for any blanket privilege and the respondent correctly does not contend that such privilege exists. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      The main consideration must always be that the hearing should be fair to the parties involved therein.  The Constitution makes that clear.  Any order to the effect that the reports should be available only to the Court or the parties will impact on the general rule that proceedings should be open to the public.  It will have a limited impact only, insofar as it is confined to the reports only and not the proceedings as a whole. A further consideration is that summaries of the reports were produced and are available for anybody who may have an interest in that.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      In considering the production of the score cards I believe that what is important is the score itself and not so much the identity of the individual who awarded the particular score.  The identities of the panellists are known.  I believe that there are good reasons advanced by the respondent why the name of a specific panellist should not be tied to the score that panellist arrived at.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]      In do not agree with the respondents that the employment contract should not be produced.  I believe it should be. The applicant in specific terms seek an order that it is to be set aside.  Certainly the Court and the respondent is entitled to know the terms and conditions embodied in that agreement in so far as it may become relevant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]      As far as costs are concerned the applicant and the respondents succeeded in part and failed in part.  In these circumstance I am not inclined to make any order as to costs. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]   </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the result, I issue the following order:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(a)    The reports of the psychometric assessments of the applicant and the fifth respondents must be produced to the Court hearing the matter and to the applicant only</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(b)       </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The scorecards of the panellists must be produced in a redacted form which does not disclose the identity of the panellist who awarded a particular score. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(c)        The documents referred to in prayer 3.5 must be produced.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(d)     There shall be no order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s Signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondents</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:85px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Sisa Namandje</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Sisa Namandje &amp; Co</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:85px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Patrick Kauta</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Dr Weder, Kauta &amp; Hoveka Inc.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Carrie Jaffee, special administrator for Ricky Allen, Sr., deceased Petitioner vs Mary Lu Redman et al</span></i> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">518 US1 (1996)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Crown Cork &amp; Seal Co. Inc and Another vs Rheem South Africa (Pty) Ltd and Others</span></i> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">1980 (3) SA 1093 (W)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Unilever plc and another vs Polagric</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> <i>(Pty) Ltd</i> </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">2001 (2) 329 (CPD)</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-f8c0cdbfd5bc7801194b2b4dc146e523dde6d710808944f33917407ee1191955"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA, WINDHOEK, MAIN DIVISION</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">                                                                                                          RULING</span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 467.8pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Frednard Gideon vs Chairperson:  Council of Namibia University of Science and Technology (Nust) and Others</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-MOT-GEN-2020/00472 </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">High Court</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard Before:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Justice Miller, Acting</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of Hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">24 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered on:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">23 April 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:right 467.8pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Neutral Citation:  </span></span></span></b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Gideon vs Chairperson: Council of University of Science and Technology (NUST) and Others </span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-MOT-GEN-2020/00472) [2021] NAHCMD 182 (23 April 2021) </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The Order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having heard Mr. Sisa Namandja, on behalf of the Applicant and Mr. Kauta, on behalf of the 1<sup>st</sup> – 3<sup>rd</sup> Respondents on 24 March 2021:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> (a)    The reports of the psychometric assessments of the applicant and the fifth respondents must be produced to the Court hearing the matter and to the applicant only</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(b)       </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The scorecards of the panellists must be produced in a redacted form which does not disclose the identity of the panellist who awarded a particular score. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(c)        The documents referred to in prayer 3.5 must be produced.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(d)     There shall be no order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for Orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]        What is presently pending in this Court is an application seeking to review and set aside certain decision taken by the first and third respondent during November 2020 and December 2020</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> which culminated in the appointment of the fifth respondent as the vice-chancellor of the second respondent.  In addition the applicant seeks an order declaring the employment agreement concluded between the second respondent as unlawful and <i>ultra vires</i> in provisions of section 18(3) of the Public Enterprises Governance Act, No. 1 of 2019. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">[2]        The respondents as they were required to do filed what is claimed to be the record of the decision under review, subject to certain qualifications.  In so far as that is concerned the first, second and third respondents filed an application for directions in terms of Rule 32(4) on the basis that they claim confidentiality in respect of some documents.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">[3]        The applicant thereupon brought an application on 22 February 2021 for an order compelling the respondent to produce the following documents in addition to what had been filed already as the record;</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">‘</span></span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.1</span></span>      <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">The signed and approved minutes of the JSCC of 5 November 2020,   9 November 2020 and 12 November 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.2       The signed and approved minutes of the University’s Council meeting of 10 November 2020.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.3       The production of items 15 and 16 of section C and item 18 under section D of the record.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.4       All panellist’s score sheets during the public presentation as well as during the oral and face-to-face interviews of the applicant and the fifth respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.5       The full employment agreement of the fifth respondent and all correspondences with him in relation to his employment.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">3.6       All communications relating to the recruitment of the vice-chancellor of NUST doing solo between the first to third respondent and Capacity Trust-CC and any of its agents which should include correspondences, e-mail communications reports, background check reports, psychometric test reports including all communications with the applicant and the fifth respondent’s references</span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">        The applicant submits that the documents should be produced in order that the Court hearing to review application has all that is required for the adjudication of the review application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#0d0d0d">[5]        It is not the stance of the respondents that the documents should not be produced, save for the documents being sought in paragraph 5, above.  The respondents submit that the employment agreement was concluded subsequent to the decision to employ the fifth respondent, which is now under review</span></span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        Some of the documents sought were disclosed as part of the answering affidavits filed on the application to compel and nothing more needs to be said about these.  These are the signed minutes and the communications with Capacity Trust.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        What remains in issue is the psychometric reports prepared by Messrs Hendrick and Struggles.  The respondents submit that the reports are those of psychologist and highlights the cognitive profile, personality impressions including motivation, problem solving and decision making.  The reports, so it is said address an assessment of the strength, development needs and leadership capabilities of the applicant and the fifth respondent inter alia. These are said to be sensitive and confidential information concerning the applicant and the fifth respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        The respondents submit that apart from the summaries of these reports, which had been produced already, their disclosure should be confined to the parties and the Court hearing the matter and must not be available to the general public so to speak.  The applicant is in any event already a possession of their reports.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[9]        As a general proposition court proceedings for obvious reasons are conducted in public, including all documents and papers filed by the litigants.  This is an important fundamental principle in our law. There are however some exceptions.  These relate to the protection of the identities of minors, proceedings held in camera either in terms of a statute or certain categories of cases such an Anton Pillar orders and the like.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      As far as reports of psychometric evaluations are concerned I was not referred to nor could I find, any precedent in this jurisdiction.  I was referred to the decision in the case of (<i>Carrie Jaffee, special administrator for Ricky Allen, Sr., deceased Petitioner vs Mary Lu Redman et al</i><a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a>.  The case concerned disclosures between a psychotherapist and his client, the issue being whether those should be regarded as privileged.  The following passage appears in the judgment.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:43.55pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">‘In contrast to the significant public and private interests supporting recognition of the privilege, the likely evidentiary benefit that would result from the denial of the privilege is modest.  If the privilege were rejected, confidential conversations between psychotherapists and their patients would surely be chilled, particularly when it is obvious that the circumstances that give rise to the need for treatment will probably result in litigation.  Without a privilege, much of the desirable evidence to which litigants such as petitioner seek access – for example, admissions against interest by a party is unlikely to come into being.  This unspoken ‘evidence’ will therefore serve no greater truth seeking function than if it had been spoken and privileged</span></u><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.’</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[11]      I was likewise referred to the decisions <i>Crown Cork &amp; Seal Co. Inc and Another vs Rheem South Africa (Pty) Ltd and Others</i><a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> and <i>Unilever plc and another vs Polagric</i> <i>(Pty) Ltd</i><a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      Those cases concerned to protection of commercial interests rather than psychometric assessments.  Nonetheless it is clear that in given situations, the court will depart from the general rule of open and public hearings.  Each case must be considered within the context in which it is and it is not possible to establish any general hard and fast rule.  The principles of open and public hearings and the confidentiality of the reports are opposing consideration. Undoubtedly the court hearing the matter and the respondent may need to take into consideration what the reports state.  Our law does not provide for any blanket privilege and the respondent correctly does not contend that such privilege exists. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      The main consideration must always be that the hearing should be fair to the parties involved therein.  The Constitution makes that clear.  Any order to the effect that the reports should be available only to the Court or the parties will impact on the general rule that proceedings should be open to the public.  It will have a limited impact only, insofar as it is confined to the reports only and not the proceedings as a whole. A further consideration is that summaries of the reports were produced and are available for anybody who may have an interest in that.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      In considering the production of the score cards I believe that what is important is the score itself and not so much the identity of the individual who awarded the particular score.  The identities of the panellists are known.  I believe that there are good reasons advanced by the respondent why the name of a specific panellist should not be tied to the score that panellist arrived at.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]      In do not agree with the respondents that the employment contract should not be produced.  I believe it should be. The applicant in specific terms seek an order that it is to be set aside.  Certainly the Court and the respondent is entitled to know the terms and conditions embodied in that agreement in so far as it may become relevant.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[16]      As far as costs are concerned the applicant and the respondents succeeded in part and failed in part.  In these circumstance I am not inclined to make any order as to costs. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:36.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[17]   </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">In the result, I issue the following order:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(a)    The reports of the psychometric assessments of the applicant and the fifth respondents must be produced to the Court hearing the matter and to the applicant only</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:96px; text-align:justify; text-indent:-36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(b)       </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The scorecards of the panellists must be produced in a redacted form which does not disclose the identity of the panellist who awarded a particular score. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(c)        The documents referred to in prayer 3.5 must be produced.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:36.0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(d)     There shall be no order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:25px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s Signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicant</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Respondents</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:85px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Sisa Namandje</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Sisa Namandje &amp; Co</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:85px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Patrick Kauta</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Dr Weder, Kauta &amp; Hoveka Inc.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Carrie Jaffee, special administrator for Ricky Allen, Sr., deceased Petitioner vs Mary Lu Redman et al</span></i> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">518 US1 (1996)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Crown Cork &amp; Seal Co. Inc and Another vs Rheem South Africa (Pty) Ltd and Others</span></i> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">1980 (3) SA 1093 (W)</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:10.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Unilever plc and another vs Polagric</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> <i>(Pty) Ltd</i> </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">2001 (2) 329 (CPD)</span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 17:19:59 +0000 Mariana 25416 at http://namiblii.org General Consulate of Embassy of Republic of Angola in Rundu vs Van Schalkwyk t/a Rundu Welding and Construction and Others (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON- 1309 of 2020) [2021] NAHC 191 (28 April 2021); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2021/191 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">General Consulate of Embassy of Republic of Angola in Rundu vs Van Schalkwyk t/a Rundu Welding and Construction and Others (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON- 1309 of 2020) [2021] NAHC 191 (28 April 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 17:16</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2021/191/2021-nahc-191.doc" type="application/msword; length=97280">2021-nahc-191.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><shape id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" o:gfxdata="UEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQC2gziS/gAAAOEBAAATAAAAW0NvbnRlbnRfVHlwZXNdLnhtbJSRQU7DMBBF&lt;br /&gt;&#10;90jcwfIWJU67QAgl6YK0S0CoHGBkTxKLZGx5TGhvj5O2G0SRWNoz/78nu9wcxkFMGNg6quQqL6RA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;0s5Y6ir5vt9lD1JwBDIwOMJKHpHlpr69KfdHjyxSmriSfYz+USnWPY7AufNIadK6MEJMx9ApD/oD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OlTrorhX2lFEilmcO2RdNtjC5xDF9pCuTyYBB5bi6bQ4syoJ3g9WQ0ymaiLzg5KdCXlKLjvcW893&lt;br /&gt;&#10;SUOqXwnz5DrgnHtJTxOsQfEKIT7DmDSUCaxw7Rqn8787ZsmRM9e2VmPeBN4uqYvTtW7jvijg9N/y&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JsXecLq0q+WD6m8AAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQA4/SH/1gAAAJQBAAALAAAAX3JlbHMvLnJl&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bHOkkMFqwzAMhu+DvYPRfXGawxijTi+j0GvpHsDYimMaW0Yy2fr2M4PBMnrbUb/Q94l/f/hMi1qR&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JVI2sOt6UJgd+ZiDgffL8ekFlFSbvV0oo4EbChzGx4f9GRdb25HMsYhqlCwG5lrLq9biZkxWOiqY&lt;br /&gt;&#10;22YiTra2kYMu1l1tQD30/bPm3wwYN0x18gb45AdQl1tp5j/sFB2T0FQ7R0nTNEV3j6o9feQzro1i&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OWA14Fm+Q8a1a8+Bvu/d/dMb2JY5uiPbhG/ktn4cqGU/er3pcvwCAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;IQDRSmtKKAIAAFAEAAAOAAAAZHJzL2Uyb0RvYy54bWysVNtu2zAMfR+wfxD0vtgxkrQ14hRdugwD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;ugvQ7gNkWbaFSaImKbG7rx8lp5mxvQzD/CCIInVEnkN6eztqRU7CeQmmostFTokwHBppuop+fTq8&lt;br /&gt;&#10;uabEB2YapsCIij4LT293r19tB1uKAnpQjXAEQYwvB1vRPgRbZpnnvdDML8AKg84WnGYBTddljWMD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;omuVFXm+yQZwjXXAhfd4ej856S7ht63g4XPbehGIqijmFtLq0lrHNdttWdk5ZnvJz2mwf8hCM2nw&lt;br /&gt;&#10;0QvUPQuMHJ38A0pL7sBDGxYcdAZtK7lINWA1y/y3ah57ZkWqBcnx9kKT/3+w/NPpiyOyQe0oMUyj&lt;br /&gt;&#10;RE9iDOQtjKSI7AzWlxj0aDEsjHgcI2Ol3j4A/+aJgX3PTCfunIOhF6zB7JbxZja7OuH4CFIPH6HB&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Z9gxQAIaW6cjIJJBEB1Ver4oE1Ph8cn1pljm6OLoK1ZXm3WSLmPly23rfHgvQJO4qahD5RM6Oz34&lt;br /&gt;&#10;ELNh5UtIyh6UbA5SqWS4rt4rR04Mu+SQvlQAFjkPU4YMFb1ZF+uJgLnP/x2ElgHbXUld0es8flMD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;RtremSY1Y2BSTXtMWZkzj5G6icQw1uNZlxqaZ2TUwdTWOIa46cH9oGTAlq6o/35kTlCiPhhU5Wa5&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WsUZSMZqfVWg4eaeeu5hhiNURQMl03Yfprk5Wie7Hl+a+sDAHSrZykRylHzK6pw3tm3i/jxicS7m&lt;br /&gt;&#10;dor69SPY/QQAAP//AwBQSwMEFAAGAAgAAAAhAE+kcrHfAAAACQEAAA8AAABkcnMvZG93bnJldi54&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bWxMj0FvwjAMhe+T9h8iI+0yQUKRYHR1EUKbdgZ22S00pq1okrYJtOzXzzttJ9t6T8/fyzajbcSN&lt;br /&gt;&#10;+lB7hzCfKRDkCm9qVyJ8Ht+nLyBC1M7oxjtCuFOATf74kOnU+MHt6XaIpeAQF1KNUMXYplKGoiKr&lt;br /&gt;&#10;w8y35Fg7+97qyGdfStPrgcNtIxOlltLq2vGHSre0q6i4HK4WwQ9vd+upU8nz17f92G27/TnpEJ8m&lt;br /&gt;&#10;4/YVRKQx/pnhF5/RIWemk786E0SDsJqvuEtEmK55smG9XPByQlgoBTLP5P8G+Q8AAAD//wMAUEsB&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Ai0AFAAGAAgAAAAhALaDOJL+AAAA4QEAABMAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFtDb250ZW50X1R5cGVz&lt;br /&gt;&#10;XS54bWxQSwECLQAUAAYACAAAACEAOP0h/9YAAACUAQAACwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAvAQAAX3JlbHMv&lt;br /&gt;&#10;LnJlbHNQSwECLQAUAAYACAAAACEA0UprSigCAABQBAAADgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAuAgAAZHJzL2Uy&lt;br /&gt;&#10;b0RvYy54bWxQSwECLQAUAAYACAAAACEAT6Rysd8AAAAJAQAADwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACCBAAAZHJz&lt;br /&gt;&#10;L2Rvd25yZXYueG1sUEsFBgAAAAAEAAQA8wAAAI4FAAAAAA==&lt;br /&gt;&#10;" strokecolor="white" style="position:absolute; margin-left:478px; margin-top:-6px; width:123pt; height:19.5pt; z-index:251657728" type="#_x0000_t202"><textbox></textbox></shape></span></span></span></p> <table><tbody><tr><td bgcolor="white" style="border-bottom:.100px solid white; vertical-align:top; background-color:white; border-top:.100px solid white; border-right:.100px solid white; border-left:.100px solid white; width:170px; height:32px"> <table width="100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div class="shape" style="padding:4.35pt 7.95pt 4.35pt 7.95pt" v:shape="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table></td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-center">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:366px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">THE GENERAL CONSULATE OF THE EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF ANGOLA IN RUNDU                                              PLAINTIFF </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">vs</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">ANTON ERIK VAN SCHALKWYK T/A RUNDU WELDING AND CONSTRUCTION                          FIRST DEFENDANT </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">DAVID EMMAUEL FREITAS DIAS  SECOND DEFENDANT</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">RENARD HATTINGH                           THIRD DEFENDANT  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:282px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/01309</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:282px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">MAIN DIVISION</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:366px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HONOURABLE LADY JUSTICE PRINSLOO, JUDGE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:282px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">06 April 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:282px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">28 April 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Neutral citation: </span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The General Consulate of the Embassy of the Republic of Angola in Rundu vs Van Schalkwyk t/a Rundu Welding and Construction</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/001309) [2021] NAHCMD 191 (28 April 2021).</span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:52px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Results on merits:</span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Merits not considered.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:52px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Having noted the non-appearance of Mr Mukonda and having heard <b>MR VAATZ</b>, on behalf of the First Defendant and having read the pleading for <b>HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/01309</b> and other documents filed of record:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Ruling:</span></span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">1.       The court declines to make an order on the issue of <i>locus standi</i> as the matter is and remains res judicata in terms of the court order dated 4 December 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">2.       No order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Further conduct of the matter</span></span></span></span></u></b><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">3. The matter is postponed to<b> 27 May 2021</b> at <b>15:00</b> for Status hearing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">4.  The Plaintiff must file a status report with specific reference to the ruling of this court dated 4 December 2020 regarding the issue of res judicata and why the current matter should still remain on the court roll. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:.8pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:.8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction </span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:.8pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[1]      The matter before me has a history that dates back to </span></span></span><s><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:red">in</span></span></span></span></s><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> July 2018 when the plaintiff instituted action  against the first, second and third defendant under case number: HC-MD-CIV-CON-2018/02850 in which the plaintiff claimed for the confirmation of the deed of sale and the contract of transfer in respect of Erf 1582, Extension 3, Rundu entered into by the first and second defendants on the one hand and the plaintiff on the other, the cancellation of the Deed of Transfer number 321/20120 and ordering that the abovementioned property be transferred into the his name as well as various payments against the defendants.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[2]         During the course of the case management process the </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">first and third defendant demanded security of cost in the amount of N$100 000 each against the plaintiff in terms of Rule 59. The plaintiff unsuccessfully opposed the application for security for costs where after the Court ordered payment of security for costs in the amount of N$ 100 000. As a result of the defendant’s failure to comply with the said order the court proceeded to dismiss the plaintiff’s action on 11 March 2019. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        It is important to note that on 31 January 2019 the first defendant filed his plea  under the aforementioned matter wherein he pleaded  as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">              <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">‘1<sup>st</sup> Defendant states that the consulate, cited herein as the Plaintiff, has no locus standi to bring an action as it is not a separate legal persona in terms of Namibian law and for that reason alone has no basis on which to bring this action.’ </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[4]       The plaintiff issued out new summons under the current case number on 24 March 2020 on the exact same particulars of claim as set out in case HC-MD-CIV-CON-2018/02850. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[5]      The first defendant </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">filed his plea of <i>res judicata</i> on 31 August 2020. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        The third defendant also raised a special plea of <i>res judicata </i>on 30 September 2020<i>, </i>which was heard on 16 November 2020. The court upheld the special plea on 4 December 2020<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a>. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[7]      On 16 October 2020 the plaintiff filed an application to strike out the first defendant’s plea for failure to comply with rule 45(2) of the Rules of Court. In his answering affidavit the first defendant referred to his plea in case </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-CON-2018/02850 </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">and again raised the plaintiff’s lack of the locus standi to institute the current action. It is noticeable that the first defendant did not in this instance plead the plaintiff’s lack of locus standi. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[8]      Although the issue of res judicata remained the operative position in this matter the first defendant insisted on the court ruling on the plaintiff’s legal standing in the current matter, however </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">after careful consideration of the papers before me i</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">t is noticeable that the first defendant did not in current matter plead the plaintiff’s lack of locus standi. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[9]         Having decided the issue of res judicata previously it would be superfluous to decide the issue of locus standi at this stage of the proceedings and in the absence of plea in this regard by the first defendant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[10]        <span style="background:white"><span style="color:#202124">Case </span></span>HC-MD-CIV-CON-2018/02850 <span style="background:white"><span style="color:#202124">has been adjudicated by a competent court and as per my earlier ruling may not be pursued further in the current matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[11]          To date the plaintiff has taken no steps, to my knowledge, in order to have the orders granted under case HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2018/02850 to be varied, altered or rescinded and as a result the court order issued under the aforementioned case number is still valid and as a result I will decline to pronounce myself on the issue of locus standi in the current matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[12]            My order as set out above.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:33px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:33px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">PLAINTIFF</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> DEFENDANT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr R Mukonda</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Of Mukonda and Co Inc.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr A Vaatz</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Of Andreas Vaatz and Partners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:48px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:282px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> <p> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The General Consulate of the Republic of Angola in Rundu v Van Schalkwyk </span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">(<span style="background:white"><span style="color:#333333">HC-MD-CIV-CON-2020/01309)</span></span> [2020] NAHCMD 560 (4 December 2020).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-7dce932813d7439de1ee5a244f7fa7053a57c15b9bc9a8d52b2b7e653ffa0283"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><shape id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" o:gfxdata="UEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQC2gziS/gAAAOEBAAATAAAAW0NvbnRlbnRfVHlwZXNdLnhtbJSRQU7DMBBF&lt;br /&gt;&#10;90jcwfIWJU67QAgl6YK0S0CoHGBkTxKLZGx5TGhvj5O2G0SRWNoz/78nu9wcxkFMGNg6quQqL6RA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;0s5Y6ir5vt9lD1JwBDIwOMJKHpHlpr69KfdHjyxSmriSfYz+USnWPY7AufNIadK6MEJMx9ApD/oD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OlTrorhX2lFEilmcO2RdNtjC5xDF9pCuTyYBB5bi6bQ4syoJ3g9WQ0ymaiLzg5KdCXlKLjvcW893&lt;br /&gt;&#10;SUOqXwnz5DrgnHtJTxOsQfEKIT7DmDSUCaxw7Rqn8787ZsmRM9e2VmPeBN4uqYvTtW7jvijg9N/y&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JsXecLq0q+WD6m8AAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAAIQA4/SH/1gAAAJQBAAALAAAAX3JlbHMvLnJl&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bHOkkMFqwzAMhu+DvYPRfXGawxijTi+j0GvpHsDYimMaW0Yy2fr2M4PBMnrbUb/Q94l/f/hMi1qR&lt;br /&gt;&#10;JVI2sOt6UJgd+ZiDgffL8ekFlFSbvV0oo4EbChzGx4f9GRdb25HMsYhqlCwG5lrLq9biZkxWOiqY&lt;br /&gt;&#10;22YiTra2kYMu1l1tQD30/bPm3wwYN0x18gb45AdQl1tp5j/sFB2T0FQ7R0nTNEV3j6o9feQzro1i&lt;br /&gt;&#10;OWA14Fm+Q8a1a8+Bvu/d/dMb2JY5uiPbhG/ktn4cqGU/er3pcvwCAAD//wMAUEsDBBQABgAIAAAA&lt;br /&gt;&#10;IQDRSmtKKAIAAFAEAAAOAAAAZHJzL2Uyb0RvYy54bWysVNtu2zAMfR+wfxD0vtgxkrQ14hRdugwD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;ugvQ7gNkWbaFSaImKbG7rx8lp5mxvQzD/CCIInVEnkN6eztqRU7CeQmmostFTokwHBppuop+fTq8&lt;br /&gt;&#10;uabEB2YapsCIij4LT293r19tB1uKAnpQjXAEQYwvB1vRPgRbZpnnvdDML8AKg84WnGYBTddljWMD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;omuVFXm+yQZwjXXAhfd4ej856S7ht63g4XPbehGIqijmFtLq0lrHNdttWdk5ZnvJz2mwf8hCM2nw&lt;br /&gt;&#10;0QvUPQuMHJ38A0pL7sBDGxYcdAZtK7lINWA1y/y3ah57ZkWqBcnx9kKT/3+w/NPpiyOyQe0oMUyj&lt;br /&gt;&#10;RE9iDOQtjKSI7AzWlxj0aDEsjHgcI2Ol3j4A/+aJgX3PTCfunIOhF6zB7JbxZja7OuH4CFIPH6HB&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Z9gxQAIaW6cjIJJBEB1Ver4oE1Ph8cn1pljm6OLoK1ZXm3WSLmPly23rfHgvQJO4qahD5RM6Oz34&lt;br /&gt;&#10;ELNh5UtIyh6UbA5SqWS4rt4rR04Mu+SQvlQAFjkPU4YMFb1ZF+uJgLnP/x2ElgHbXUld0es8flMD&lt;br /&gt;&#10;RtremSY1Y2BSTXtMWZkzj5G6icQw1uNZlxqaZ2TUwdTWOIa46cH9oGTAlq6o/35kTlCiPhhU5Wa5&lt;br /&gt;&#10;WsUZSMZqfVWg4eaeeu5hhiNURQMl03Yfprk5Wie7Hl+a+sDAHSrZykRylHzK6pw3tm3i/jxicS7m&lt;br /&gt;&#10;dor69SPY/QQAAP//AwBQSwMEFAAGAAgAAAAhAE+kcrHfAAAACQEAAA8AAABkcnMvZG93bnJldi54&lt;br /&gt;&#10;bWxMj0FvwjAMhe+T9h8iI+0yQUKRYHR1EUKbdgZ22S00pq1okrYJtOzXzzttJ9t6T8/fyzajbcSN&lt;br /&gt;&#10;+lB7hzCfKRDkCm9qVyJ8Ht+nLyBC1M7oxjtCuFOATf74kOnU+MHt6XaIpeAQF1KNUMXYplKGoiKr&lt;br /&gt;&#10;w8y35Fg7+97qyGdfStPrgcNtIxOlltLq2vGHSre0q6i4HK4WwQ9vd+upU8nz17f92G27/TnpEJ8m&lt;br /&gt;&#10;4/YVRKQx/pnhF5/RIWemk786E0SDsJqvuEtEmK55smG9XPByQlgoBTLP5P8G+Q8AAAD//wMAUEsB&lt;br /&gt;&#10;Ai0AFAAGAAgAAAAhALaDOJL+AAAA4QEAABMAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAFtDb250ZW50X1R5cGVz&lt;br /&gt;&#10;XS54bWxQSwECLQAUAAYACAAAACEAOP0h/9YAAACUAQAACwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAvAQAAX3JlbHMv&lt;br /&gt;&#10;LnJlbHNQSwECLQAUAAYACAAAACEA0UprSigCAABQBAAADgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAuAgAAZHJzL2Uy&lt;br /&gt;&#10;b0RvYy54bWxQSwECLQAUAAYACAAAACEAT6Rysd8AAAAJAQAADwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACCBAAAZHJz&lt;br /&gt;&#10;L2Rvd25yZXYueG1sUEsFBgAAAAAEAAQA8wAAAI4FAAAAAA==&lt;br /&gt;&#10;" strokecolor="white" style="position:absolute; margin-left:478px; margin-top:-6px; width:123pt; height:19.5pt; z-index:251657728" type="#_x0000_t202"><textbox></textbox></shape></span></span></span></p> <table><tbody><tr><td bgcolor="white" style="border-bottom:.100px solid white; vertical-align:top; background-color:white; border-top:.100px solid white; border-right:.100px solid white; border-left:.100px solid white; width:170px; height:32px"> <table width="100%"><tbody><tr><td> <div class="shape" style="padding:4.35pt 7.95pt 4.35pt 7.95pt" v:shape="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> </td> </tr></tbody></table></td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="text-align-center">REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA</p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:366px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">THE GENERAL CONSULATE OF THE EMBASSY OF THE REPUBLIC OF ANGOLA IN RUNDU                                              PLAINTIFF </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">vs</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">ANTON ERIK VAN SCHALKWYK T/A RUNDU WELDING AND CONSTRUCTION                          FIRST DEFENDANT </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">DAVID EMMAUEL FREITAS DIAS  SECOND DEFENDANT</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">RENARD HATTINGH                           THIRD DEFENDANT  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:282px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/01309</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:282px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">MAIN DIVISION</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:366px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HONOURABLE LADY JUSTICE PRINSLOO, JUDGE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:282px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">06 April 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:282px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">28 April 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Neutral citation: </span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The General Consulate of the Embassy of the Republic of Angola in Rundu vs Van Schalkwyk t/a Rundu Welding and Construction</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/001309) [2021] NAHCMD 191 (28 April 2021).</span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:52px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Results on merits:</span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Merits not considered.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:52px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Having noted the non-appearance of Mr Mukonda and having heard <b>MR VAATZ</b>, on behalf of the First Defendant and having read the pleading for <b>HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/01309</b> and other documents filed of record:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Ruling:</span></span></span></span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">1.       The court declines to make an order on the issue of <i>locus standi</i> as the matter is and remains res judicata in terms of the court order dated 4 December 2021.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">2.       No order as to costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Further conduct of the matter</span></span></span></span></u></b><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">:</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">3. The matter is postponed to<b> 27 May 2021</b> at <b>15:00</b> for Status hearing.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">4.  The Plaintiff must file a status report with specific reference to the ruling of this court dated 4 December 2020 regarding the issue of res judicata and why the current matter should still remain on the court roll. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:.8pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:.8pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction </span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; text-indent:.8pt"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[1]      The matter before me has a history that dates back to </span></span></span><s><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:red">in</span></span></span></span></s><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> July 2018 when the plaintiff instituted action  against the first, second and third defendant under case number: HC-MD-CIV-CON-2018/02850 in which the plaintiff claimed for the confirmation of the deed of sale and the contract of transfer in respect of Erf 1582, Extension 3, Rundu entered into by the first and second defendants on the one hand and the plaintiff on the other, the cancellation of the Deed of Transfer number 321/20120 and ordering that the abovementioned property be transferred into the his name as well as various payments against the defendants.  </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[2]         During the course of the case management process the </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">first and third defendant demanded security of cost in the amount of N$100 000 each against the plaintiff in terms of Rule 59. The plaintiff unsuccessfully opposed the application for security for costs where after the Court ordered payment of security for costs in the amount of N$ 100 000. As a result of the defendant’s failure to comply with the said order the court proceeded to dismiss the plaintiff’s action on 11 March 2019. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        It is important to note that on 31 January 2019 the first defendant filed his plea  under the aforementioned matter wherein he pleaded  as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">              <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">‘1<sup>st</sup> Defendant states that the consulate, cited herein as the Plaintiff, has no locus standi to bring an action as it is not a separate legal persona in terms of Namibian law and for that reason alone has no basis on which to bring this action.’ </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[4]       The plaintiff issued out new summons under the current case number on 24 March 2020 on the exact same particulars of claim as set out in case HC-MD-CIV-CON-2018/02850. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[5]      The first defendant </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">filed his plea of <i>res judicata</i> on 31 August 2020. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        The third defendant also raised a special plea of <i>res judicata </i>on 30 September 2020<i>, </i>which was heard on 16 November 2020. The court upheld the special plea on 4 December 2020<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a>. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[7]      On 16 October 2020 the plaintiff filed an application to strike out the first defendant’s plea for failure to comply with rule 45(2) of the Rules of Court. In his answering affidavit the first defendant referred to his plea in case </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-CON-2018/02850 </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">and again raised the plaintiff’s lack of the locus standi to institute the current action. It is noticeable that the first defendant did not in this instance plead the plaintiff’s lack of locus standi. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:1px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[8]      Although the issue of res judicata remained the operative position in this matter the first defendant insisted on the court ruling on the plaintiff’s legal standing in the current matter, however </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">after careful consideration of the papers before me i</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">t is noticeable that the first defendant did not in current matter plead the plaintiff’s lack of locus standi. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[9]         Having decided the issue of res judicata previously it would be superfluous to decide the issue of locus standi at this stage of the proceedings and in the absence of plea in this regard by the first defendant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[10]        <span style="background:white"><span style="color:#202124">Case </span></span>HC-MD-CIV-CON-2018/02850 <span style="background:white"><span style="color:#202124">has been adjudicated by a competent court and as per my earlier ruling may not be pursued further in the current matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[11]          To date the plaintiff has taken no steps, to my knowledge, in order to have the orders granted under case HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2018/02850 to be varied, altered or rescinded and as a result the court order issued under the aforementioned case number is still valid and as a result I will decline to pronounce myself on the issue of locus standi in the current matter.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[12]            My order as set out above.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:33px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:33px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">PLAINTIFF</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> DEFENDANT</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr R Mukonda</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Of Mukonda and Co Inc.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr A Vaatz</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Of Andreas Vaatz and Partners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:48px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:282px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> <p> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The General Consulate of the Republic of Angola in Rundu v Van Schalkwyk </span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">(<span style="background:white"><span style="color:#333333">HC-MD-CIV-CON-2020/01309)</span></span> [2020] NAHCMD 560 (4 December 2020).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 17:16:43 +0000 Mariana 25415 at http://namiblii.org Transnamib Holdings Limited v Institute of Management Science CC (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON- 4267 of 2020) [2021] NAHC 101 (08 March 2021); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2021/101 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Transnamib Holdings Limited v Institute of Management Science CC (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON- 4267 of 2020) [2021] NAHC 101 (08 March 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 16:05</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-vnd-openxmlformats-officedocument-wordprocessingml-document file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2021/101/2021-nahc-101.docx" type="application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document; length=37502">2021-nahc-101.docx</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Practice Directive 61</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">RULING</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:661px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:337.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Transnamib Holdings Limited </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:337.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">v</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:337.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Institute of Management Science CC</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:301px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/04267</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:301px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Main Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:66px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Lady Justice Rakow, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:301px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:66px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">15 February 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:301px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Neutral citation: </span></b><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Transnamib Holdings Limited v Institute of Management Science CC </span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/04267</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">) [2021] NAHCMD 101 (8 March 2021)</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having read the record of proceedings as well as submissions made by counsels for the Plaintiff and the </span></span></span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendant</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS HEREBY ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The point in limine that the papers do not meet the technical standard needed is upheld and therefor the summary judgement application is struck from the roll.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Cost of this application is awarded to the defendants, of which costs are limited in terms of the provisions of Rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The parties are ordered to file a joint case plan by no later than 25 March 2021 at 15h00.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The case is postponed to 30 March 2021 at 15h30 for a case planning conference.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Background</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[</span></span></span></u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1]        On or about 11 November 2006, the applicant/plaintiff entered into a written lease agreement with the respondent/defendant in terms of which the applicant leased to the respondent a certain property known as TransNamib Main Sports Club which included offices, rooms, a hall and tennis courts situated at erf 194, TransNamib building, Bahnhoff Street in Windhoek. The initial lease agreement was for a period of nine years and on 20 November 2013 the lease agreement was extended for a further five years, the agreement to come to an end on 31 December 2020. On 24 August 2016 the agreement was however extended with another five years and is set to come to an end on 30 November 2025. This extension was however not explained in the Particulars of Claim as the Particulars of Claim only deals with the running out of the lease at 31 December 2020, neither was a copy of such extension uploaded. A copy of this addendum was however attached to the opposing affidavit of the respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        On 31 May 2019 the applicant gave the respondent notice that the lease agreement of buildings on portion of erf 194 Windhoek is to terminate on 31 May 2020 and such notice was in terms of section 32(1) of Rents Ordinance<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a>. The applicant alleges that the respondent is in breach of the lease agreement as they are in arrears of municipal fees to the amount of N$182 508.81. The applicant therefore seeks for the termination of the lease agreement and ejectment of the respondent in light of the fact that the agreement was breached, alternatively because the respondent was given a year’s notice under the Rents Ordinance.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The arguments</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        Numerous points in limine were raised on behalf of the respondent. These were:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">That the original contract signed during November 2006 under sub-clause 16.1 contains a non-optional arbitration clause in that it reads ‘should the parties be unable to resolve the dispute in this manner, the dispute shall be referred to a single arbitrator for arbitration.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Johnny Smith in his Founding Affidavit alleges that he is ‘duly authorized to make this affidavit’ but he does allege that he is authorised to bring the Application for Summary Judgement and the application is therefore not properly before court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The third point in limine is that the particulars of claim is vague and embarrassing and therefore excipiable. In that under paragraph 4 of the Particulars of claim it is alleged by the applicant that the parties entered into a written lease agreement on or about 20 November 2013 whilst this is in fact incorrect as the agreement was entered into on 7 November 2006.  Paragraph 5 further claims that the applicant was at all times represented by its Acting Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Struggle Ihuhua and this is not true as the applicant was represented by Mr. John Mueneni Shaetonhodi at the conclusion of the principle lease agreement. That Dr. Zechariah Ochola Bolo represented the respondent during the signing of the original lease agreement and later the addendum was signed by Lucy Bolo. The allegations made in the Particulars of Claim are therefore manifestly incorrect and confusing. The respondent then proceeded to point out a number of other excipiable allegations in the Particulars of Claim.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The non-compliance with the Stamp Duties Act, 15 of 1993 in that although the principle lease agreement was stamped, the two addendums were not stamped and the principle lease agreement was only stamped for the initial nine year period of lease and not for the subsequent two five year periods. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The next issue raised was the non-compliance of the applicant with the case plan order indicating that the summary judgement application was to be filed by 7 December 2020 and the duly commissioned Founding Affidavit in support of the Summary Judgement Application was only filed on 8 December 2020 and the applicant did not seek condonation for the late filing of the application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        On behalf of the respondent the legal practitioner then proceeded and argued that the respondent did not breach the agreement as they asked for a break-down in how the arrear amount was calculated, as they are not the only tenants receiving services from the municipality and there is only one water meter for all the tenants. In terms of sub-clause 15.11 of the Principal Lease Agreement they are only responsible for ‘municipal services proportional to the extent of the property charged by the Local Authority’ and they share these premises with various other entities like the applicant itself, TransNamib Bowling Club, a cosmetics shop, a beauty shop and a car dealership.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        It was further argued that the lease agreement was extended for a further period which was not dealt with at all in the Particulars of Claim of the applicant but which is set to run out on 30 November 2025 and that they have complied with all its obligations under the said lease agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        On behalf of the applicant the following was argued regarding the points in limine raised:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad the Arbitration clause: the applicant argued that the arbitration clause is not applicable in this case because it is a question of default in rental payments as opposed to a dispute and in terms of clause 12.1 which provided that ‘ should the LESSEE fail to pay any rental due by it on the due date’ the LESSOR shall be entitled to cancel this Agreement, claim damages and/or repossess the Property’ and it therefore follows that the arbitration clause does not in any way justify the defendant withholding possession of the leased property from the applicant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad the locus standi of Mr. Johny Smith: In his affidavit he clearly alleged that he was authorised to depose to the affidavit in support of the summary judgement application and in doing so, it is implied that he is also authorised to bring the application for summary judgement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad the point in limine that the particulars of claim is vague and embarrassing: At the time that the summons wer issued the applicant relied on the 2013 agreement that extended the lease period for five years and that during the conclusion of this specific agreement the applicant was represented by Struggle Ihuhua and the defendant by Lucy Bolo. The respondent was further focusing on the wrong agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad non-compliance with the Stamp Duties Act: The argument put forward on behalf of the applicant is that in terms of clause 15.9 of the principal lease agreement, it is the obligation of the Lessee to pay for stamp duty in terms of the Stamp Duties Act 15 of 1993.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="5" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad non-compliance with a court order: The applicant filed its application for summary judgement on 7 December 2020 together with an uncommissioned affidavit in support of the application. The commissioned affidavit was only filed on 8 December 2020. The respondent did not suffer any prejudice as the uncommissioned and commissioned affidavits are the same word for word.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        On the merit of the application it was argued on behalf of the applicant that the reason why the respondent is in breach of the lease agreement, is because they are in arrears of the amount of N$182 508.81 although the respondent alleges that all rental and other obligations were timeously paid no proof was attached of the payment of the rental arrears. The respondent contended that the applicant was overcharging it for municipal services since the inception of the Principal Lease Agreement and relied on an email addressed to the applicant’s legal practitioner in which it was communicated that the 2018 case was stayed until a detailed reconciliation of payments and outstanding payments for rentals and water bills is finalized and this has been done and still no payment of the amount of N$182 508.81 was made.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Considering the arguments.</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        Van Niekerk, Geyer and Mundell in Summary Judgement – A practical guide<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> said the following:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            <span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">‘Departing from the premise that the remedy is drastic, our courts have laid down three rules for summary judgement applications.  Firstly, that there is a numerous clausus of instances in which a plaintiff may apply for summary judgement in the sense that no application is possible which falls outside the strict ambit of rule 32(1); secondly, that, before a court will entertain an application for summary judgement, a plaintiff must present a clear case on technically correct papers while complying strictly with the rule and thirdly, that, in cases which are doubtful, summary judgement must be refused. (See Art Printing <i>Works Ltd v Citizen (Pty) Ltd</i> 1957 2 SA 95 (SR) 97H; <i>Davis v Terry</i> 1957 4 SA 98 (SR) 100 in fin 101A; and others)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">The drastic nature of the remedy has also prompted the courts to draw the conclusion that the plaintiff’s compliance with rule 32(2) must be judged more strictly than the defendant’s compliance with rule 32(3). (See <i>JNOG Teale &amp; Sons (Pty) Ltd v Vrystaatse Plantediens (Pty) Ltd</i> 1968 (4) SA 371 and others).</span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[</span></span></span></u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9]        In the current matter two points in limine were raised against the correctness of the papers, being the allegation that the Particulars of Claim is vague and embarrassing and that the documents relied upon, the lease agreement and the addendums were not stamped in accordance with the requirements of the Stamp Duties Act, 15 of 1993. The court further noted that the copy of the lease agreement that was uploaded does not contain a page 12 as it goes from page 11 to page 13. The clause relied upon regarding the first point in limine dealing with non-optional arbitration clause is therefore not before court. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      For the purpose of this application, the court will first determine the point in limine dealing with the stamps which was not affixed to the addendums of the lease which extended the original lease period. Section 22 of the Stamp Duties Act<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a> deals specifically with the duty payable on leases of immovable property. It reads as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">            ‘22. (1) In this section “lease” means a lease or agreement of lease contemplated in Item 10 of Schedule 1.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">(2)    The period for which a lease shall be stamped shall be -</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">  (a)   .........</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">  (b)   ..........</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">  (c)   in the case of a lease for a definite period (hereinafter referred to as the original period), with provision for the continuance, renewal or extension thereof beyond the original period or any subsequent period during which the lease may be in force, a period equal to the aggregate of the following periods, namely -</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">      (i) the original period; and</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">      (ii) any definite periods of continuance, renewal or extension provided for in the lease; and</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">      (iii) if the lease is to continue in force or may be continued, renewed or extended for an indefinite period following the original period or the definite periods referred to in subparagraph (ii), a period of two years.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">(3)   Where any lease may be continued, renewed or extended only in writing, duty may in the first instance be paid only in respect of the original period of the lease and, in respect of any continuance, renewal or extension, the provisions of subsection (4) shall apply, but if such lease is tendered for registration it shall before the registration be stamped for the period for stamping provided in subsection (2)(c).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">(4)    (a) Any instrument whereby a lease (including any lease or agreement of lease chargeable with stamp duty under any previous law of Namibia) is continued, renewed or extended beyond the period for which such lease (or any previous continuance, renewal or extension thereof) was required to be stamped, shall be chargeable with the duty payable in respect of a lease for a period equal to the entire period of the aforesaid lease (including any periods for which it has been continued, renewed or extended), less the sum of the amounts of stamp duty previously payable in respect of such lease and any earlier continuations, renewals or extensions thereof, whether under this Act or any previous law of Namibia.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">    (b) Where any lease referred to in paragraph (a) for a definite period is continued, renewed or extended for an indefinite period, the entire period of the lease shall for the purposes of the said paragraph be deemed to be the total period covered by the original period of such lease and any definite periods for which the lease has previously been continued, renewed or extended, and a further period of two years. ‘</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      In light of the above it is clear that the 2013 adendum to the lease, which is relied upon by the applicant is subject to duty being paid on the said lease and should have been stamped to that effect. The document on which the applicant therefore relies is not properly before court and the party who wish to rely on such a document bears the duty to have it stamped. The applicant therefore had the duty, if it relies on the said agreement, to pay for the stamps and to affix them to the document in order for it to form part of the bundle of documents upon whic this matter is based. It can therefore not be said that the Summary Judgement application is before court on tecnically correct papers and it should be struck from the roll for that reason.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      The court did not deal with any of the other points in limine which might also have an inpact on the question whether the summary judgement application is properly before court as the point in limine raised regarding the upaid stamp duties went to the basis on which the application was brought.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      The court considered the application for a cost order on attorney client scale as requested by the respondent but came to the conclusion that because this application for summary judgement is struck from the roll for a tecnical reason, it would not be appropriate to grant such a cost order in the current circumstances. The repondent is however awarded a normal cost order, capped in terms of rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]      I therefore make the following order:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The point in limine that the papers do not meet the technical standard needed is upheld and therefor the summary judgement application is struck from the roll.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Cost of this application is awarded to the defendants, of which costs are limited in terms of the provisions of Rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The parties are ordered to file a joint case plan by no later than 25 March 2021 at 15h00.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The case is postponed to 30 March 2021 at 15h30 for a case planning conference.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Rakow, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicants</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Respondent</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:90.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">F Bangamwabo</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:90.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:90.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">FB Law Chambers</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:90.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">K Morland</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Michelle Saaiman Incorporated</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:301px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">13 of 1977.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> LexisNexis, Durban 1998, at page 5-4.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">15 of 1993.</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-6b175ead7088c205a7368a5d5e1c373981660b7df962c5e9506be122a6196749"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Practice Directive 61</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">RULING</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:661px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:337.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Transnamib Holdings Limited </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:337.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">v</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:337.5pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Institute of Management Science CC</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:301px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/04267</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:301px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Main Division</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:66px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Honourable Lady Justice Rakow, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:301px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:66px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">15 February 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:301px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:39px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Date of order:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">8 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Neutral citation: </span></b><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Transnamib Holdings Limited v Institute of Management Science CC </span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-CON-2020/04267</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">) [2021] NAHCMD 101 (8 March 2021)</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Having read the record of proceedings as well as submissions made by counsels for the Plaintiff and the </span></span></span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Defendant</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">IT IS HEREBY ORDERED THAT:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The point in limine that the papers do not meet the technical standard needed is upheld and therefor the summary judgement application is struck from the roll.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Cost of this application is awarded to the defendants, of which costs are limited in terms of the provisions of Rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The parties are ordered to file a joint case plan by no later than 25 March 2021 at 15h00.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The case is postponed to 30 March 2021 at 15h30 for a case planning conference.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Background</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[</span></span></span></u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">1]        On or about 11 November 2006, the applicant/plaintiff entered into a written lease agreement with the respondent/defendant in terms of which the applicant leased to the respondent a certain property known as TransNamib Main Sports Club which included offices, rooms, a hall and tennis courts situated at erf 194, TransNamib building, Bahnhoff Street in Windhoek. The initial lease agreement was for a period of nine years and on 20 November 2013 the lease agreement was extended for a further five years, the agreement to come to an end on 31 December 2020. On 24 August 2016 the agreement was however extended with another five years and is set to come to an end on 30 November 2025. This extension was however not explained in the Particulars of Claim as the Particulars of Claim only deals with the running out of the lease at 31 December 2020, neither was a copy of such extension uploaded. A copy of this addendum was however attached to the opposing affidavit of the respondent.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]        On 31 May 2019 the applicant gave the respondent notice that the lease agreement of buildings on portion of erf 194 Windhoek is to terminate on 31 May 2020 and such notice was in terms of section 32(1) of Rents Ordinance<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a>. The applicant alleges that the respondent is in breach of the lease agreement as they are in arrears of municipal fees to the amount of N$182 508.81. The applicant therefore seeks for the termination of the lease agreement and ejectment of the respondent in light of the fact that the agreement was breached, alternatively because the respondent was given a year’s notice under the Rents Ordinance.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The arguments</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]        Numerous points in limine were raised on behalf of the respondent. These were:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">That the original contract signed during November 2006 under sub-clause 16.1 contains a non-optional arbitration clause in that it reads ‘should the parties be unable to resolve the dispute in this manner, the dispute shall be referred to a single arbitrator for arbitration.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Johnny Smith in his Founding Affidavit alleges that he is ‘duly authorized to make this affidavit’ but he does allege that he is authorised to bring the Application for Summary Judgement and the application is therefore not properly before court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The third point in limine is that the particulars of claim is vague and embarrassing and therefore excipiable. In that under paragraph 4 of the Particulars of claim it is alleged by the applicant that the parties entered into a written lease agreement on or about 20 November 2013 whilst this is in fact incorrect as the agreement was entered into on 7 November 2006.  Paragraph 5 further claims that the applicant was at all times represented by its Acting Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Struggle Ihuhua and this is not true as the applicant was represented by Mr. John Mueneni Shaetonhodi at the conclusion of the principle lease agreement. That Dr. Zechariah Ochola Bolo represented the respondent during the signing of the original lease agreement and later the addendum was signed by Lucy Bolo. The allegations made in the Particulars of Claim are therefore manifestly incorrect and confusing. The respondent then proceeded to point out a number of other excipiable allegations in the Particulars of Claim.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The non-compliance with the Stamp Duties Act, 15 of 1993 in that although the principle lease agreement was stamped, the two addendums were not stamped and the principle lease agreement was only stamped for the initial nine year period of lease and not for the subsequent two five year periods. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The next issue raised was the non-compliance of the applicant with the case plan order indicating that the summary judgement application was to be filed by 7 December 2020 and the duly commissioned Founding Affidavit in support of the Summary Judgement Application was only filed on 8 December 2020 and the applicant did not seek condonation for the late filing of the application.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[4]        On behalf of the respondent the legal practitioner then proceeded and argued that the respondent did not breach the agreement as they asked for a break-down in how the arrear amount was calculated, as they are not the only tenants receiving services from the municipality and there is only one water meter for all the tenants. In terms of sub-clause 15.11 of the Principal Lease Agreement they are only responsible for ‘municipal services proportional to the extent of the property charged by the Local Authority’ and they share these premises with various other entities like the applicant itself, TransNamib Bowling Club, a cosmetics shop, a beauty shop and a car dealership.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[5]        It was further argued that the lease agreement was extended for a further period which was not dealt with at all in the Particulars of Claim of the applicant but which is set to run out on 30 November 2025 and that they have complied with all its obligations under the said lease agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[6]        On behalf of the applicant the following was argued regarding the points in limine raised:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad the Arbitration clause: the applicant argued that the arbitration clause is not applicable in this case because it is a question of default in rental payments as opposed to a dispute and in terms of clause 12.1 which provided that ‘ should the LESSEE fail to pay any rental due by it on the due date’ the LESSOR shall be entitled to cancel this Agreement, claim damages and/or repossess the Property’ and it therefore follows that the arbitration clause does not in any way justify the defendant withholding possession of the leased property from the applicant. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad the locus standi of Mr. Johny Smith: In his affidavit he clearly alleged that he was authorised to depose to the affidavit in support of the summary judgement application and in doing so, it is implied that he is also authorised to bring the application for summary judgement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="3" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad the point in limine that the particulars of claim is vague and embarrassing: At the time that the summons wer issued the applicant relied on the 2013 agreement that extended the lease period for five years and that during the conclusion of this specific agreement the applicant was represented by Struggle Ihuhua and the defendant by Lucy Bolo. The respondent was further focusing on the wrong agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad non-compliance with the Stamp Duties Act: The argument put forward on behalf of the applicant is that in terms of clause 15.9 of the principal lease agreement, it is the obligation of the Lessee to pay for stamp duty in terms of the Stamp Duties Act 15 of 1993.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="5" style="list-style-type:lower-roman"><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:8px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Ad non-compliance with a court order: The applicant filed its application for summary judgement on 7 December 2020 together with an uncommissioned affidavit in support of the application. The commissioned affidavit was only filed on 8 December 2020. The respondent did not suffer any prejudice as the uncommissioned and commissioned affidavits are the same word for word.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[7]        On the merit of the application it was argued on behalf of the applicant that the reason why the respondent is in breach of the lease agreement, is because they are in arrears of the amount of N$182 508.81 although the respondent alleges that all rental and other obligations were timeously paid no proof was attached of the payment of the rental arrears. The respondent contended that the applicant was overcharging it for municipal services since the inception of the Principal Lease Agreement and relied on an email addressed to the applicant’s legal practitioner in which it was communicated that the 2018 case was stayed until a detailed reconciliation of payments and outstanding payments for rentals and water bills is finalized and this has been done and still no payment of the amount of N$182 508.81 was made.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Considering the arguments.</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[8]        Van Niekerk, Geyer and Mundell in Summary Judgement – A practical guide<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></a> said the following:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">            <span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">‘Departing from the premise that the remedy is drastic, our courts have laid down three rules for summary judgement applications.  Firstly, that there is a numerous clausus of instances in which a plaintiff may apply for summary judgement in the sense that no application is possible which falls outside the strict ambit of rule 32(1); secondly, that, before a court will entertain an application for summary judgement, a plaintiff must present a clear case on technically correct papers while complying strictly with the rule and thirdly, that, in cases which are doubtful, summary judgement must be refused. (See Art Printing <i>Works Ltd v Citizen (Pty) Ltd</i> 1957 2 SA 95 (SR) 97H; <i>Davis v Terry</i> 1957 4 SA 98 (SR) 100 in fin 101A; and others)</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">The drastic nature of the remedy has also prompted the courts to draw the conclusion that the plaintiff’s compliance with rule 32(2) must be judged more strictly than the defendant’s compliance with rule 32(3). (See <i>JNOG Teale &amp; Sons (Pty) Ltd v Vrystaatse Plantediens (Pty) Ltd</i> 1968 (4) SA 371 and others).</span><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[</span></span></span></u><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">9]        In the current matter two points in limine were raised against the correctness of the papers, being the allegation that the Particulars of Claim is vague and embarrassing and that the documents relied upon, the lease agreement and the addendums were not stamped in accordance with the requirements of the Stamp Duties Act, 15 of 1993. The court further noted that the copy of the lease agreement that was uploaded does not contain a page 12 as it goes from page 11 to page 13. The clause relied upon regarding the first point in limine dealing with non-optional arbitration clause is therefore not before court. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[10]      For the purpose of this application, the court will first determine the point in limine dealing with the stamps which was not affixed to the addendums of the lease which extended the original lease period. Section 22 of the Stamp Duties Act<a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></a> deals specifically with the duty payable on leases of immovable property. It reads as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">            ‘22. (1) In this section “lease” means a lease or agreement of lease contemplated in Item 10 of Schedule 1.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">(2)    The period for which a lease shall be stamped shall be -</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">  (a)   .........</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">  (b)   ..........</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">  (c)   in the case of a lease for a definite period (hereinafter referred to as the original period), with provision for the continuance, renewal or extension thereof beyond the original period or any subsequent period during which the lease may be in force, a period equal to the aggregate of the following periods, namely -</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">      (i) the original period; and</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">      (ii) any definite periods of continuance, renewal or extension provided for in the lease; and</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">      (iii) if the lease is to continue in force or may be continued, renewed or extended for an indefinite period following the original period or the definite periods referred to in subparagraph (ii), a period of two years.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">(3)   Where any lease may be continued, renewed or extended only in writing, duty may in the first instance be paid only in respect of the original period of the lease and, in respect of any continuance, renewal or extension, the provisions of subsection (4) shall apply, but if such lease is tendered for registration it shall before the registration be stamped for the period for stamping provided in subsection (2)(c).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">(4)    (a) Any instrument whereby a lease (including any lease or agreement of lease chargeable with stamp duty under any previous law of Namibia) is continued, renewed or extended beyond the period for which such lease (or any previous continuance, renewal or extension thereof) was required to be stamped, shall be chargeable with the duty payable in respect of a lease for a period equal to the entire period of the aforesaid lease (including any periods for which it has been continued, renewed or extended), less the sum of the amounts of stamp duty previously payable in respect of such lease and any earlier continuations, renewals or extensions thereof, whether under this Act or any previous law of Namibia.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">    (b) Where any lease referred to in paragraph (a) for a definite period is continued, renewed or extended for an indefinite period, the entire period of the lease shall for the purposes of the said paragraph be deemed to be the total period covered by the original period of such lease and any definite periods for which the lease has previously been continued, renewed or extended, and a further period of two years. ‘</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[12]      In light of the above it is clear that the 2013 adendum to the lease, which is relied upon by the applicant is subject to duty being paid on the said lease and should have been stamped to that effect. The document on which the applicant therefore relies is not properly before court and the party who wish to rely on such a document bears the duty to have it stamped. The applicant therefore had the duty, if it relies on the said agreement, to pay for the stamps and to affix them to the document in order for it to form part of the bundle of documents upon whic this matter is based. It can therefore not be said that the Summary Judgement application is before court on tecnically correct papers and it should be struck from the roll for that reason.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[13]      The court did not deal with any of the other points in limine which might also have an inpact on the question whether the summary judgement application is properly before court as the point in limine raised regarding the upaid stamp duties went to the basis on which the application was brought.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[14]      The court considered the application for a cost order on attorney client scale as requested by the respondent but came to the conclusion that because this application for summary judgement is struck from the roll for a tecnical reason, it would not be appropriate to grant such a cost order in the current circumstances. The repondent is however awarded a normal cost order, capped in terms of rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[15]      I therefore make the following order:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-right:6px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol><li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The point in limine that the papers do not meet the technical standard needed is upheld and therefor the summary judgement application is struck from the roll.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Cost of this application is awarded to the defendants, of which costs are limited in terms of the provisions of Rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The parties are ordered to file a joint case plan by no later than 25 March 2021 at 15h00.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li class="MsoNoSpacing" style="margin-right:6px; margin-left:32px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><span lang="AF" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="AF"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">The case is postponed to 30 March 2021 at 15h30 for a case planning conference.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-top:16px; margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Rakow, J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:661px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Applicants</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center; margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> Respondent</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:90.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">F Bangamwabo</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:90.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:90.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">FB Law Chambers</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="tab-stops:90.0pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:343px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">K Morland</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Of </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Michelle Saaiman Incorporated</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="margin-right:6px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Windhoek</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:301px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-right:6px; margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">13 of 1977.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> LexisNexis, Durban 1998, at page 5-4.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a> <span lang="AF" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="AF">15 of 1993.</span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 16:05:17 +0000 Mariana 25411 at http://namiblii.org Kempinski Nature Estate CC v Square Foot Developments CC (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL- 1372 of 2019) [2021] NAHC 142 (31 March 2021); http://namiblii.org/na/judgment/high-court/2021/142 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Kempinski Nature Estate CC v Square Foot Developments CC (HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL- 1372 of 2019) [2021] NAHC 142 (31 March 2021);</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>Mariana</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 07/18/2021 - 15:58</span> <div class="field field--name-field-files field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Download</div> <div class='field__items'> <div class="field__item"> <span class="file file--mime-application-msword file--x-office-document"> <a href="https://media.namiblii.org/files/judgments/nahc/2021/142/2021-nahc-142.doc" type="application/msword; length=87552">2021-nahc-142.doc</a></span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">“ANNEXURE 11”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Practice Directive 61</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">KEMPINSKI NATURE ESTATE CC v SQUARE FOOT DEVELOPMENTS CC </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01372</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">MAIN DIVISION</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HONOURABLE LADY JUSTICE PRINSLOO, JUDGE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">9 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">31 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Neutral citation: </span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Kempinski Nature Estate CC v Square Foot Developments CC </span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01372) [2021] NAHCMD 142 (31 March 2021)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:52px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Having heard Mr Zandre Duvenhage on behalf of the First and Second Applicants/Defendants also standing in for Mr Konrad Marais. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Ruling:</span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li class="form-control-static" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The First and Second Defendants are granted leave to amend their plea dated 25 October 2020 with costs. Such costs to include the costs of one instructing and two instructed counsel.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="form-control-static" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The costs are limited in terms of rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Further conduct of the matter:</span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <ol start="3"><li class="form-control-static" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The matter is postponed to 15 April 2021 at 15:00 for status hearing to determine dates for the further exchange of pleadings.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="form-control-static" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The Parties must file a joint status report on or before 9 April 2021.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol></td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The case before me is an opposed interlocutory application, wherein the applicants seek leave to amend their plea to the respondent’s particulars of claim.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The applicants are the first and second defendants in the main action, namely Square Foot Developments CC and Ziveli Property Developments (Pty) Ltd (“the defendants”). Only the first and second defendants are relevant for purposes of these proceedings. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The respondent is the plaintiff in the main action, namely Kempinski Nature Estate CC.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">For ease of reference, I will refer to the parties as they are in the main action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Background</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <ol start="5"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The gist of the plaintiff’s case giving rise to the main action may be summarised as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff is the owner of property situated in the Aris Town Planning Scheme (“the Scheme”). The second defendant’s property, namely Portion 8 (a portion of Portion 4) of the Farm Aris, No 29, Windhoek (“the subject property”) also falls within the Scheme and is adjacent to the plaintiff’s property. The first defendant has undertaken development on the subject property, which development is the bone of contention between the parties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="margin-bottom:15px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants were successful in obtaining the necessary approval from the Townships Board and the Minister of Tourism in launching the development on the subject property. The plaintiff avers that the defendants were deceitful in obtaining the said development approval in that they applied for the development of a <u>retirement village</u>, when in actual fact they sought to develop a normal <u>lifestyle estate</u> for families. The plaintiff further avers that the development is unlawful as it is, inter alia, contrary to the provisions of the Scheme (the current zoning of the Scheme makes provision for a retirement village but not for a lifestyle village).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff seeks an order from this court, inter alia, interdicting and restraining the defendants from proceeding with the development on the subject property and directing the defendants to demolish all existing structures built on the subject property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="8"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants noted their defence of the plaintiff’s claims and filed their plea dated 25 October 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Application for leave to amend and opposition thereto</span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <ol start="9"><li style="margin-bottom:15px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants seek leave to make several amendments to their plea. However, the only amendments with which the plaintiff takes issue are the amendments relating to references to a <u>retirement village</u> which the defendants now wish to amend to <u>lifestyle village.</u></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">In his founding affidavit, Mr Dirk Oosthuizen, on behalf of the defendants, sets out the history of the matter on how the erroneous admissions came to be pleaded and the necessity to amend same. Essentially, Mr Oosthuizen lays the blame at the feet of his erstwhile legal practitioner whom he submits had not given the defendants’ case the proper attention it required. In addition thereto, the plea drafted by the defendants’ erstwhile legal practitioner and instructed counsel had not been sent to Mr Oosthuizen to consider and confirm its content. After appointing new instructing and instructed counsel and undertaking proper consultations on the defendants’ case, Mr Oosthuizen states it became clear that the plea did not reflect the true state of affairs. The admissions made in the plea were bona fide mistakes which now need to be corrected to properly place the defendants’ position before this court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="11"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The most controversial amendment relates to annexure “C” to the plaintiff’s particulars of claim. Annexure “C” is the written approval by the Khomas Regional Council (“KRC”) to the defendants’ application, which approval refers to that of a retirement village. As the plea currently stands, defendants have admitted to the averments made by the plaintiff in relation to annexure “C”. However, in the intended amendments, the defendants aver that upon a proper construction of annexure “C” the KRC treated and supported the application as an application for a lifestyle village.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="12"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Oosthuizen submits that the intended amendments in respect of annexure “C” would merely raise new interpretational and legal issues, which he has been advised cannot patently attract any objection.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="13"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff’s objections are rooted in the view that the amendments would amount to a withdrawal of admissions already made in the defendants’ plea. In motivation of its objections, plaintiff states that it is prejudiced in that it acted according to the admissions and would have taken a different course of action had the defendants taken the stance they now wish to adopt from the very beginning.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="14"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Norbert Leopold Liebich deposed to the answering affidavit on behalf of the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="15"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Liebich takes issue with the defendants’ explanation that the mistakes were as a result of their erstwhile legal practitioner’s failure to give their case his full attention. He notes that in addition to hiring two senior counsel, the defendants expended some N$1.5 million in legal expenses, which can only speak to the amount of time and effort put into their case by their legal practitioner and the instructed counsel.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="16"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">He further submits that it is untenable for the defendants to argue that the amendments sought are bona fide, with such amendments being sought some 13 years after the Khomas Regional Council first issued its approval as contained in annexure “C”. He submits that the defendants had on numerous occasions been forced to consult with their erstwhile counsel regarding the KRC’s approval in preparation for these current proceedings and in all previous related proceedings. It can therefore not be accepted that at no time prior to the current application was the issue of a novel interpretation of annexure “C” raised.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="17"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Liebich goes on to submit that should the defendants be granted the amendment sought as it relates to annexure “C” the plaintiff will suffer severe prejudice. He explains that had the defendants taken issue with the wording of annexure “C” at the time it was issued or shortly thereafter, the plaintiff would have taken a different route in having its grievances addressed, namely that it would have taken the KRC on review, lodged an internal appeal or taken whatever other steps necessary to ensure the KRC’s compliance with the Scheme. Should annexure “C” now be afforded a different interpretation, the defendants cannot now, 13 years later, lodge a review application or seek other appropriate relief.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">First and second defendants’ contentions</span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[18]      In their heads of argument, the defendants submit that the contemplated amendments are bona fides and that their necessity only came about upon careful analysis of all records and consultations by their new Counsel. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="19"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Marais, counsel for the defendants, furthered the defendants’ stance by arguing that it is common for counsel to seek amendments of pleadings as a case progresses or where there are changes in case law, and for counsel to reconsider and revisit cases. Amendments as a result of this cannot be regarded as being mala fides.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="20"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff’s argument in objection to the amendments is that it will suffer irremediable prejudice if the amendments are allowed. This is because had it been aware of the defendants’ interpretation it would have challenged the KRC’s decision by review or appeal, which it can no longer do due to the defendants’ belatedness in bringing the issue of interpretation to the fore. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="21"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">In response to the argument on prejudice, Mr Marais submitted that the plea in which the erroneous admissions were made was filed in many years after the KRC’s decision. If the plaintiff claims that it is now too late for it to challenge the KRC’s approval of the defendants’ application, the plaintiff was already late in taking such steps prior to the defendants’ application for amendment. The plaintiff is therefore not prejudiced by the defendants’ change in their approach to the pleadings. Whether or not the amendment is granted, the plaintiff will find itself in the same position in that it cannot revisit reviewing or appealing the KRC’s decision.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="22"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Marais further argued that all that is required is for the plaintiff to establish that a triable issue exists, which he contended, was the case in the present matter. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:8px; margin-left:2px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff’s contentions</span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <ol start="23"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">In its heads of argument, the plaintiff asserts its stance that the defendants’ sought amendments should be refused. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="24"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff referred to section 5 of the Townships and Division of Land Ordinance 11 of 1963<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> which provides for the publication of applications made to the Board and the participation of interested parties in inspecting such applications.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="25"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff submits that had the defendants made it aware of their interpretation of annexure “C” to mean an approval for something other than a retirement village, the plaintiff could have and would have objected to a development other than a retirement village.  In withdrawing its admission and changing the meaning of annexure “C” as per the sought amendment, the plaintiff would be forever deprived from participating in the process laid down in section 5 of the Townships and Division of Land Ordinance. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="26"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">With reference to the defendants’ bona fides in seeking the amendments, Mr Heathcote, counsel for the plaintiff, submitted that a party was not necessarily vexatious or malicious when not being bona fides. However, to interpret a document to state something other than what it plainly is, is not a bona fides interpretation. One could not interpret annexure “C” in light of the context in which the words are used and the context of the Scheme to mean anything other than a retirement village, especially as the Scheme does not permit application for a lifestyle village.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="27"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Heathcote concluded his arguments by requesting that the application be dismissed with costs, with such costs to be capped in terms of rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">General principles relating to amendments</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[28]       The amendment of pleadings is regulated by rule 52 of the Rules of Court and with specific reference to rule 52(9), which provides as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                <span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">‘52(9): The court may during the hearing at any stage before judgment, grant leave to amend a pleading or document on such terms as to costs or otherwise as the court considers suitable or proper.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[29]       The principles of amendments have been considered by our courts on numerous occasions. These principles are very clear and were summarized in a Supreme Court judgment of <em><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">DB Thermal (Pty) Ltd and Another v Council of the Municipality of City of Windhoek</span></em><a name="_ftnref3" id="_ftnref3"></a><a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><i><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></b></span></i></span></a><em> </em>wherein Maritz JA, Strydom AJA and O’Regan AJA stated the following:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">‘[38] . . . The established principle that relates to amendments of pleadings is that they should be ‘’allowed in order to obtain a proper ventilation of the dispute between the parties … so that justice may be done’’, subject of course to the principle that the opposing party should not be prejudiced by the amendment if that prejudice cannot be cured by an appropriate costs order, and where necessary, a postponement . . . .’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[30]       In <em><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">I A Bell Equipment Company (Namibia) (Pty) Ltd v Roadstone Quarries CC</span></em><a name="_ftnref4" id="_ftnref4"></a><a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><i><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></b></span></i></span></a><em> </em>Damaseb, JP, Hoff, J and Ueitele J held that:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">                ‘[55] Regardless of the stage of the proceedings where it is brought, the following general principles must guide the amendment of pleadings: Although the court has a discretion to allow or refuse an amendment, the discretion must be exercised judicially . . .The overriding consideration is that the parties, in an adversarial system of justice, decide what their case is; and that includes changing a pleading previously filed to correct what it feels is a mistake made in its pleadings . . . A litigant seeking the amendment is craving an indulgence and therefore must offer some explanation for why the amendment is sought  . . . A court cannot compel a party to stick to a version either of fact or law that it says no longer represent its stance. That is so because a litigant must be allowed in our adversarial system to ventilate what they believe to be the real issue(s) between them and the other side</span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">.’<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[31]       A reasonably satisfactory explanation for a proposed amendment is strongest when it is brought late in proceedings and/or where it involves a change of front or withdrawal of a material admission. In the latter instance, tendering wasted costs or the possibility of a postponement to cure prejudice is not enough.<a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[32]       The court also pointed out that difficulty arises if the change of front is opposed by the other side. In that situation the change of front becomes the real issue between the parties and the court stated that although the court has no power to hold a party to a version it seeks to disown, it is entitled to hold it as being an afterthought and the fact that it has withdrawn late in the day a concession consciously and deliberately made or to change a front persisted with for considerable time in the life of the case. The explanation offered for the proposed change, or lack of it, may well go to credibility and the overall probabilities of the case.<a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Discussion</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[33]        </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Amendment of pleadings in our law has always been a contested terrain. It has always been a constant strife between two competing rights of that of the applicant, where such amendment is not mala fides, and a right by the respondent, where such amendment has a potential to prejudice that party. Centre stage to this is the court’s discretion to allow or refuse the amendment which epitomises the court’s primary object of allowing amendment is “to obtain a proper ventilation of the dispute between the parties, to determine the real issues between them, so that justice may be done”<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7" title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></a>. The court has a discretion to grant or refuse the amendment which must be exercised judicially. The court is inclined to grant the amendment where it is made in good faith. For the court to exercise its discretion in favour of granting the amendment, the seeker must demonstrate a measure of good faith. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[34]       Good faith is one of the main issues raised by the plaintiff. Mr Heathcote argued that the plaintiff’s position is that the defendants are mala fides by giving a meaning to the wording of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C”</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">, which does not exist and is patently against the actual meaning of the document. In addition thereto there is no provision for lifestyle village.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[35]       I am however of the considered view that the matter is not quite as simple as that. Mr Heathcote impressed on the court that the issue of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C” </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">and the wording thereof is not an issue for interpretation, as on the affidavit of Mr Swartz, the town planning expert, it is a mistake made by KRC and if that is the case then the matter is one of a mistake and not an issue for interpretation. However the document which appears to be attached to </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C” </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> under the heading ‘Motivation for the Development of a Life Style Village on Portion No.8 of the Farm Aris No 29’ refers to the development of a lifestyle village and not a retirement village. Should one read the documents in conjunction with each other, then questions arise as to the approval of the defendants’ application and what was approved. In addition thereto there appears to be a number of legislative instruments to be considered within which the context of annexure “C” needs to be considered and interpreted. This is an issue that can surely only be resolved during trial after having heard evidence in context and with reference to the surrounding circumstance of the granting of the approval. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[36]       The plaintiff’s complaint in raising the issue in respect of the approval as contained in </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C” </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">raises a legal argument as regards the terms of the approval by the KRC as well as the interpretation thereof. I remain of the view that the best forum to argue it is rather before the trial court itself.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[37]       The explanation by the defendants for the proposed amendment is that its new counsel considered the advice by the Town Planner and had to bring their plea in line with the advice received. There is nothing sinister about this. It happens as a daily occurrence that parties wish to amend their pleadings as their case progresses and new information comes to light. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[38]       Having considered the very able arguments by counsel I cannot find any mala fides on the part of the defendants in bringing the application to amend its plea nor can I find that counsel’s interpretation of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C” </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">is mala fides. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[39]       On the issue of prejudice the plaintiff’s counsel contended that there will </span></span></span>be <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">obvious injustice to the plaintiff and </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">submitted that if it had been informed by defendants that annexure “C” referred to anything else but a retirement village it would approached the matter differently and would have objected to a development other than a retirement village. However, the decision by the KRC approved the motivation of the defendants some 13 years ago with a letter referring to a retirement village. It is common cause that the KRC issued annexure “C” and it is common cause that the annexure “C” was issued following the motivation. Reference is made interchangeably to lifestyle village and retirement village in the documents attached to annexure “C” in the pleadings. I am of the considered view that even if the defendants pleaded with reference to a lifestyle village from the onset, it would not have placed the plaintiff in the position to act by noting an appeal or a review to the decision of KRC. The position of the plaintiff will remain unaffected even if the defendants are granted leave to effect the intended amendments. As a result I can find no merits in the complaint by the plaintiff that it would suffer substantial prejudice because of the intended amendment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[40]     I do not regard the withdrawal of the admission as an afterthought as the position of the defendants was clear from the time of the filing of the motivation for the approval sought from the KRC and this position was strengthened by the further advice obtained from the Town Planner and counsel employed. Although a considerable period of time has passed since the inception of this case, because of various factors, we are yet to reach case management conference stage in this matter and the granting of the amendment will not cause any undue delay.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[41] </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">       I am satisfied that a reasonable explanation was advanced for the proposed amendments and having considered the papers before me I am satisfied that there is indeed a triable issue between the parties and that the proposed amendment should be allowed. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Costs</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[42]       The remaining issue to decide on is the issue of costs. It is common cause that in terms of rule 54(8) the party giving notice of the amendment will be liable for costs unless the court decides otherwise. I am in agreement with Mr Marais that the plaintiff was entitled to raise objections and that the defendants must be liable to carry the cost up to when the application was served but then it must have become abundantly clear that there is a triable issue between the parties as discussed earlier. To then persist with the objection to the defendants’ application would be unreasonable. From that point onwards the plaintiff should be liable for costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">  </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[43]      This application is interlocutory in nature and I am of the view that the costs should be limited in terms of rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[44]       My order is therefor set out above.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">PRINSLOO J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff/Respondent</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> Defendant/Applicant</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Adv R Heathcote</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">On the instructions of </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Engling, Stritter and Partners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Adv J Marais</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">On the instructions of </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Fisher, Quarmby and Pfeiffer</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> ’5(5)(a)(iii)  Should the Minister decide that the establishment of the proposed township is desirable and necessary, it shall refer the application to the Board and thereupon the Board shall publish, once in the Gazette and once in such newspaper or newspapers as the Board may deem fit, a notice that such an application has been received and is open for inspection at the office of the Director of Local Government and at such other places (if any) as may be stated in such notice.’</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></b></span></span></b></span></a><b> </b><em><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Another v Council of the Municipality of City of Windhoek</span></em><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> (SA 33-2010) [2013] NASC 11 (19 August 2013).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> <em><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">I A Bell Equipment Company (Namibia) (Pty) Ltd v Roadstone Quarries CC</span></em><span style="background:white"> (I 601-2013 &amp; I 4084-2010) [2014] NAHCMD 306 (17 October 2014).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> Supra para 55.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn5"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title="" id="_ftn5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> Ibid.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn6"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6" title="" id="_ftn6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> <span style="background:white">Ibid</span></span><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn7"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7" title="" id="_ftn7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Cross v Ferreira</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> 1950 (3) SA 443 (CPD) at 447.</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="views-element-container"><div class="view view-eva view-download-conditional view-id-download_conditional view-display-id-entity_view_1 js-view-dom-id-56ac0d0c9c5354b024ab77684970cfc54a5c9a773aed60f0e61802b2244931e4"> <div><div class="views-field views-field-views-conditional-field"><span class="field-content"><p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">“ANNEXURE 11”</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Practice Directive 61</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">IN THE HIGH COURT OF NAMIBIA</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="Table" style="width:648px; margin-left:-18px; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="0"><tbody><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Case Title:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">KEMPINSKI NATURE ESTATE CC v SQUARE FOOT DEVELOPMENTS CC </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:50px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Case No:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01372</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:56px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Division of Court:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">MAIN DIVISION</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:360px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Heard before</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">HONOURABLE LADY JUSTICE PRINSLOO, JUDGE</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:43px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Date of hearing:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">9 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:288px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:55px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Delivered:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">31 March 2021</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Neutral citation: </span></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Kempinski Nature Estate CC v Square Foot Developments CC </span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">(HC-MD-CIV-ACT-DEL-2019/01372) [2021] NAHCMD 142 (31 March 2021)</span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:52px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Having heard Mr Zandre Duvenhage on behalf of the First and Second Applicants/Defendants also standing in for Mr Konrad Marais. </span></span></span></span></p> <p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Ruling:</span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <ol><li class="form-control-static" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The First and Second Defendants are granted leave to amend their plea dated 25 October 2020 with costs. Such costs to include the costs of one instructing and two instructed counsel.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="form-control-static" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The costs are limited in terms of rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p class="form-control-static" style="margin-top:16px; margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">Further conduct of the matter:</span></u></b></span></span></span></p> <ol start="3"><li class="form-control-static" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The matter is postponed to 15 April 2021 at 15:00 for status hearing to determine dates for the further exchange of pleadings.</span></span></span></span></li> <li class="form-control-static" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US">The Parties must file a joint status report on or before 9 April 2021.</span></span></span></span></li> </ol></td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Reasons for orders:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Introduction</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <ol><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The case before me is an opposed interlocutory application, wherein the applicants seek leave to amend their plea to the respondent’s particulars of claim.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="2"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The applicants are the first and second defendants in the main action, namely Square Foot Developments CC and Ziveli Property Developments (Pty) Ltd (“the defendants”). Only the first and second defendants are relevant for purposes of these proceedings. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="3"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The respondent is the plaintiff in the main action, namely Kempinski Nature Estate CC.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="4"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">For ease of reference, I will refer to the parties as they are in the main action.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Background</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <ol start="5"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The gist of the plaintiff’s case giving rise to the main action may be summarised as follows: </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff is the owner of property situated in the Aris Town Planning Scheme (“the Scheme”). The second defendant’s property, namely Portion 8 (a portion of Portion 4) of the Farm Aris, No 29, Windhoek (“the subject property”) also falls within the Scheme and is adjacent to the plaintiff’s property. The first defendant has undertaken development on the subject property, which development is the bone of contention between the parties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="6"><li style="margin-bottom:15px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants were successful in obtaining the necessary approval from the Townships Board and the Minister of Tourism in launching the development on the subject property. The plaintiff avers that the defendants were deceitful in obtaining the said development approval in that they applied for the development of a <u>retirement village</u>, when in actual fact they sought to develop a normal <u>lifestyle estate</u> for families. The plaintiff further avers that the development is unlawful as it is, inter alia, contrary to the provisions of the Scheme (the current zoning of the Scheme makes provision for a retirement village but not for a lifestyle village).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff seeks an order from this court, inter alia, interdicting and restraining the defendants from proceeding with the development on the subject property and directing the defendants to demolish all existing structures built on the subject property.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="8"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants noted their defence of the plaintiff’s claims and filed their plea dated 25 October 2019.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Application for leave to amend and opposition thereto</span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <ol start="9"><li style="margin-bottom:15px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The defendants seek leave to make several amendments to their plea. However, the only amendments with which the plaintiff takes issue are the amendments relating to references to a <u>retirement village</u> which the defendants now wish to amend to <u>lifestyle village.</u></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">In his founding affidavit, Mr Dirk Oosthuizen, on behalf of the defendants, sets out the history of the matter on how the erroneous admissions came to be pleaded and the necessity to amend same. Essentially, Mr Oosthuizen lays the blame at the feet of his erstwhile legal practitioner whom he submits had not given the defendants’ case the proper attention it required. In addition thereto, the plea drafted by the defendants’ erstwhile legal practitioner and instructed counsel had not been sent to Mr Oosthuizen to consider and confirm its content. After appointing new instructing and instructed counsel and undertaking proper consultations on the defendants’ case, Mr Oosthuizen states it became clear that the plea did not reflect the true state of affairs. The admissions made in the plea were bona fide mistakes which now need to be corrected to properly place the defendants’ position before this court.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="11"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The most controversial amendment relates to annexure “C” to the plaintiff’s particulars of claim. Annexure “C” is the written approval by the Khomas Regional Council (“KRC”) to the defendants’ application, which approval refers to that of a retirement village. As the plea currently stands, defendants have admitted to the averments made by the plaintiff in relation to annexure “C”. However, in the intended amendments, the defendants aver that upon a proper construction of annexure “C” the KRC treated and supported the application as an application for a lifestyle village.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="12"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Oosthuizen submits that the intended amendments in respect of annexure “C” would merely raise new interpretational and legal issues, which he has been advised cannot patently attract any objection.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="13"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff’s objections are rooted in the view that the amendments would amount to a withdrawal of admissions already made in the defendants’ plea. In motivation of its objections, plaintiff states that it is prejudiced in that it acted according to the admissions and would have taken a different course of action had the defendants taken the stance they now wish to adopt from the very beginning.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="14"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Norbert Leopold Liebich deposed to the answering affidavit on behalf of the plaintiff.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="15"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Liebich takes issue with the defendants’ explanation that the mistakes were as a result of their erstwhile legal practitioner’s failure to give their case his full attention. He notes that in addition to hiring two senior counsel, the defendants expended some N$1.5 million in legal expenses, which can only speak to the amount of time and effort put into their case by their legal practitioner and the instructed counsel.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="16"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">He further submits that it is untenable for the defendants to argue that the amendments sought are bona fide, with such amendments being sought some 13 years after the Khomas Regional Council first issued its approval as contained in annexure “C”. He submits that the defendants had on numerous occasions been forced to consult with their erstwhile counsel regarding the KRC’s approval in preparation for these current proceedings and in all previous related proceedings. It can therefore not be accepted that at no time prior to the current application was the issue of a novel interpretation of annexure “C” raised.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="17"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Liebich goes on to submit that should the defendants be granted the amendment sought as it relates to annexure “C” the plaintiff will suffer severe prejudice. He explains that had the defendants taken issue with the wording of annexure “C” at the time it was issued or shortly thereafter, the plaintiff would have taken a different route in having its grievances addressed, namely that it would have taken the KRC on review, lodged an internal appeal or taken whatever other steps necessary to ensure the KRC’s compliance with the Scheme. Should annexure “C” now be afforded a different interpretation, the defendants cannot now, 13 years later, lodge a review application or seek other appropriate relief.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:8px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">First and second defendants’ contentions</span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[18]      In their heads of argument, the defendants submit that the contemplated amendments are bona fides and that their necessity only came about upon careful analysis of all records and consultations by their new Counsel. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="19"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Marais, counsel for the defendants, furthered the defendants’ stance by arguing that it is common for counsel to seek amendments of pleadings as a case progresses or where there are changes in case law, and for counsel to reconsider and revisit cases. Amendments as a result of this cannot be regarded as being mala fides.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="20"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff’s argument in objection to the amendments is that it will suffer irremediable prejudice if the amendments are allowed. This is because had it been aware of the defendants’ interpretation it would have challenged the KRC’s decision by review or appeal, which it can no longer do due to the defendants’ belatedness in bringing the issue of interpretation to the fore. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="21"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">In response to the argument on prejudice, Mr Marais submitted that the plea in which the erroneous admissions were made was filed in many years after the KRC’s decision. If the plaintiff claims that it is now too late for it to challenge the KRC’s approval of the defendants’ application, the plaintiff was already late in taking such steps prior to the defendants’ application for amendment. The plaintiff is therefore not prejudiced by the defendants’ change in their approach to the pleadings. Whether or not the amendment is granted, the plaintiff will find itself in the same position in that it cannot revisit reviewing or appealing the KRC’s decision.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="22"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Marais further argued that all that is required is for the plaintiff to establish that a triable issue exists, which he contended, was the case in the present matter. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:8px; margin-left:2px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff’s contentions</span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <ol start="23"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">In its heads of argument, the plaintiff asserts its stance that the defendants’ sought amendments should be refused. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <ol start="24"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff referred to section 5 of the Townships and Division of Land Ordinance 11 of 1963<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></a> which provides for the publication of applications made to the Board and the participation of interested parties in inspecting such applications.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="25"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">The plaintiff submits that had the defendants made it aware of their interpretation of annexure “C” to mean an approval for something other than a retirement village, the plaintiff could have and would have objected to a development other than a retirement village.  In withdrawing its admission and changing the meaning of annexure “C” as per the sought amendment, the plaintiff would be forever deprived from participating in the process laid down in section 5 of the Townships and Division of Land Ordinance. </span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p> </p> <ol start="26"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">With reference to the defendants’ bona fides in seeking the amendments, Mr Heathcote, counsel for the plaintiff, submitted that a party was not necessarily vexatious or malicious when not being bona fides. However, to interpret a document to state something other than what it plainly is, is not a bona fides interpretation. One could not interpret annexure “C” in light of the context in which the words are used and the context of the Scheme to mean anything other than a retirement village, especially as the Scheme does not permit application for a lifestyle village.</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin-left:48px"> </p> <ol start="27"><li style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Mr Heathcote concluded his arguments by requesting that the application be dismissed with costs, with such costs to be capped in terms of rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">General principles relating to amendments</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[28]       The amendment of pleadings is regulated by rule 52 of the Rules of Court and with specific reference to rule 52(9), which provides as follows:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">                <span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">‘52(9): The court may during the hearing at any stage before judgment, grant leave to amend a pleading or document on such terms as to costs or otherwise as the court considers suitable or proper.’</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[29]       The principles of amendments have been considered by our courts on numerous occasions. These principles are very clear and were summarized in a Supreme Court judgment of <em><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">DB Thermal (Pty) Ltd and Another v Council of the Municipality of City of Windhoek</span></em><a name="_ftnref3" id="_ftnref3"></a><a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><i><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></b></span></i></span></a><em> </em>wherein Maritz JA, Strydom AJA and O’Regan AJA stated the following:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">‘[38] . . . The established principle that relates to amendments of pleadings is that they should be ‘’allowed in order to obtain a proper ventilation of the dispute between the parties … so that justice may be done’’, subject of course to the principle that the opposing party should not be prejudiced by the amendment if that prejudice cannot be cured by an appropriate costs order, and where necessary, a postponement . . . .’</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[30]       In <em><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">I A Bell Equipment Company (Namibia) (Pty) Ltd v Roadstone Quarries CC</span></em><a name="_ftnref4" id="_ftnref4"></a><a href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><i><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></b></span></i></span></a><em> </em>Damaseb, JP, Hoff, J and Ueitele J held that:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-size:11.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">                ‘[55] Regardless of the stage of the proceedings where it is brought, the following general principles must guide the amendment of pleadings: Although the court has a discretion to allow or refuse an amendment, the discretion must be exercised judicially . . .The overriding consideration is that the parties, in an adversarial system of justice, decide what their case is; and that includes changing a pleading previously filed to correct what it feels is a mistake made in its pleadings . . . A litigant seeking the amendment is craving an indulgence and therefore must offer some explanation for why the amendment is sought  . . . A court cannot compel a party to stick to a version either of fact or law that it says no longer represent its stance. That is so because a litigant must be allowed in our adversarial system to ventilate what they believe to be the real issue(s) between them and the other side</span></span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">.’<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:48px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[31]       A reasonably satisfactory explanation for a proposed amendment is strongest when it is brought late in proceedings and/or where it involves a change of front or withdrawal of a material admission. In the latter instance, tendering wasted costs or the possibility of a postponement to cure prejudice is not enough.<a href="#_ftn5" name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></a> </span></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[32]       The court also pointed out that difficulty arises if the change of front is opposed by the other side. In that situation the change of front becomes the real issue between the parties and the court stated that although the court has no power to hold a party to a version it seeks to disown, it is entitled to hold it as being an afterthought and the fact that it has withdrawn late in the day a concession consciously and deliberately made or to change a front persisted with for considerable time in the life of the case. The explanation offered for the proposed change, or lack of it, may well go to credibility and the overall probabilities of the case.<a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></a></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Discussion</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[33]        </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Amendment of pleadings in our law has always been a contested terrain. It has always been a constant strife between two competing rights of that of the applicant, where such amendment is not mala fides, and a right by the respondent, where such amendment has a potential to prejudice that party. Centre stage to this is the court’s discretion to allow or refuse the amendment which epitomises the court’s primary object of allowing amendment is “to obtain a proper ventilation of the dispute between the parties, to determine the real issues between them, so that justice may be done”<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7" title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></a>. The court has a discretion to grant or refuse the amendment which must be exercised judicially. The court is inclined to grant the amendment where it is made in good faith. For the court to exercise its discretion in favour of granting the amendment, the seeker must demonstrate a measure of good faith. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[34]       Good faith is one of the main issues raised by the plaintiff. Mr Heathcote argued that the plaintiff’s position is that the defendants are mala fides by giving a meaning to the wording of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C”</span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">, which does not exist and is patently against the actual meaning of the document. In addition thereto there is no provision for lifestyle village.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[35]       I am however of the considered view that the matter is not quite as simple as that. Mr Heathcote impressed on the court that the issue of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C” </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">and the wording thereof is not an issue for interpretation, as on the affidavit of Mr Swartz, the town planning expert, it is a mistake made by KRC and if that is the case then the matter is one of a mistake and not an issue for interpretation. However the document which appears to be attached to </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C” </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> under the heading ‘Motivation for the Development of a Life Style Village on Portion No.8 of the Farm Aris No 29’ refers to the development of a lifestyle village and not a retirement village. Should one read the documents in conjunction with each other, then questions arise as to the approval of the defendants’ application and what was approved. In addition thereto there appears to be a number of legislative instruments to be considered within which the context of annexure “C” needs to be considered and interpreted. This is an issue that can surely only be resolved during trial after having heard evidence in context and with reference to the surrounding circumstance of the granting of the approval. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[36]       The plaintiff’s complaint in raising the issue in respect of the approval as contained in </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C” </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">raises a legal argument as regards the terms of the approval by the KRC as well as the interpretation thereof. I remain of the view that the best forum to argue it is rather before the trial court itself.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[37]       The explanation by the defendants for the proposed amendment is that its new counsel considered the advice by the Town Planner and had to bring their plea in line with the advice received. There is nothing sinister about this. It happens as a daily occurrence that parties wish to amend their pleadings as their case progresses and new information comes to light. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[38]       Having considered the very able arguments by counsel I cannot find any mala fides on the part of the defendants in bringing the application to amend its plea nor can I find that counsel’s interpretation of </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">annexure “C” </span></span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">is mala fides. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[39]       On the issue of prejudice the plaintiff’s counsel contended that there will </span></span></span>be <span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">obvious injustice to the plaintiff and </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">submitted that if it had been informed by defendants that annexure “C” referred to anything else but a retirement village it would approached the matter differently and would have objected to a development other than a retirement village. However, the decision by the KRC approved the motivation of the defendants some 13 years ago with a letter referring to a retirement village. It is common cause that the KRC issued annexure “C” and it is common cause that the annexure “C” was issued following the motivation. Reference is made interchangeably to lifestyle village and retirement village in the documents attached to annexure “C” in the pleadings. I am of the considered view that even if the defendants pleaded with reference to a lifestyle village from the onset, it would not have placed the plaintiff in the position to act by noting an appeal or a review to the decision of KRC. The position of the plaintiff will remain unaffected even if the defendants are granted leave to effect the intended amendments. As a result I can find no merits in the complaint by the plaintiff that it would suffer substantial prejudice because of the intended amendment. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[40]     I do not regard the withdrawal of the admission as an afterthought as the position of the defendants was clear from the time of the filing of the motivation for the approval sought from the KRC and this position was strengthened by the further advice obtained from the Town Planner and counsel employed. Although a considerable period of time has passed since the inception of this case, because of various factors, we are yet to reach case management conference stage in this matter and the granting of the amendment will not cause any undue delay.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[41] </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">       I am satisfied that a reasonable explanation was advanced for the proposed amendments and having considered the papers before me I am satisfied that there is indeed a triable issue between the parties and that the proposed amendment should be allowed. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Costs</span></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[42]       The remaining issue to decide on is the issue of costs. It is common cause that in terms of rule 54(8) the party giving notice of the amendment will be liable for costs unless the court decides otherwise. I am in agreement with Mr Marais that the plaintiff was entitled to raise objections and that the defendants must be liable to carry the cost up to when the application was served but then it must have become abundantly clear that there is a triable issue between the parties as discussed earlier. To then persist with the objection to the defendants’ application would be unreasonable. From that point onwards the plaintiff should be liable for costs.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">  </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[43]      This application is interlocutory in nature and I am of the view that the costs should be limited in terms of rule 32(11).</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[44]       My order is therefor set out above.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-left:2px; text-align:justify"> </p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Judge’s signature:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Note to the parties:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">PRINSLOO J</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:75px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Not applicable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:648px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Counsel:</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Plaintiff/Respondent</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> Defendant/Applicant</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:318px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Adv R Heathcote</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">On the instructions of </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Engling, Stritter and Partners</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td colspan="2" style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:330px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Adv J Marais</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">On the instructions of </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:150%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Fisher, Quarmby and Pfeiffer</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:318px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:42px"> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; border-top:none; border-right:none; border-left:none; width:288px"> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <div>  <hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /><div id="ftn1"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[1]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> ’5(5)(a)(iii)  Should the Minister decide that the establishment of the proposed township is desirable and necessary, it shall refer the application to the Board and thereupon the Board shall publish, once in the Gazette and once in such newspaper or newspapers as the Board may deem fit, a notice that such an application has been received and is open for inspection at the office of the Director of Local Government and at such other places (if any) as may be stated in such notice.’</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn2"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref2" name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[2]</span></span></span></b></span></span></b></span></a><b> </b><em><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Another v Council of the Municipality of City of Windhoek</span></em><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> (SA 33-2010) [2013] NASC 11 (19 August 2013).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn3"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText" style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref3" name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[3]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> <em><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">I A Bell Equipment Company (Namibia) (Pty) Ltd v Roadstone Quarries CC</span></em><span style="background:white"> (I 601-2013 &amp; I 4084-2010) [2014] NAHCMD 306 (17 October 2014).</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn4"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref4" name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[4]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> Supra para 55.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn5"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref5" name="_ftn5" title="" id="_ftn5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[5]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> Ibid.</span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn6"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref6" name="_ftn6" title="" id="_ftn6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">[6]</span></span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> <span style="background:white">Ibid</span></span><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">.</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div id="ftn7"> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a href="#_ftnref7" name="_ftn7" title="" id="_ftn7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference" style="vertical-align:super"><span style="font-size:10.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif">[7]</span></span></span></span></span></a> <i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif">Cross v Ferreira</span></i><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial Narrow&quot;,sans-serif"> 1950 (3) SA 443 (CPD) at 447.</span></span></span></p> </div> </div></span></div></div> </div> </div> Sun, 18 Jul 2021 15:58:38 +0000 Mariana 25408 at http://namiblii.org